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Von der Nutzungsanforderung zur formalen Softwarespezifikation

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Welche Bedeutung haben klare Anforderungen für den Projekterfolg? Was sind Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen? Was gehört zur Anforderungsspezifikation/zum Anforderungsmanagement? Modellierung mit dem Werkzeug YAKINDU Requirements

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  • Jeder Euro, der in Usability investiert wird, spart später 10 bis 100 € Entwicklung- und Wartungskosten [1]. Andere Quellen [2] sprechen von bis zu 5.000 €!

    [1] IBM, C. Karat, 1997;
    [2] Studie der Deutschen Telekom, User Experience Strategy & Design
  • Von der Nutzungsanforderung zur formalen Softwarespezifikation

    1. 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG ● ● Von der Nutzungsanforderung zur formalen Softwarespezifikation Florian Geyer und Michael Jendryschik – itemis AG
    2. 2. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● itemis Florian Geyer Planung und Durchführung von Usability- Maßnahmen im Softwareentwicklungsprozess Michael Jendryschik Anwender von YAKINDU Requirements, Schnittstelle zwischen Produktentwicklung und Produktmarketing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 2
    3. 3. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Von der Nutzungsanforderung zur formalen Softwarespezifikation Modellierung mit dem Werkzeug YAKINDU Requirements  Bedeutung klarer Anforderungen für den Projekterfolg  Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen  Anforderungsspezifikation und -management  YAKINDU Requirements ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG  Ansatz und Methodik  Demonstration am Beispiel  Ausblick und Diskussion 3
    4. 4. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Bedeutung klarer Anforderungen für den Projekterfolg ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 4 Quelle: Projektmanagement Studie 2008 (GPM, PA Consulting Group)
    5. 5. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Bedeutung klarer Anforderungen für den Projekterfolg 5 Implementierte Funktionalität Benötigte Funktionalität
    6. 6. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Bedeutung klarer Anforderungen für den Projekterfolg ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 6 Usability-Engineering-Prozess nach DIN EN ISO 9241-210
    7. 7. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen Erfordernisse ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 7 Übersicht abstrakt detailliert Stakeholder- Anforderungen Geschäftsziele und Marktanforderungen Gesetzliche Anforderungen Ziele Organisatorische Anforderungen Funktionale Anforderungen Qualitätsanforderungen Randbedingungen Systemanforderungen Aufgaben und Bedürfnisse der Nutzer Umstände des Nutzungskontexts Nutzungsanforderungen Eingabe und Ausgabe am System Systemspezifikation User Interface, Prototypen Schnittstellen, Architektur Use Cases Pflichtenheft
    8. 8. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen Ausgangspunkt – Kontextszenarien ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 8 Paul (48) ist ein Mitarbeiter der itemis AG. Er möchte sich zwei Wochen Urlaub nehmen und erstellt daher einen Urlaubsantrag. Er sendet ihn an Harald, den Personalverantwortlichen bei itemis. Harald prüft den Antrag auf Konflikte mit vorhandenen Terminen und verfügbaren Urlaubstagen. Dafür muss er noch einmal Rücksprache mit Teamleiter Joachim halten und notiert sich daher den Antrag für später. Joachim sieht keine Konflikte und daher genehmigt Harald den Antrag von Paul schließlich. Harald benachrichtigt Paul über die Genehmigung seines Antrags. Paul bemerkt später, dass er einen Tag zu viel Urlaub genommen hat und möchte den Antrag ändern. Dafür schickt er einen erneuten Antrag an Harald, der die Änderung akzeptiert und Paul benachrichtigt.  Personen (und Systeme): Mitarbeiter, Personalverantwortlicher, Teamleiter  Benutzerziele und Absichten: Urlaub nehmen, Antrag prüfen  Abläufe oder Workflows: 1. erstellen, 2. senden, 3. rücksprechen, 4. genehmigen...  Objekte und Artefakte: Antrag, Urlaubstage, Termine, Genehmigung  Regelsituationen und Ausnahmesituationen: kein Urlaub, Terminkonflikt, etc.  Informationen über den Arbeitskontext: Mitarbeiterrollen, Unterbrechungen
    9. 9. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen Anforderungen dokumentieren – Erfordernisse Erfordernisse: Notwendige Voraussetzungen zur Erfüllung eines Zwecks »Der Personalverantwortliche muss die verfügbaren Urlaubstage der Mitarbeiter verfügbar haben um die Urlaubsgenehmigung sicherstellen zu können.« ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 9
    10. 10. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen Anforderungen dokumentieren – Nutzungsanforderungen Nutzungsanforderungen: Erforderliche Benutzeraktionen an einem interaktiven System »Der Nutzer muss am System ausstehende Urlaubsanträge erkennen können.« »Der Nutzer muss am System verfügbare Urlaubstage der Mitarbeiter erkennen können.« »Der Nutzer muss am System eine Urlaubsgenehmigung mit Kommentar eingeben können.« ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 10
    11. 11. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzungsanforderungen und Systemanforderungen Anforderungen dokumentieren – Systemanforderungen Systemanforderungen: Bedingungen, die ein System oder eine Systemkomponente erfüllen muss »Vor Verwendung des Systems muss das System dem Nutzer die Möglichkeit bieten, eine sichere Anmeldung über LDAP durchzuführen.« »Nach Eingang eines Urlaubsantrags muss das System dem Nutzer die Möglichkeit bieten, das Urlaubsantragsformular zu öffnen.« »Beim Bearbeiten eines Urlaubsantrags soll das System dem Nutzer ein Textfeld anbieten, um einen Kommentar einzugeben.« ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 11
    12. 12. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Anforderungsspezifikation und -management Anforderungen dokumentieren – Modelle, Spezifikationen User Interface (Mockup, Prototyp) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 12 Datenmodelle, Entities Use Case Ablaufdiagramm
    13. 13. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Anforderungsspezifikation und -management Spezifikationsdokumente  Dokumentation der Anforderungen in einem Spezifikationsdokument (z.B. Pflichtenheft)  Einheitliche Struktur (z.B. Volere)  ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG  Eindeutige Identifikatoren  Verweise auf Materialien und Modelle  Prioritäten und Konflikte  Quelle und Abnahmekriterien  Status und Versionen 13
    14. 14. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Anforderungsspezifikation und -management Anforderungen verwalten – Herausforderungen  Unterschiedliche Stakeholder (Business, IT, Usability etc.)  Verschiedene Sprachen und Perspektiven  Änderungen und Auswirkungen von Änderungen  Querbezüge und Nachverfolgbarkeit bei großen Projekten  Konsistenz bei dokumentenbasiertem Vorgehen  Interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Versionierung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 14 Quelle: Fotolia
    15. 15. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 15 YAKINDU Requirements ist eine Software für das Anforderungsmanagement
    16. 16. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● YAKINDU Requirements ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 16 Requirements Navigator Requirements Use Cases Entities Lifecycles UI Pages UI Flows Texteditor Spezifikation mittels einer DSL Textbausteine Templates Referenzierung Textvervoll-ständigung Refactoring Prüfung und Visualisierung Validierung Übersicht Grafische Ansicht Automatisch generierte Diagramme Navigation
    17. 17. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Anforderungen spezifizieren 17
    18. 18. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Use Cases spezifizieren 18
    19. 19. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Interfaces spezifizieren – Pages 19
    20. 20. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Interfaces spezifizieren – Interaktionsdesign 20
    21. 21. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● YAKINDU Requirements Dokumente generieren Requirements Entities ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 21 Use Cases Lifecycles Actors User Interface User Interface Flow PDF HTML MS Word WBS MS Excel
    22. 22. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Live-Demo 22
    23. 23. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● YAKINDU Requirements Durch Standards offen für Erweiterungen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 23  Eclipse Modeling Framework ist die Brücke zu anderen Standards  Austausch mit anderen Werkzeugen durch das Requirements Interchange Format.  Flexible, dynamische Definition des Requirements Schemas  Textuelle Modellierung erlaubt einfache Spracherweiterungen
    24. 24. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG YAKINDU Requirements Diskussion und Ausblick 24
    25. 25. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kontakt: Florian Geyer, florian.geyer@itemis.de Michael Jendryschik, michael.jendryschik@itemis.de ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG itemis AG | Am Brambusch 15-24 | D-44536 Lünen | www.itemis.de

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