Strategic Human Resource Management
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in ...5
×

Das gefällt Ihnen? Dann teilen Sie es mit Ihrem Netzwerk

Teilen
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie...
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • where can i find the link of this.?
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie...
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
No Downloads

Views

Gesamtviews
15,096
Bei Slideshare
15,096
Aus Einbettungen
0
Anzahl an Einbettungen
0

Aktionen

Geteilt
Downloads
810
Kommentare
1
Gefällt mir
9

Einbettungen 0

No embeds

Inhalte melden

Als unangemessen gemeldet Als unangemessen melden
Als unangemessen melden

Wählen Sie Ihren Grund, warum Sie diese Präsentation als unangemessen melden.

Löschen
    No notes for slide
  • The first definition is one proposed by Samuel Certo and J. Paul Peter in their book Strategic Management: Concepts and Applications . This definition is highlighted by the following statement from Cornell Maiser, the chairman of the board of Kaiser: We have begun implementation of our strategic plan for the decade. Two years in formulation, the plan calls for Kaiser to identify its most promising business and focus its resources on long-term development and profitability. Increased resources will be allocated to business lines where the company believes it has existing strengths, such as superior technology, low costs, or strong market positions. The second definition is a little more down to earth. It shows that the firm’s management recognizes that there are forces which affect the firm and the firm’s profitability both inside and outside of the business’s operations. These forces affect two primary components of the firm. The management component includes the firm’s operations, financial position, labor situation, and overall management structure. The marketing component includes not only the firm’s marketing strategy (including packaging, advertising, customer service, quality control procedures, etc.), but also recognizes the fact that there is competition that the firm must face. This competition exists both inside and outside of the firm. While the firm’s outside competition is fairly obvious, the inside competition most often arises from conflicts between the production and management functions of the business and the marketing functions. In many small businesses, these conflicts often reside within one person.
  • The strategic management process is a series of steps that not only formalize the process, but also give a clear path to the firm’s management as to how the process should be completed. Each of these steps is discussed in turn.
  • What are the purpose(s) and objective(s) of the organization? – The answer to this question tells management where the organization wants to go. As discussed earlier, appropriate strategy reflect the organization’s mission and objectives. Managers who consider this question during the strategy formulation process are more likely to avoid inconsistencies among the company’s mission, objectives, and strategies. Where is the organization presently going? – This question reveals whether an organization is achieving its goals or at least making satisfactory progress. The first question focuses on where the company wants to go; this question focuses on where the organization is actually going. What critical environmental factors does the organization currently face? – This question addresses both internal and external environments and the factors that are both inside and outside the organization. For example, if a poorly trained middle-management team (internal environment) and an increase in competitive pressure (external environment) are critical strategic concerns, then any strategy formulated should deal with these issues. What can be done to achieve organizational objectives more effectively in the future? – The answer to this question results in the formulation of a strategy for the organization. This, it goes beyond environmental analysis and includes the stages of planning and selection. This question should be answered only after managers have had plenty of opportunity to reflect on the answers to the previous questions. In other words, managers can formulate appropriate organizational strategies only when they have a clear understanding of where the company wants to go, where the organization is actually going, and what the environment in which the organization operates is and is likely to be.
  • Inbound logistics All those activities concerned with receiving and storing externally sourced materials Operations The manufacture of products and services - the way in which resource inputs (e.g. materials) are converted to outputs (e.g. products) Outbound logistics All those activities associated with getting finished goods and services to buyers Marketing and sales Essentially an information activity - informing buyers and consumers about products and services (benefits, use, price etc.) Service All those activities associated with maintaining product performance after the product has been sold Secondary Activity Description Procurement This concerns how resources are acquired for a business (e.g. sourcing and negotiating with materials suppliers) Human Resource Management Those activities concerned with recruiting, developing, motivating and rewarding the workforce of a business Technology Development Activities concerned with managing information processing and the development and protection of "knowledge" in a business Infrastructure Concerned with a wide range of support systems and functions such as finance, planning, quality control and general senior management

Transcript

  • 1. Strategic HRMStrategic HRM PGDM MSRIM Dr.H.Muralidharan Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 2. What is strategy?What is strategy?  What is strategy? – Is it a plan? – Does it refer to how we will obtain the ends we seek? Is it a position taken? – Just as military forces might take the high ground prior to engaging the enemy, – might a business take the position of low-cost provider? – does strategy refer to perspective, to the view one takes of matters, and to the purposes, directions, decisions and actions stemming from this view? – Does strategy refer to a pattern in our decisions and actions? – does repeatedly copying a competitor’s new product offerings signal a "me too" strategy? Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 3. Strategy isStrategy is  Strategy is all these—  it is perspective, position, plan, and pattern.  Strategy is the bridge between policy or high-order goals on the one hand and tactics or concrete actions on the other.  Strategy and tactics together straddle the gap between ends and means.  strategy is a term that refers to a complex web of thoughts, ideas, insights, experiences, goals, expertise, memories, perceptions, and expectations that provides general guidance for specific actions in pursuit of particular ends.  Strategy is at once the course we chart, the journey we imagine and, at the same time, it is the course we steer, the trip we actually make. Even when we are embarking on a voyage of discovery, with no particular destination in mind, the voyage has a purpose, an outcome, an end to be kept in view. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 4. MeaningMeaning Strategy is a term that comes from the Greek strategia, meaning "generalship." In the military, strategy often refers to maneuvering troops into position before the enemy is actually engaged Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 5. definitions in usedefinitions in use  Some of the definitions in use include the following: – Strategy is that which top management does that is of great importance to the organization. – Strategy refers to basic directional decisions, that is, to purposes and missions. – Strategy consists of the important actions necessary to realize these directions. – Strategy answers the question: What should the organization be doing? – Strategy answers the question: What are the ends we seek and how should we achieve them? Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 6. What is strategicWhat is strategic management?management?  A continuous, iterative process aimed at keeping an organization as a whole appropriately matched to its environment (Samuel C. Certo and J. Paul Peter, Strategic Management)  Keeping the business in tune with management and marketing forces both outside and inside the firm Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 7. Competitive strategyCompetitive strategy Competitive strategy leads to competitive advantage – Generates supernormal ROI – Offers services of value – Uses cost effective technology – Avoids erosion of competitive advantage by exploiting and developing a technological base Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 8. Stages in Strategic managementStages in Strategic management Strategic analysis – Environmental analysis – Establish organizational direction Strategy formulation Strategy implementation Strategic control Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 9. Strategy & HRM ?Strategy & HRM ?– NEED FOR STRATEGIC HRM– NEED FOR STRATEGIC HRM  Physical assets are viewed as investments  Can – superior technology – Superior facility – Superior product  Bring about and more importantly sustain competitive advantage?  Physical facilities can be duplicated, cloned or reverse engineered and they no longer provide competitive advantage Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 10. Strategy & HRM ?Strategy & HRM ?– NEED FOR STRATEGIC HRM– NEED FOR STRATEGIC HRM  Cost of employees as variable cost of production. – No formal recognition of human resource as a key resource – No recognition of firms contribution to training – Cost of recruitment, training and replacement – ROI for investments in human resources “maintainable advantage usually from outstanding depth in selected human skills, logistics capabilities, knowledge bases Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 11. HRM –HRM – Changing times?Changing times?  Views of employees as cost center is changing  Selection process  Induction and training process  Education  Retention - negative impact of employee turn over  Compensation  Innovation and learning – cost of un recorded knowledge Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 12. strategic HRMstrategic HRM HRM is a strategic tool only if it contributes to the bottom line. The question is; Does it? – Forecasts of shifts in skill needs from manual to cerebral – Human Resources needs to looked at from an Investment perspective. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 13. Strategic analysis HRMStrategic analysis HRM “To be competitive, organizations in many industries must have highly skilled. Knowledgeable workers. They must also have a relatively stable labour force since employee turnover works directly against obtaining the kind of coordination and organizational learning that leads to fast response and high-quality products and services” - Edward Lawler Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 14. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations Management values Risk return on investments Economic rationale for investment in training Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 15. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations  Management values  Risk return on investments  Economic rationale for investment in training  Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources  Values, Philosophies of management / senior managers.  Cost center – HR cost center – Replaceable resource  Investment – HR value adder – Critical resource  KEY personnel – Enhances human capital/ prevents depletion  BPL, Govt,Vs Infosys, Vs Reliance, TCS  Education, training, reward, promotion. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 16. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations  The employers do not own the resource in which they have invested.  Returns must be great enough to overcome the risks  Cash outlays to maintain no layoff policy, the benefits are not easily quantified  Incur costs in short run for long term strategic benefit. – Flexible committed work force – Better organizational culture  Reliance communication  Bond money  Management values  Risk return on investments  Economic rationale for investment in training  Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 17. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations  Human capital theory – Empr Not to bear the cost of Gen training as the employees transfer skills developed at employers expense.  General training – OJT, Tuition fee reimbursement – Recoup cost of general training [loyalty, flexibility]  Specific training  Employee related – Cost of mobility, relocation, residence, children's education and other psychological issues, – new salary lower/ greater  LAY OFF  Management values  Risk return on investments  Economic rationale for investment in training  Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 18. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations  Utility of each HR activity [attempts to determine economic value of human resource programs activities and procedures] – Recruitment process  Employee with higher productivity – Performance appraisal  Return on output  Return on sales – Advt, training, special roles,  Management values  Risk return on investments  Economic rationale for investment in training  Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 19. Human resourcesHuman resources Investment considerationsInvestment considerations  Where world class capabilities and strategic advantage cannot be developed.  The resources devoted to perform the service internally is greater than those needed when outsourced  Excessive dependence on suppliers can be avoided.  Salary, executive search, HRIS, Benefits administration etc are outsourced  Key areas viz., performance appraisal, employee relations and labour relations are retained by companies.  Management values  Risk return on investments  Economic rationale for investment in training  Utility theory – Outsourcing as an alternative to investment in Human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 20. Investments in training andInvestments in training and developmentdevelopment  Investments in employability – Who moved my cheese?/ Jack Welch – • the building was still standing , but the people were gone. – Employers have responsibility to ensure they are getting the best results from each employee before terminating them. (the employer will have to coach, counsel and train the employee and also take advantage of the same.  Current practices – OJT – MDP – Prevention of skill obsolescence M,NC, CNC/ soft wares domain / telecommunication – Reduction of career plateauing narayan murthy / VRS, golden hand shake/ Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 21. Investment practices for improved retentionInvestment practices for improved retention  Organizational cultures emphasizing interpersonal relationship values  Effective selection procedures  Compensation and benefits  Job enrichment and job satisfaction  Practices providing work life balance  Organizational direction creating confidence in the future  Retention of technical employee  Other practices in facilitating retention – Opportunities for training, growth, new learning, liberal transfer policies Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 22. Investments in job-secure work forcesInvestments in job-secure work forces  Recognition of the costs of downsizing and lay offs – Bumping less senior employees  Reduced productivity  Cost of training the incumbent, wage supplement – Costs relating to termination of employees  Separation payments, higher rates for unemployment compensation, Depletion of the firms investment in training employees. – Administrative costs  Human resource processing activities, Clerical expenses, cost of conducting medical examination of laid off employees, increased supervisory obligations for managers of reassigned employees. – Intangible costs  Morale, disruption of efficiencies in work processes, Accidents, Depletion of goodwill, irregular age distribution Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 23. Investments in job-secure work forcesInvestments in job-secure work forces  Avoiding business cycle-based layoffs  Alternatives to layoffs – When down turn is of short duration – Block / shut off inflow of personnel into the organization –attrition brings down the cost – Redeployment of current employees – Curtailment of sub contractors and reallocate the work to permanent employees – Sharing of economic loss – wipro – Fewer work days  Employment guarantees  The work effort and job security relationship – The less secure the greater is the flexibility and productivity Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 24. Ethical implications of employmentEthical implications of employment practicespractices Job security Performance pressures Compensation Work environment Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 25. Non-traditional investmentNon-traditional investment approachesapproaches Investment in (disabled) Differently-abled employees Investments in employee health Countercyclical hiring – technical personnel . Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 26. ExerciseExercise = Identify the type of investment= Identify the type of investment  Employment security  Self-managed teams and decentralization of decision- making  Extensive training and development  Continuous improvement HR programs  Reduced status distinctions and barriers  Sharing of financial and performance information  Trust between management and employees at all organizational levels  Communication in global markets  Efficient and effective use of new information technologies Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 27.  ECC recognises that people are the real source of competitive advantage. It is through people that ECC delivers total customer satisfaction. An extensive and rigorous recruitment process ensures quality induction. L&T's Graduate Engineer Trainee recruitment process covers India's major engineering colleges and institutions. Programmes, plant visits and comprehensive information-sharing facilitate induction.  The basic principles of ECC's Human Resources policies include  Recruitment based solely on merit by following well-defined and systematic selection procedures without discrimination  Sustain motivated and quality work force through appropriate and fair performance evaluation, reward and recognition systems  Identify training needs within the Organisation and design and implement those need based training programmes resulting in continuous upgradation of knowledge, skills and attitudes of the employees  Maintain a quality Human Resource Management System to meet the international standards as per ISO 9001. Plan, design, train, equip and motivate the department staff to meet this standard of expectation.  ECC's Work Culture Work culture emphasises: · Freedom to experiment · Continuous learning and training · Transparency · Quality in all aspects of work · Rewards based on performance and potentialRef: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 28. Stages in Strategic managementStages in Strategic management  Strategic analysis – Environmental analysis  human resource environment  human resource legal environment – Establish organizational direction  Strategy formulation – Human resource planning  Strategy implementation – Work force utilisation and employment practices – Reward and development system  Strategic control – Performance impact of human resource practices – Human resource evaluationRef: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 29. The human resourceThe human resource environmentenvironment  Global changes – WTO, GATT, EU, G&, G10 etc.  Boarders and barriers  E-commerce, M-commerce  Emerging markets, new markets.  Technology  Demography  Culture  Etc…. – The imperative >>‘HR focus’ Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 30. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment Technology and organisational structure Worker values and attitudinal trends Management trends Demographic trends Trends in utilisation of human resources International developments Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 31. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments  Influence of technology  HRIS  Redeployment of HR staff to operating units  New organisational structures (Short / accountability) – Unbounded corporations – Virtual corporations / networked organisations – Cellular organisations/guilds – Respondent organisations/ supply niche components  Stimulus for entrepreneurial business Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 32. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments  Ethical/moral issues  (older generation blaming younger generation)  Time spent on work/ leisure  Work enjoyment / satisfaction /appeals  Loyalty of employees – Location near / far  Age – Younger no loyalty and expect none – New employee Perception before joining and after joining the job (extrinsic to intrinsic)  (image, induction and orientation, socialization process)  Emphasis on core values, cultures, family, social service)Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 33. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  Management of diversity  Work teams  Virtual teams  Human resource outsourcing  Open book management  TQM  Integrated manufacturing  Reengineering  Management of professionals  Managing of aftermath of Mrg & Aqui  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 34. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  Aging work force (HMT)  Baby boom-US, China  Labour Shortages  Racial diversity  Occupational distribution for women  Dual career couples  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 35. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  Telecommuting / working from home  Relocation from work  Growing use of temporary and contingent workers  Employee leasing  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 36. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -General environment-General environment  NAFTA  EU  GATT  WTO  G7  Technology and organisational structure  Worker values and attitudinal trends  Management trends  Demographic trends  Trends in utilisation of human resources  International developments Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 37. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -Legal environment-Legal environment  An overview of Industrial Relations Climate  Emerging trends and paradigm shifts towards Employee Relations  Employee Relations Policy  Implications of: – Employment Related Legislations – Payment Related Legislations – Social Security Related Legislations – Welfare Related Legislations Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 38. The human resource environmentThe human resource environment -Legal environment-Legal environment  Equal employment opportunity for women. – Age, gender discrimination, promiscuous gender based harassment. Promiscuity, Dealing with incidences, pregnancy discrimination, Disability discrimination, Religious discrimination, Reservations and protection, health care benefits, family and medical leave.  Employee relations – Negligent hiring, immigration, Employment at will, Drug testing, Safety  Labour relations and collective bargaining.  Emerging issues  Strategic impact of the legal environment Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 39. Labour Legislations in IndiaLabour Legislations in India  The Apprentices Act, 1961  The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976  The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986  The Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933  The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970  The Employees Provident Funds and Misc. Provisions Act,1952  The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948  The Employers Liability Act, 1938  The Employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959  The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976  The Factories Act, 1948  The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923  The Weekly Holidays Act, 1942  The Industrial Disputes Act  The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act,1946  The Inter-state Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979  The Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing Returns & Maintaining Registers by Certain Establishments) Act, 1988  The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961  The Minimum Wages Act, 1948  The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965  The Mines Act,1952  The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972  The Payment of Wages Act, 1936  The Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act, 1976  The Shops and Establishments Act, 1953  The Trade Union Act, 1926 Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 40. Labour legislationsLabour legislations  The term `labour legislation’ is used to cover all the laws which have been enacted to deal with “employment and non-employment” wages, working conditions, industrial relations, social security and welfare of persons employed in industries. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 41. Need for labour legislation in India:Need for labour legislation in India:  Organized industry in a planned economy calls for the spirit of co-operation and mutual dependence for attaining the common purpose of greater, better and cheaper production. Since this has not been happening voluntarily, the need for State intervention.  The need for labour legislation may be summarized as under: – Necessary for the health, safety, and welfare of workers; – Necessary to protect workers against oppressive terms as individual worker is economically weak and has little bargaining power; – To encourage and facilitate the workers in the organization; – To deal with industrial disputes; – To enforce social insurance and labour welfare schemes. In India, labour legislation is treated as an arm of the State for the regulation of working and living conditions of workers. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 42. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 43. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity – The essence of democracy is ensuring social justice to all sections of the community. – This demands the protection of those who cannot protect themselves. – In modern industrial set-up, workers, left to themselves, are unable to protect their interest. – Therefore, the State has to intervene to help them by granting them freedom of association, the power of collective bargaining and by providing for mediation or arbitration in the case of industrial conflict. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 44. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity  Legislation based on this principle provides for achievement of definite standards. – EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT – Specific provisions of law – such as in factories act – Work timings – Work environment – Dangerous machines act Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 45. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity  These standards for the working class can be achieved by bringing about changes in the Law of our land. – Power to change the Law is exercised by the government. – Existing laws may be amended to meet the changed standards.  ESI  EPF  Minimum wages Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 46. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity  Measures have to be provided through legislation to: – Ensure normal growth of industry for the benefit of the nation as a whole – Satisfy the physical and intellectual needs of the citizens – Ensure the growth of industrial efficiency such as to adjust the wage system with a view to increase the productivity and prosperity of the workers Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 47. Principles of labour legislationPrinciples of labour legislation  Social Justice:  Social Equity  Standards in terms of living, position in society etc. of the working population.  National Economy  International Uniformity  ILO Since its inception, securing minimum standards (for the working population – worldwide) on a uniform basis in respect of all labour matters has been the main objective of ILO. o To this end, conventions are passed at the conferences of ILO. – As a member of the ILO, adopting these conventions would require appropriate legislation to be brought about. – The influence of international labour conventions has been significant in shaping the course of labour legislation in India. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 48. Legal environmentLegal environment - Bench mark- Bench mark Obey the Law. Law is society’s codification of right and wrong; Play by the rules • It is important to perform in a manner consistent with expectations of government and the law. • It is important to comply with various national and supra-national laws and regulations. • It is important to be a law-abiding corporate citizen. • It is important that a successful firm be defines as one that fulfils its legal obligations. • It is important to provide goods and services that at least meet the minimal legal requirements.Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 49. Strategy formulationStrategy formulation  What are the purpose(s) and objective(s) of the organization?  Where is the organization presently going?  What critical environmental factors does the organization currently face?  What can be done to achieve organizational objectives more effectively in the future? Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 50. Strategy formulation processStrategy formulation process  Development of organizational philosophy and mission statement  Environmental scanning  Analysis of SWOT  Formulation of strategic objectives  Generation of alterative strategy  Evaluation and selection of strategies  Informal / incremental strategic planning – Managed/logical incremental planning A strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organisation’s major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 51. Competitive strategy in BusinessCompetitive strategy in Business UnitsUnits  Periodic forward scanning  Analysis based on longer time frame  Communication about goals and resource allocation  Framework for short-term plan evaluation and integration  Decisional criteria framework for short term decision making  PLANNING IN SBU’S – Base strategy will be integrated with functional specializations to exploit the opportunity seen by the strategy and achieve the goals. – Low cost leadership, differentiation, nicheRef: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 52. Value Chain AnalysisValue Chain Analysis  Primary activities – Inbound logistics – Operations – Outbound logistics – Marketing and sales – Service  Secondary Activity – Procurement – Human Resource Management – Technology Development – Infrastructure Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 53. Steps in Value Chain AnalysisSteps in Value Chain Analysis  Value chain analysis can be broken down into a three sequential steps: 1. Break down a market/organisation into its key activities under each of the major headings in the model (primary activities / secondary activities) 2. Assess the potential for adding value via cost advantage or differentiation, or identify current activities where a business appears to be at a competitive disadvantage; 3. Determine strategies built around focusing on activities where competitive advantage can be sustained Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 54. HR strategy ?HR strategy ? 'a human resource system that is tailored to the demands of the business strategy' -Miles and Snow 1984 'the pattern of planned human resource activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals' - Wright and McMahan 1992 “the pattern planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organisation to achieve its goals” Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 55. SHRM concernSHRM concern SHRM concern is to ensure – HR management is fully integrated with the strategy and strategic needs of the firm – HR policies cohere across policy areas and areas of hierarchy – HR practices are adjusted and used by line manages and employees as part of their everyday work Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 56. Strategic HRMStrategic HRM(IMPORTANCE)(IMPORTANCE)  Needs investment –ROI  Cost of investment  Reduction in total Labour cost  Efficiency in operation  Optimal use of human resources  A source of competitive advantage  Technical skills (pace of technological change)  Knowledge and capabilities  Management of critical and Difficult HR areas  Management of change (Resistance to change)  Lack of trust  Antagonistic labour  Motivational problems  Management relations  Economic turbulence  Within the country (turbulence)  Globalisation  Dramatically changing demographics  Differences in workforce values Strategic human resource management and ∟ HRP are considered important to manage uncertainties; HR is integrated with strategy; Integrating and aligning HR function with strategyRef: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 57. Benefits of SHRMBenefits of SHRM 1. Identifying and analysing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company's success. 2. Provides a clear business strategy and vision for the future. 3. To supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process. 4. To recruit, retain and motivate people. 5. To develop and retain of highly competent people. 6. To ensure that people development issues are addressed systematically. 7. To supply information regarding the company's internal strengths and weaknesses. 8. To meet the expectations of the customers effectively. 9. To ensure high productivity. 10. To ensure business surplus thorough competency Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 58. HRM Practices Firm strategy Institutional / Political forces HR Capital pool (Skills, abilities) HR behaviors Firm level outcomes (performance, satisfaction, absenteeism etc) Resource based view of the firm Cybernetics Agency/transaction costs Resource dependence institutional Behavioral approach Theoretical frame work of SHRM Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 59. Theoretical frame work of SHRM  Strategy driven – Resource based view  Competitive advantage based on unique allocation of resources {selection /Compensation package} (TCS) – Behavioral view  Control and influence the behaviors of individuals (Infosys) – Cybernetics systems  Adoption or abandonment of practices based on feedback on contributions to strategy (Bosch – MICO) – Agency/transactions cost view  Use of control systems, performance evaluation and reward systems etc – (In the absence of performance evaluation strategy may not be pursued)  Non-Strategy driven – Resource dependence and power theories – Power and politics= legislation, unionization, control of resources, expectations of social responsibility. – Institutional theory – In appropriate performance evaluation dimensions (inertia / rational decision making.appraisal Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 60. International strategyInternational strategy Multinational, global and transnational strategies Strategic alliances Sustainable global competitive advantage Globally competent managers Location of production facilities Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 61. Human resource contributionsHuman resource contributions to strategyto strategy Environmental scanning and competitive advantage Implementation of resource reallocation decisions Slide > Lead time for dealing with labour shortages. .. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 62. Industry matrix < Back Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 63. Other issuesOther issues  Strategy driven role behaviors and practices – Innovation – cooperation, group oriented, long term appraisal system, generalized skill development, broad career path, compensation approaches accentuating internal equity flexible compensation packages including stock ownership – quality enhancement- employment security guarantees. Extensive training programs, participative decision making (process orientation) – cost reduction – performance evaluation system emphasizing results in the short term. Virtually no training programs, very specialized jobs, narrow specialized career jobs,Procedure for continual tracking of wage rates in the labour market.  Strategic human resource activity typology – Relational : transactional $ High : low strategic value Slide >  Classifying human resource types  Jeffrey sonnenfeld and Maury peiperl Slide  Miles and snow: Defenders, prospectors, analyzers and reactors  Network organization and strategy  Integration of strategy and human resource planning – Evolution of strategy and human resource planning integration.  Evolution of linkages between Strategic business planning and HRM – Administrative linkage, one way – HR is involved in implementation, two way- involved HRM and strategic business plans, integrated – Determinants of integration  Conditions under which determinants may not be appropriate. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 64. HUMAN RESOURCE ACTIVITY TYPOLOGY Staffing planning Benefits of planning Retirement planning Compliance Performance enhancement Consulting Employee relations Labour negotiations Executive compensation Employee development Management development Recruitment interviewing < IMPORTANT TO EXECUTIVES > Payroll Benefits administration Retirement administration Employee records Relocation administration Recruitment information processing < IMPORTANT TO EMPLOYEES > Recruitment information processing Employee assistance programs Strategic value of activity Low High RelationshipTransactional Type of HR activityBack Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 65. Classifying human resource types *Classifying human resource types *BACKBACK Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 66. Benefits of integrating HRP with StrategicBenefits of integrating HRP with Strategic planningplanning  Generates more solutions to complex organizational problems  Ensures consideration of human resources in organizational goal setting process  Ensures consideration of human resources in assessment of organizational abilities to accomplish goals and implement strategies  Reciprocal integration prevents strategy formulation based on personal rigidities/preferences  Facilitates concurrent consideration of strategic plans and managerial succession. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 67. Strategic components of HRMStrategic components of HRM relevant to internal fitrelevant to internal fit Management awareness Management of the function Portfolio of programs Personnel skills Information technology Awareness of the environment Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 68. HR Practitioners RoleHR Practitioners Role  The HR managers have keen role in the effective planning and implementation of the policies and decisions that in tune with the business changes. – They should act as strategic partners and be proactive in their role than mere reactive, passive spectators. – The HR managers should understand how far their decisions contribute to business surplus incorporating human competency and performance to the organisation. – Strategic HR managers need a change in their outlook from seeing themselves as relationship managers to strategic resource managers.  Kossek (1987, 1989) argues that major HRM innovations occur when senior management takes the lead and adoption of innovative SHRM practices is dependent on the nature of relationship of the HR Department with the CEO and the line managers.  Legge (1978) commenting on the actions of the personnel practitioner in the innovation process suggests that adoption of an innovation by an organization depends largely on HR practitioners' credibility with information and resource providers. – HR Department and HR managers in these innovative organizations play a strategic role (Ulrich, 1997) linking the HR strategy with the business strategy of the organization. – A crucial aspect concerning SHRM is the concepts of fit and flexibility. The degree of fit determines the human resource system's integration with organization strategy. It is the role of HR Managers to ensure this fit in between Human Resource System with the Organization Strategy. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 69. Requirements for SHR-ManagersRequirements for SHR-Managers Information management skills Planning skills Management skills Integration skills Change management skills Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 70. Human resource planningHuman resource planning Strategic role of HRP Over view of HRP Managerial issues in planning Selecting forecasting technique Forecasting the supply of human resources Forecasting the demand for human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 71. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Developmental planning for strategic leadership  Assessment of strategic alternatives  Adding value  Contribution to strategic human resource management  Strategic salary planning. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 72. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Steps in HRP – Interfacing strategic planning and scanning the environment – Taking an inventory of the companies current human resources. – Forecasting the demand for human resources – Forecasting the supply of human resources both from within the organization and from the external labor market – Comparing the forecast of demand and supply – Planning the actions needed to deal with anticipated shortages or overages – Feeding back such information into the strategic management process Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 73. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Planning in a context of change  Responsibility for human resource planning  Failure to plan for human resources Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 74. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Personal implications  Changing receptivity towards planning – Stricter legislations for lay off etc  Other issues – Mind set of work force and related actions. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 75. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Purpose of planning  Organisational characteristics  Industry characteristics  Environmental turbulence  Other consideration – Technique of forecasting – Cost – Accuracy Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 76. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Replacement charts Mgr posi  Human resurce inventories  Succession planning  Markov analysis ….  Renewal models age cohorts, internal mobilization  Computer simulation  Regression analysis  Trend extrapolation – Utilisation of supply forecasting techniques Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 77. Human resource planningHuman resource planning  Strategic role of HRP  Over view of HRP  Managerial issues in planning  Selecting forecasting technique  Forecasting the supply of human resources  Forecasting the demand for human resources  Heuristics, Rule of thumb and the Delphi technique  Operations research and management science technique  Regression analysis – Utilisation of demand forecasting technique – Trend extrapolation Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 78. Markov analysisMarkov analysis backback Distri bution of emplo yees in time Job 1 27 .66 .11 .09 .03 .02 .09 Job 2 41 .15 .60 .08 .06 .01 .10 Job 3 55 .03 .08 .55 .13 .10 .11 Job 4 64 .00 .09 .18 .54 .03 .16 Job 5 73 .00 .08 .10 .17 .45 020 260 26 44 55 57 41 37 Job 1 Job 2 Job 3 Job 4 Job 5 exit Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 79. Strategy formulation processStrategy formulation process  Development of organizational philosophy and mission statement  Environmental scanning  Analysis of SWOT  Formulation of strategic objectives  Generation of alterative strategy  Evaluation and selection of strategies  Informal / incremental strategic planning – Managed/logical incremental planning A strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organisation’s major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 80. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices Efficient utilization of human resources Dealing with employee shortages Selection of employees Dealing with employee surpluses Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 81. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses  Cross training and flexibility in assigning work  Using work teams – Requirements for effective teams  Forming  Storming  Norming  performing  Operating on a non union basis Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 82. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses  Strategic recruiting  Special recruiting for minorities and women workers  Flexible retirement as a source of labour  Managing vendors of outsourced functions Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 83. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Managing vendors of outsourced functions – Making the outsourcing decision – Selecting and negotiating with outsourcing vendors – Managing the outsourcing transactions – Managing vendor relationships – Monitoring and evaluating vendor performance  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 84. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses  Reliability and validity – Predictive validity – Concurrent validity – Content validity  Job analysis  KSA  Interviews  Behavioural interviews  Testing  Assessment centres Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 85. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Redeployment and retraining  Early retirement  Retreat from employment security policy  Downsizing and layoffs  Termination strategies  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 86. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Downsizing and layoffs – Findings  Co are not well prepared  6 months to 1 year co indicators do not improve –profits, ROI, Stock prices, expense ratios  Survivors syndrome  Myth of job security exploded (Who moved my cheese)  Sustained improvement can be brought about only with improvements in productivity, quality and effectiveness and integrate reductions in head count with planned changes in the way the work is designed.  Downsizing in not a one time quick fix solution to enhance competitiveness. –is a part of continuous improvement.  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 87. Strategy implementationStrategy implementation work force utilization and employment practiceswork force utilization and employment practices  Downsizing and layoffs – Guide lines for conduct of layoffs  Give early warnings / announcements of layoffs  Soften the impact with compensation and benefits  Utilise the services of outplacement firms  Supply retraining services  Provide equitable and decent treatment to laid off employees  Ensure supportive treatment of survivors  Maintain a cooperative approach with unions  Uphold obligation to the community  Efficient utilization of human resources  Dealing with employee shortages  Selection of employees  Dealing with employee surpluses Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 88. Special implementationSpecial implementation challengeschallenges Career path for technical professionals Dual career couples Strategy implementation system – Reward and development systems  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 89. Strategy implementation systemStrategy implementation system – Reward and development systems– Reward and development systems  Performance measurement approaches – MBO – Graphic scale rating – Narratives – BARS – Behavioral observation scales – 360 –degree feedback  Performance evaluation of executives  Effectiveness of performance measurement. YOU GET WHAT YOU MEASURE, YOU MEASURE WHAT YOU VALUE, YOU CAN NOT CONTROL WHAT YOU CANNOT MEASURE.  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 90. Strategy implementation systemStrategy implementation system – Reward and development systems– Reward and development systems  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development  Traditional compensation systems – Job analysis > job evaluation > salary/wage hierarchy  Point system  Factor comparison system  Hybrid system – Internal equity – > Wage surveys to establish external equity. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 91. Strategy implementation systemStrategy implementation system – Reward and development systems– Reward and development systems  Traditional compensation systems – Inadequacies  Wage for know-how not given  Compensated for specific job only  Impact of collective bargaining on wage structures.  Does not work well with managers and professionals  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 92. Strategy implementation systemStrategy implementation system – Reward and development systems– Reward and development systems  Skill based pay  Broad banding  Team based pay  Variable compensation  Executive compensation  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 93. Strategy implementation systemStrategy implementation system – Reward and development systems– Reward and development systems  Strategically oriented performance management system  Strategically oriented compensation systems  Employee development  Training programs  Training methods  Apprenticeships  Management development  Management development for international assignments  Product life cycle and managerial fit – PLC, Evolutionary stage > Steady state – Development Vs selection Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 94. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 95. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Seven management practices that enhance performance –Jefrey Pfeffer 1. Employment security 2. Selective hiring of new personnel 3. Self managed teams and decentralization of decision making as basic principle of org design 4. Comparatively high compensation on organizational performance 5. Extensive training 6. Reduced status distinctions and barriers 7. Extensive sharing of financial and performance information.  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 96. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Compensation – High compensation linked to organisational performance – Incentive based compensation – Profit sharing – Team based compensation  Diversity  Employment – Countercyclical hiring, downsizing, early retirement programs, employment security, human resource outsourcing.  Industrial relations – Decertification of union bargaining agent – Positive labour relations – Strikes, lockouts  Internal labour market  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 97. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  motivation – Decentralized decision making – Self managed teams – Open book management – Reduced status differentials or symbolic egalitarianism  Performance management  Staffing – Cognitive tests, staffing selectivity, CEO succession insider outsider, yield analysis of recruiting sources  Training  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 98. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives  Each practice has a different kind of impact on individual workers – if possible to address at individual levels the same may be done.  Results of studies that give positive or negative indication can not be taken as absolute Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 99. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives  HR practices are path dependant. They consist of policies that are developed over time and cannot be simply purchased in the market by competitors. Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 100. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices Has positive impact  Commitment oriented systems – Decentralized decision making, general training, Highly skilled employees, High wages - bonuses  Human capital enhancement – Comprehensive training, BARS, Technical and problem solving skills, selective staffing  Human resource administrative system – Hourly pay, individual equity, individual incentive, result based performance appraisal  Motivation and commitment system – Receptiveness to new training, compensation contingent on firms performance, extent of status differentials  Skills and organizational structures – Attitude survey, access to grievance procedures, formal job anasysis, info sharing  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 101. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives  Mxed evidence and response – Some individual practices have had positive impact – Systems of practices have both  Adoption  Implementation  fit Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 102. The performance impact ofThe performance impact of human resource practiceshuman resource practices  Individual high performance practices  Limitations of individual practices  Evolution of practices  Systems of high performance human resource practices  Individual best practices Vs systems of practices  Universal practices Vs contingency perspectives  Have their own applicability – Evidence for success of both – Greater evidence for contingency Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 103. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation Overview of evaluation Approaches to evaluation Prevalence of evaluation Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 104. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation  Overview of evaluation  Approaches to evaluation  Prevalence of evaluation  Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas  Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas  Scope of evaluation  Strategic impact  Level of analysis  Criteria  Level of constituents  Ethical dimensiona Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 105. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation  Overview of evaluation  Approaches to evaluation  Prevalence of evaluation  Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas  Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas  Audit approaches  Analytical approaches  Quantitative and qualitative measures  Balance scorecard perspective  Benchmarking  Industry influences Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 106. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation  Overview of evaluation  Approaches to evaluation  Prevalence of evaluation  Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas  Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas  Little  Results not revealed Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 107. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation  Overview of evaluation  Approaches to evaluation  Prevalence of evaluation  Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas  Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas  HRP  Staffing  Training  Performance evaluation systems  Compensation systems  Utility analysis  labour and employee relations Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 108. Human Resource EvaluationHuman Resource Evaluation  Overview of evaluation  Approaches to evaluation  Prevalence of evaluation  Evaluating strategic contributions of traditional areas  Evaluating strategic contributions in emerging areas  Equal employment opportunity and management of diversity  Quality readiness Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer
  • 109. Thank youThank you Issues to be taken into consideration Ref: SHRM – Charles Greer