Krashen's theory on Second Language Acquisition
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Krashen's theory on Second Language Acquisition

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Krashen's theory on Second Language Acquisition Krashen's theory on Second Language Acquisition Presentation Transcript

  • SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION SONIA ALBERTAZZI MILAGRO AZOFEIFA GABRIELA SERRANO Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • About 25 years ago, a psychologist named Stephen Krashen transformed language teaching. He had been developing his ideas over a number of years, but several books he published in the 1980s received widespread acceptance.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • They quickly became the most widely accepted way to explain the twin processes of language teaching and learning. Much has been made of Krashen's theory of second language acquisition , which consists of five main hypotheses: The acquisition-learning hypothesis , the monitor hypothesis , the natural order hypothesis, the input hypothesis, and the affective filter hypothesis.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug&feature=related
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The acquisition-learning hypothesis ,
    • the monitor hypothesis ,
    • the natural order hypothesis,
    • the input hypothesis, and
    • the affective filter hypothesis.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug&feature=related
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • According to Krashen 's acquisition-learning hypothesis , two independent ways to develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning.
    • This theory is at the core of modern language acquisition theory, and is perhaps the most fundamental of Krashen's theories on Second Language Acquisition .
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • Acquisition Acquisition of language is a subconscious process of which the individual is not aware. One is unaware of the process as it is happening and when the new knowledge is acquired, the acquirer generally does not realize that he or she possesses any new knowledge. According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously acquire language, and either written or oral language can be acquired. This process is similar to the process that children undergo when learning their native language. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language , during which the acquirer is focused on meaning rather than form.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • Learning
    • Learning a language, on the other hand, is a conscious process, much like what one experiences in school . New knowledge or language forms are represented consciously in the learner's mind, frequently in the form of language "rules" and " grammar " and the process often involves error correction. Language learning involves formal instruction, and according to Krashen, is less effective than acquisition.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
  • Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
  • Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes Learning acquisition conscious subconscious knowing about pick up
    • The Acquisition – Learning Distinction
    Acquisition Sub-conscious by environment (Ex: games, Movies, radio) Picking up words Learning Conscious by instructors Correct errors Knowing about Grammar rules SLA Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, for the Monitor to be successfully used, three conditions must be met:
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The acquirer/learner must know the rule: This is a very difficult condition to meet because it means that the speaker must have had explicit instruction.
    • The acquirer must be focused on correctness: He or she must be thinking about form, and it is difficult to focus on meaning and form at the same time.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • Having time to use the monitor: The speaker is then focused on form rather than meaning, resulting in the production and exchange of less information.
    • Due to these difficulties, Krashen recommends using the monitor at times when it does not interfere with communication, such as while writing.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
  • THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS
    • The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a “natural order” which is predictable.
    • English is perhaps the most studied language as far as natural order hypothesis is concerned, and of all structures of English, morphology is the most studied.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • FIRST MORPHEMES ACQUIRED:
    • The progressive marker –ing
    • Plural marker /s/
    • ACQUIRED LATER
    • Third person singular marker
    • The possessive /s/
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The order of acquisition for second language is not the same as the order of acquisition for first language, but these are some similarities.
    • Krashen believes that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that our syllabi should be based on the order found in the studies.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • He rejects grammatical sequencing in all cases where the goal is language acquisition.
    • The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition (and proficiency) is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.
    • These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
  • THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS
    • We acquire language only when we understand alnguage that contains structure that is “a little beyond” where we are now.
    • This is possible because we use more than our linguistic competence to help us understand.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The input hypothesis says that we acquire by “going for meaning” first, and as a result, we acquire structure.
    • It also states that speaking fluency cannot be taught directly. It emerges over time, on its own.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • The best way to teach speaking, according to this view, is simply to provide comprehensible input.
    • Early speech will come when the acquirer feels “ready:” It is typically not grammatically accurate.
    • Accuracy develops over time as the acquirer hears and understands more input.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Krashen, Stephen D.   Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition .  Prentice-Hall International, 1987.
    • Krashen, Stephen D.   Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning .  Prentice-Hall International, 1988.
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes
    • THANKS
    Material created by Sonia Albertazzi, Milagro Azofeifa y Gabriela Serrano for Educational Purposes