Summary This 45-minute session for teachers of all grades and content areas provides an overview of differentiation in order to prepare teachers for more in-depth study and classroom application. Outcomes Teachers will understand why differentiation is important in today’s classroom and how it is beneficial to each student. Teachers will identify and understand and the differentiation elements of content, process, and product. Teachers will choose one of the differentiation topics to pursue in the next, application step of the training. Facilitator’s Script: When the session begins, the facilitator says, “Welcome everyone! Differentiation can be defined as a process and a set of strategies that seek to individualize learning based on the unique abilities and desires of each child. Teachers have been differentiating instruction ever since there have been teachers. Confucius said that to teach students, you have to start where they are. In the U.S., differentiation was a way of life in the one-room schoolhouse. Teachers knew that students varied in age, experience, motivation, and proficiency. They could not teach the entire group the same way in the same amount of time. More recently, schools have sorted students into groups according to ability and achievement. This includes tracking, putting students of similar abilities in the same class. Tracking also occurs in other programs like honors education, magnet schools, and alternative schools. Data shows that such grouping may benefit the higher level students but does not benefit, and may even harm lower level students. Another approach is mixed-ability grouping, where students of different abilities are put in the same class. Such heterogeneous grouping was supposed to help both lower and upper level students learn from each other. Those of us in those classes know that that does not happen without a well thought out plan. That is, without a well thought out plan for differentiating. In this session, you will ｷ understand why differentiation is important in today’s classroom and how it is beneficial to each student. ｷ identify and understand and the differentiation elements of content, process, and product. choose one of the differentiation topics to pursue in the next, application step of the training.
Differentiation Basics HCPS Staff Development 2006 content | process | product
Warm-Up <ul><li>Thinking About a Mixed-Ability Classroom </li></ul>
Three Ways In Which Students Differ Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners, concrete random thinkers, analytical learners, verbal/ linguistic learners, etc. learning style One study found that when students were performing at about 80% accuracy they learned more and felt better about themselves (Tomlinson, 2002) readiness When we catch fish, we bait the hook with what the fish like, not what the fisherman likes (Gregory and Chapman 2003). interest
In their own words… <ul><li>It’s easy to see how students differ in interest… </li></ul>
Differentiating for Content <ul><li>Content here is defined by learning outcomes or learning objectives </li></ul>HCPS Essentials of the Curriculum
Differentiation of Content <ul><li>The content of instruction should address the same concepts with all students but be adjusted by degree of complexity for the diversity of learners in the classroom (Hall 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>However… </li></ul><ul><li>Where extreme disparity of readiness exists, such as with English language learners, students with learning disabilities, and very advanced students, the content should be changed (Tomlinson, 2003). </li></ul>
<ul><li>differentiated </li></ul><ul><li>objectives </li></ul>Differentiation for Content
Differentiation for Content Assessment is necessary for planning as well as evaluation. Assess Implement lesson/unit Write objectives and group
Differentiation for Content Speedometer Self-Assessment Technique in Action Assess and Group <ul><li>There are many ways to find out your students’ readiness so you can group them. The strategies range from quick and easy to in-depth and formal. </li></ul><ul><li>They include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing Student Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Self-Assessment </li></ul></ul>
Think! How do pacing guides support and undermine differentiation for content?
Differentiating for Process Process is what the teacher does and the materials she uses to get the students to reach the objectives.
Differentiating Process for Interest <ul><li>Survey and Assignment Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Survey student interest first, and then create opportunities to allow students to choose tasks that relate to those interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Example assignment: Create a presentation explaining how Newton ’ s Laws govern the actions of your favorite sport . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>There are many frameworks for planning questions, each designed to challenge students at different levels. They include Bloom’ s Taxonomy, thick and thin, Divergent Thinking Model, and Socratic questioning . </li></ul>Differentiating Process for Readiness
Differentiating Process for Readiness B: assignments A: readiness benchmarks Tiered Assignments
<ul><li>Compacting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a lesson plan structure that allows students at a higher readiness to complete assignments more quickly or place out of assignments and move on to something more challenging and self-directed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anchor Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are activities for students who have completed their assigned work. The activities can be designed to reinforce any objectives and allow extended learning for faster students. Most importantly, it allows time for the teacher to give more attention to students who need it. </li></ul></ul>Differentiating Process for Readiness
Differentiating Process for Learning Style <ul><li>When teachers differentiate for learning styles, they make sure that assignments and activities vary the students ’ experiences. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul>Differentiating for Product product element element description score benchmarks
Next Step <ul><li>Appropriately for differentiation, you are asked to choose how you would like to continue your study of differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>questioning </li></ul><ul><li>assessments </li></ul><ul><li>anchor activities </li></ul><ul><li>contracts (unit framework) </li></ul><ul><li>project-based instruction (unit framework) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a training session process: </li></ul><ul><li>facilitated face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>online course </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a study group format: </li></ul><ul><li>face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>online </li></ul>