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Literature Literature Document Transcript

  • History influential Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, withThe Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works. subsequent redaction progressing down to the 4th century AD.This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in the Sumerian In ancient Greece, the epics of Homer, who wrote the Iliad andlanguage. Although the Sumerian stories are older (probably dating to the Odyssey, and Hesiod, who wrote Works and Days and Theogony,at least 2100 B.C.), it was probably composed around 1900 BC. The are some of the earliest, and most influential, of Ancient Greekepic deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for literature. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry,eternal life. historiography,comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle authoredDifferent historical periods are reflected in their literature. National philosophical texts that are the foundation of Westernand tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, philosophy, Sappho and Pindarwere influential lyrical poets,and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages and Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Althoughpredominate in the pre-urban eras. The epics of Homer, dating from drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundredsthe early to middle Iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only alater period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, limited number of plays by three authors stillsurviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods exist:Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The playsbefore being written down. of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy, the earliest form of Greek Comedy,As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of and are in fact used to define the genre.[3]transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in earlycivilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient Roman histories and biographies anticipated the extensive mediaevalChina, Ancient India, Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many literature of lives of saints and miraculous chronicles, but the mostworks of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or characteristic form of the Middle Ages was the romance, andidactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or adventurous and sometimes magical narrative with strong popularthe Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as appeal. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literatureurban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, proliferated during the Renaissance as a result of the invention offor literary production. Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was printing, while the mediaeval romance developed into a moreoften the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in character-based and psychological form of narrative, the novel, ofEast Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as which early and important examples are the ChineseMonkey and thepoems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs. Over a German Faust books.long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song In the Age of Reason philosophical tracts and speculations on historyinterpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary and human nature integrated literature with social and politicalmedium. developments. The inevitable reaction was the explosionIn ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on of Romanticism in the later 18th century which reclaimed thephilosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry. imaginative and fantastical bias of old romances and folk-literatureChina, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing, and asserted the primacy of individual experience and emotion. Butproduced one of the worlds first print cultures.[1] Much of Chinese as the 19th-century went on, European fiction evolvedliterature originates with the Hundred Schools of Thought period that towards realism andnaturalism, the meticulous documentation of realoccurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE). The most life and social trends. Much of the output of naturalism was implicitlyimportant of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, polemical, and influenced social and political change, but 20thof Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science (e.g. Sun century fiction and drama moved back towards the subjective,Tzus The Art of War) and Chinese history (e.g. Sima Qians Records emphasising unconscious motivations and social and environmentalof the Grand Historian). Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy pressures on the individual. Writers suchemphasis on historiography. The Chinese kept consistent and as Proust, Eliot,Joyce, Kafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend ofaccurate court records after the year 841 BCE, with the beginning of documenting internal rather than external realities.the Gonghe regency of the Western Zhou Dynasty. An exemplary Genre fiction, conventionally equated with escapism and staticpiece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan, which formulas, also threw reality into question in its distinctive 20th-Centurywas compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the blind 5th developments, through the enquiries of the ever-century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming. skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction. TheIn ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms (including journalism)orally transmitted. Early genres continued to blur during the period up to our own times.included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Sanskritliterature begins with the Vedas, dating back to 1500–1000 BCE, and The Beginnings of Literaturecontinues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. The Vedas are Literature and writing, though obviously connected, are notamong the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas date to roughly 1500– synonymous. The very first writings from ancient Sumer by any1000 BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as theredaction of reasonable definition do not constitute literature—the same is true ofthe Samhitas, date to c. 1000-500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics or the thousands of logsspanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or theLate Bronze from ancient Chineseregimes. Scholars have always disagreedAge and the Iron Age.[2] The period between approximately the 6th to concerning when written record-keeping became more like "literature"1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most than anything else; the definition is largely subjective.
  • Moreover, it must be borne in mind that, given the significance of fiction, horror and fantasy. Pop lyrics, which are not technically adistance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical written medium at all, have also been drawn into this controversy.development of literature did not occur at an even pace across the Types of Literatureworld. The problems of creating a uniform global history of literature Literature falls into two major types that are written and oral literature.are compounded by the fact that many texts have been lost over the Oral literature includes ballads, myth, jokes, folktales and fables;millennia, either deliberately, by accident, or by the total whereas written source has drama, novel, poetry and nonfictionaldisappearance of the originating culture. Much has been written, for literature. Have a look at different types of literature.example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1stcentury BC, and the innumerable key texts which are believed to "When I read great literature, great drama, speeches, or sermons, Ihave been lost forever to the flames. The deliberate suppression of feel that the human mind has not achieved anything greater than thetexts (and often their authors) by organisations of either a spiritual or ability to share feelings and thoughts through language."- James Earla temporal nature further shrouds the subject. JonesCertain primary texts, however, may be isolated which have aqualifying role as literatures first stirrings. Very early examples The major types of literature across the world are English, Greek,are Epic of Gilgamesh, in its Sumerian version predating 2000 BC, Latin, Roman, African, Indian, American, French, Irish, Spain,and the Egyptian Book of the Dead written down in the Papyrus of Chinese, Italian, Japanese, Persian, Sanskrit, Nepali, Russian andAni in approximately 250 BC but probably dates from about the 18th Canadian literature. Literature is a well-considered form of a languagecentury BC. Ancient Egyptian literature was not included in early that influences the minds of readers of all age. Italian Renaissance isstudies of the history of literature because the writings of Ancient the age of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, whereas GreeceEgypt were not translated into European languages until the 19th Literature mostly comprises the literature of Greek Gods andcentury when theRosetta stone was deciphered. Goddesses.Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries Romanticism of Wordsworth is the literature which is oriented towardsbefore they were fixed in written form are difficult or impossible to nature and can be considered to be reverse of classicism. Todaysdate. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid 2nd millennium era of Modernism and Post modernism uses artificial language basedBC. ThePentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although on ambiguity, satire and parody. Some authors choose longmodern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th composition methods to link more than one story. Moreover, literaturecentury BC at the earliest. being a part of scientific language is also used to analyze grammar,Homers Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century BC and mark the usage, lexis and semantics.beginning of Classical Antiquity. They also stand in an oral traditionthat stretches back to the late Bronze Age. Kinds of LiteratureIndian śruti texts post-dating the Rigveda (such as the Yajurveda, Fictional Literaturethe Atharvaveda and the Brahmanas), as well as the Drama: Drama is the theatrical dialog performed on stage, it consistsHebrew Tanakh and the mystical collection of poems attributed to Lao of 5 acts. Tragedy, comedy and melodrama are the sub types ofTze, the Tao te Ching, date to the Iron Age, but their dating is difficult drama. e.g William Shakespeare, an Elizabethan dramatist composedand controversial. The great Hindu epics were also transmitted orally, the plays Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear that are famouslikely predating the Maurya period. because of its combination of tragedy and comedy. Problem play,Other oral traditions were fixed in writing much later, such as farce, fantasy, monologue and comedy of manners are some kinds ofthe Elder Edda, written down in the 12th or 13th century. drama.There are various candidates for the first novel ever written. Tragedy: It is a story of the major character who faces bad luck.Literature Tragedy, elements of horrors and struggle usually concludes with theLiterature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written death of a person. The Illiad and The Odyssey by Homer are the twoworks, and is not bound to published sources (although, under famous Greek tragedies.circumstances unpublished sources can be exempt). Theword literature literally means "acquaintance with letters" and Comedy: The lead character overcomes the conflicts and overall lookthe pars pro toto term "letters" is sometimes used to signify of the comedy is full of laughter and the issues are handled very"literature," as in the figures of speech "arts and letters" and "man of lightly.letters." The two major classifications of literatureare poetry and prose. The elements used in the comedy are romanticism, exaggeration,"Literature" is differentiated from popular and ephemeral classes of surprises and a comic view of life.writing. Terms such as "literary fiction" and "literary merit" are used todistinguish individual works as art-literature rather than vernacular Melodrama: Melodrama is a blend of two nouns - melody andwriting, and some critics exclude works from being "literary", for drama. It is a musical play most popular by 1840. Uncle Toms Cabinexample, on grounds of weak or faulty style, use of slang, is one of the most popular plays describing cruelty of labor life. It haspoor characterization and shallow or contrived construction. Others happy ending like comedy.exclude all genres such asromance, crime and mystery, science Tragicomedy: The play that begins with serious mode but has a
  • happy ending is tragicomedy. multicultural and inspirational romance.Prose Literature Narration: In narrative style, writer becomes the third person whoHistory, journalism, philosophy, fiction and fantasy writings, scientific narrates whole story around the characters.writings, childrens literature authors and writers are included in ProseLiterature. Naturalism: Naturalism is based on the theory of Darwin.Myth Picaresque: It is opposite to romance novels as it involves ideals,Myths are the fairy tales with lots of adventure, magic and it lacks themes and principles that refuse the so-called prejudices of thescientific proof. Nursery rhymes, songs and lullabies are forms of society.myths that strike the interest of children. Creative and nature myth arestories of the stars and moon. Magic tales are wonderful tales of Psychological: Its the psychological prospective of mind with aquests and fantasy. Hero myths are ideal heroes of adventure. resolution.Short story Satire: Satirical novels criticize the contemporary society. The mostThe small commercial fiction, true or imaginary, smaller than a novel famous novels are Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels (1726),is known as short story. Short stories are well-grouped that followed Kingsley Amiss Lucky Jim (1954), George Orwells Animal Farm andthe sequence of easy and no complexity in beginning, concrete Randell Jarrells Pictures from an Institution (1954).theme, some dialogs and ends with resolution. They are oral andshort-lived which have gossip, joke, fable, myth, parable, hearsay and Stream of Consciousness: James Joyces stream of consciousness islegend. all about the thought coming up in the minds of the readers.Novel A novel also constitutes categories on social and political aspects likeNovel can be based on comic, crime, detective, adventurous, proletarian, psychological, protest novel, government, didactic,romantic or political story divided into many parts. materialist novel, allegorical novel, novel of engagement, naturalistic novel, Marxist novel, radical novel, revolutionary novel, anti-warThe major kinds of novels are: novel, utopian novel, futuristic novel, anarchist novel, problem novel, social philosophy novel, novel of ideas, problem play and speculativeAllegory: The symbolic story revolves around two meanings. What the novel.writer says directly is totally different from the conveyed meanings atthe end. Political and Historical allegory are two forms of Allegory. Folk Tale Folk Tales are traditional stories that have been creating interestComedy: Satire is very common form in comedy novels and tries to since ancient times. The children and old persons like religious story,focus on the facts of the society and their desires. magic and superstition as well. Fable, tall tales, cumulative, trickster and proverbs are the sub categories of folk tales. Mythology or legendEpistolary: The collection of letters or mails is the epistolary novels. is the ancient religious stories of origin and human civilization such asSamuel Richardsons Pamela and Henry Fieldings Joseph Andrew story of Robin Hood.are the few examples of Epistolary novels. Types of poetryFeminist: These types of novels are written by women writers around Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected inthe world to describe the place of women in a male dominated the tranquility. Greek poetry is found in free verse and we havesociety. E.g Virginia Woolfs "A Room of ones Own", rhymes in the Persian poem. Are you wondering how to write a poem, here are the followings forms of poem?Gothic: Gothic fiction is the combination of both horror and romance.Melodrama and parody were grouped in the Gothic literature in its Sonnet: Sonnet is the short poem of 14 lines grouped intoearly stages. Shakespearean and Italian sonnets.Ironic: Ironic novels are known for excessive use of narrative Ballad: The poems that are on the subject matter of love and sung bytechnique. It is satire on the contemporary society about cultural, the poet or group of singers as telling readers a story.social and political issues. Elegy: This type of poem is the lamenting of the death of a person orRealism: The realistic novels are based on the truths of ordinary his near one. Elegy Written in Country Churchyard by Thomas Graysociety and their problems. It focuses on the plot, structure and the is one of the famous poems marked as sad poems of the ages.characters of the novel. Ode: Ode is the formal and long poem serious in nature.Romance: Love and relationship topics are handled optimistically inthe romantic novels. It originated in western countries; basically the Allegory: Allegory is the famous form of poetry and is loved by thestory revolves around love affairs of main characters. Some popular readers because of its two symbolic meanings. One is the literalsub categories of romantic novels are paranormal, erotic, suspense, meaning and another is the deep meaning.
  • todays world of Internet, writers write in blogs, forums, pollsEpic and Mock epic: Epics are the narrative poems that convey moral and social networking sites to convey their thoughts. This also is aand culture of that period. The Odyssey and Iliad are one of the form of diary writing. Some profound forms of diaries are online diary,largest philosophical epics written by Samuel Butler. Rape of the Lock travel, sleep, tagebuch, fictional, dream and death diaries.is the great mock epic focusing on the minor incident of cutting of acurl. Journal Journal is one of types of diaries that records infinite information.Lyric: It has Greek origin that gives a melody of imagery. It is the They are of following types:direct appeal of a poet to the readers about any incident or historicalevents. Lyrics are most of the time similar to ode or sonnets in the Personal: It is for personal analysis. In this journal one can write hisform. goal, daily thoughts, events and situations.Know more about poetry refer to Composition of Academic: It is for students who do research or dissertation onpoetry and Meaningful Soul Poem. particular subjects.Nonfiction Literature: Creative: Creative journals are the imaginative writing of a story,Nonfiction Literature is opposite to fiction as it is informative and poem or narrative.comprises the interesting facts with analysis and illustrations. Trade: Trade journals are used by industrial purposes where theyMain types of Non- fiction literature dictate practical information.Autobiography and Biography Dialectical: This journal is use by students to write on double columnAn autobiography is the story of the authors own life. Family Life at notebook. They can write facts, experiments, and observation on thethe White House by Bill Clinton is focused on his life and left side and right side can be a series of thoughts and response withachievements. Wings of fire by Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, Mein kampf of an end.Adolph Hitler are the autobiography books on real life. NewspaperEssay It is a collection of daily or weekly news of politics, sports, leisure,Generally the authors point of view about any particular topic in a fashion, movies and business.detailed way is an essay. Essay has simple way of narrating the mainsubject; therefore they are descriptive, lengthy, subject oriented and Magazinecomparative. Magazines can be the current affairs or opinions well collected covering various content.Different types of essay: Personal essay, expository essay type,response essay, process essay, persuasive essay, argumentative Frame Narrativeessay, critical essay type, interview essay, reflective essay type, The psychoanalysis of human mind is present in a frame narrative.evaluation, observation essay, comparison type of essay, application Here we find another story within the main story. Some of the popularessay, compare and contrast essay and narrative essay type. narratives are Pegasus, Wuthering Heights, The Flying Horse, The Three Pigs, A Time to keep and the Tasha Tudor Book of Holidays.Literary criticismIt is the critical study of a piece of literature. Here critics apply Outdoor literaturedifferent theories, evaluation, discussion and explanation to the text Outdoor literature is the literature of adventure that gives wholeor an essay to give total judgments. Plato, Aristotle, T.S.Eliot, exploration of an event. Exciting moments of life such as horse riding,Saussure and Frye are some of the famous critics. fishing, trekking can be a part of literature. Some outdoor books are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain, Treasure Island byTravel literature Robert Louis, Voyages by Richard Hakluyt and A Short Walk in theIt is the narration of any tour or foreign journey with the description of Hindu Kush by Eric Newby.the events, dates, places, sights and authors views. Francis Baconsnatural philosophies in the middle of Seventeenth century is one Narrative form of Literaturefamous example of travel literature. Today we find movies, audio and video CDs and Cassettes that present current literature in use. Digital poetry is an upcoming trendDiary too. Comic books, cartoons, ebook and Internet games are theDiaries are the incidents recorded by the author without any means of learning methods for children.publishing them. It is the rough work of ones daily routine,happenings, memorable days or events in their life. E.g. Anne Franks Literature includes centuries, human nature, cultures and souls. IsntDiary of a Young Girl was published by her father in 1940s; its a it?story of a girl trapped during German invade Amsterdam.Diaries consists of business letters, newsletters, weather listing. In