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Gemeinsam kreativ für bessere Software - Vortragsreihe Dortmund

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Wie gehören Software und Kreativität zusammen? Was ist Kreativität? Der Softwareentwicklungsprozess: Iteration und Exploration. Methodenüberblick anhand von zwei Beispielen: Affinity Diagramming und Paper Prototyping.

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Keine Einbettungen

Keine Notizen für die Folie
  • Dieser Vortrag behandelt das Thema Kreativität im Kontext von Softwareentwicklung
    Das Ziel ist es Ihnen einige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen näher zu bringen um Softwareentwicklung kreativer zu gestalten
    Der Hintergrund des Vortrages basiert auf Forschungsergebnissen und aktuellen Entwicklungen
  • Dies ist der Inhalt des Vortrags.
    Er besteht aus drei Teilen
    Erster Teil bildet die Grundlagen, Wissen und Theorie
    Zweiter Teil stellt konkrete Methoden, Werkzeuge und Beispiele vor
    Abschließend gibt es einen Ausblick auf zukünftige Entwicklungen
  • Kreativität ist mysteriös. Eine klare Definition gibt es nicht.
    Zu komplexes Phänomen.
    Forscher haben unterschiedliche Dimensionen untersucht. Z.B. das kreative Produkt, kreative Person, oder kreativen Prozess
    Rhoden definiert Kreativität in drei Dimensionen: Produkt, Person und Prozess
  • Es gibt Produkte, die als kreativ / innovativ empfunden werden
    Anders als andere in Dimensionen:
    Überraschend, neuartig, schön, ästhetisch, und nützlich oder effizient

    Revolutionär: neue Kategorie
    Evolutionär: Weiterentwicklung

    Anderes Denken führt zu solchen Ideen, nicht lineare Prozesse
    Man muss etwas wagen, neue Wege gehen
    Immer relativ zu der Community, im Vergleich zu anderen Produkten
  • Hier geht es um Talent

    Personen die neue Wege gehen oder Dinge erschaffen finden sich in vielen Bereichen
    Unterschiede: Persönlichkeit, Temperament, Werte, Stil, Verhalten, Interesse, Neugier etc.

    Künstler: realisiert in erster Linie eine eigene, persönliche Vision
    Designer: Kreiert Dinge nicht für sich selbst, sondern für andere, muss wissen was anderen gefällt
    Wissenschaftler: befriedigt seine eigene Neugier durch Ausbrobieren
    Ingenieure: Machen Dinge effektiver und effizienter durch Verbesserungen -> inkrementell
  • Wissenschaftlich erforscht. Prozess ist entscheidend

    Charakteristiken: Flexibilität, Problemslösungsverhalten, Ausarbeitung von Ideen, Neugier, Spieltrieb
     
  • Schauen wir uns also den Prozess zu Entwicklung von Software an
    Insbesondere wie Iteration und Exploration den Prozess im Laufe der Zeit verändert hat.
  • Phase 1: Software wird umgesetzt, oft fehlen Funktionen oder Budget reicht nicht um alle Funktionen umzusetzen
    Phase 2: Software wird auf den Markt gebracht und erweitert

  • Engineering Phase im Detail

    Lineares Vorgehensmodell
    Phasenorientiert, Phase muss abgeschlossen sein vor der nächsten Phase
    Keine Rücksprünge möglich!
    Test erst ganz am Ende wenn schon alles umgesetzt ist!
    Wenn falsche Anforderungen, dann falsches Ergebnis!

    Problem: keine Iteration!
  • Iteratives Vorgehensmodell
    Phasenorientiert – Rücksprünge möglich!
    Ergebnisse werden dann teilweise verworfen!
    Späte Änderungen sind sehr teuer, da Behebung viele andere Komponenten beeinflusst

    Weitere Modelle: V-Modell, RUP etc.

    Problem: Iterationen kosten sehr viel, nur kleine Veränderungen möglich
  • Hoch-iteratives Vorgehensmodell

    Ziel ist es zu allen Zeiten eine lauffähige Software zu haben um zu testen und Risiken früh zu erkennen
    Inkrementelle Änderungen sind einfacher zu integrieren

    Häufiger Test des Systems als Ganzes (technischer Test!)
    Vorteil: Der Kunde bekommt, was er braucht, gut bei unklaren Anforderungen

    Formulierung des “Agilen Manifests”, Paradigmenwechsel Softwareentwicklung wird hier als empirischer, dynamischer Prozess verstanden, der hochgradig von den beteiligten Individuen geprägt wird.

    Wichtig! TEAMARBEIT

    Problem: revolutionäre Änderungen sind schwierig. Wenn Projekt in falsche Richtung läuft hilft das auch nicht!

  • Usability Engineering:
    Eigener Prozess für die Anforderungsanalyse!
    Besteht aus 4 iterativen Phasen
    Ziel: Entwicklung von Alternativen und empirische Auswertung von Optionen..
    Test bereits auf der Ebene von Anforderungen!
    Führt zu besserer Software und weniger Fehlschlägen!
    Weniger fehlende Funktionen!

    Problem: Aufwendig und zeitintensiv
  • Unterscheidung Iteration und Exploration

    Beide Konzepte erkennen, dass die erste Idee nicht immer gleich die Beste ist.
    Beides Konzepte um sich auf Veränderungen einzustellen

    Iteration geht in eine Richtung, die zu Beginn festgelegt wird (roter Pfeil)
    Fehlerhafte Richtung wird jedoch beibehalten, an ersten Ideen oft festgehalten

    Exploration: Alle Möglichen Richtungen werden erforscht
    Die besten Richtungen werden herausgefiltert
    Ziel: Nur die Beste Variante

  • Softwareentwicklung entwickelt sich weiter: Trend geht zu einer zusätzlichen Designphase

    Explizite Design (Concept Development) Phase – Exploration von möglichen Anforderungen bevor diese umgesetzt werden!

    Die erste Phase ist ein Trichter! Funktionen werden reduziert!
    Raum für Kreativität.. Während Engineering Phase ist dies nur schwer zu realisieren!
  • Ganz wichtiges Thema in Verbindung mit Kreativität ist Teamarbeit
    Nur durch die Kombination von Wissen kann das individuelle Potential in einem Projekt genutzt werden
  • Interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit wichtig!
    Gemeinsames Verständnis

    Know-How auf verschiedenen Ebenen!
    Beispiel: technisches Wissen beim Entwickler, Marktwissen bei Sales, Anforderungserstellung erfolgt von Anderen!
    Benutzer: selten am Prozess aktiv beteiligt. Jedoch trotzdem wichtig!!

    Entscheidungsfindung kompliziert. Emotionen / Rollen / Kompetenzen
    Wie Wissen austauschen?

    Einfache Methoden, die jeder versteht und anwenden kann! Gemeinsame Sprache!
  • Ideen entstehen durch Assoziation von Wissensbündeln
    Übertrag von Wissen einer Domäne auf eine Andere

    Einfaches Beispiel:
    Jeweils 2 Konzepte im Kopf, Durch individuelle Kombination entstehen 2 Ideen
    Durch Kombination des Wissens entstehen 6 Ideen
    Voraussetzung: Wissen wird effektiv geteilt und von den Beteiligten verstanden

    Problem: wurde nie so wissenschaftlich nachgewiesen!
    Vergleich von Gruppen hat nie eine solche Effizienz zu Tage gebracht.
    Viele denken deshalb, dass Brainstorming unnütz ist. Warum?
  • Ideen entstehen durch Assoziation von Wissensbündeln
    Übertrag von Wissen einer Domäne auf eine Andere

    Einfaches Beispiel:
    Jeweils 2 Konzepte im Kopf, Durch individuelle Kombination entstehen 2 Ideen
    Durch Kombination des Wissens entstehen 6 Ideen
    Voraussetzung: Wissen wird effektiv geteilt und von den Beteiligten verstanden

    Problem: wurde nie so wissenschaftlich nachgewiesen!
    Vergleich von Gruppen hat nie eine solche Effizienz zu Tage gebracht.
    Viele denken deshalb, dass Brainstorming unnütz ist. Warum?
  • Leider funktioniert das nur in der Theorie
    In der Realität wurden in Studien Probleme festgestellt
    Vor allem Soziale Faktoren spielen eine große Rolle!

    Beispiel:
    Blockierung: Menschen können kein Multitasking, nur einer kann sprechen, Problem man vergisst Dinge die man nicht gleich ausspricht
    Bewertungsangst: Eigenes Wissen wird nicht geäußert weil man sich dafür schämt wenn Experte anwesend ist
    Starke Persönlichkeiten: Person mit starker Meinung überstimmt andere Personen.
    Social Loafing: Zurücklehnen weil andere die Arbeit machen oder eigne Beiträge nicht geschätzt werden Social Facilitation: Gegenteil: Ansporn und Motivation durch Wissensaustausch: „Ich werde gebraucht“
    Frühe Fixierung: Erste Ideen werden oft behalten, Änderungen, Verwerfen ist unbequem

    Ergebnis: Das Potential von Gruppenarbeit wird nicht ausgeschöpft!
  • Was kann man dagegen tun?
    Moderation: Leitung und Steuerung der Gruppenarbeit, Vermeidung häufiger Probleme (z.B. Angst, Loafing, Fixierung)
    Regeln und Methoden: Steuerung des Ablaufs, z.B. Zeit für eigene Ideen gegen Blockierung
    Materialien: schriftlicher Ausdruck statt verbal gegen Blockierung. Viele Materialien verfügbar machen
    Arbeitsbereiche: Visuelle räumliche Umgebung, Rückzugszonen wo man unbeobachtet ist, Vermeidung von Bewertungsangst
  • Konkrete Beispiele für den Einsatz von Kreativtechniken
    Methoden sind:
    Regeln und Ablauf
    Materialien
    Führen zu einem bestimmen Ziel
  • Es gibt viele Kreativitätstechniken
    Beispiele:
    Galerie: Individuelle Beiträge werden an einem gut sichtbaren Ort aufgehängt, soll Inspiration fördern, Gruppengefühl verstärken, auf dem Laufenden halten
    Collective Notebook: Gedanken und Ideen werden in ein gemeinsames Notizbuch geschrieben. Mehrere Wochen, Spontane Eintragungen, Danach Auswertung und Analyse
    Methode 635: 6 Personen, 3 Ideen, 5 Runden. Viele Ideen in kurzer Zeit, non-verbale Kommunikation,
    Concept Maps

    Nicht alle für Softwareentwicklung geeignet.

    Häufiger Brainstorming Ablauf:
    Generative Phase : Ideen werden generiert
    Weiterentwicklung: Verfeinerung
    Bewertung und Auswahl: Ideen werden ausgewählt
  • Zwei Beispiele werden im Folgenden vorgestellt und diskutiert

    Affinity Diagramming: Gemeinsame Erstellung eines Affinitätsdiagramms
    Paper Prototyping: Simulation und Test einer Software auf Papier
  • Einfache Methode um sich gemeinsam über Anforderungen klar zu werden
    Ziel: unterschiedliche Perspektiven zusammen bringen, Wissen konzentrieren und auswählen
    Divergenz und Konvergenz: Sammeln von Anforderungen. Auswahl von Anforderungen
    Wichtig: Gemeinsamer Konsens muss erzielt werden
  • Projektbeteiligte treffen sich zu bestimmtem Thema
    Teilnehmer schreiben Anforderungen auf Haftnotizen oder bringen diese mit
    Persönlicher Bereich ist hier von Vorteil.
    Kleine Notizen erleichtern die Handhabung und erzwingen sich kurz zu fassen
    Keine verbale Interaktion in dieser Phase
  • Jeder Teilnehmer präsentiert seine Anforderungen und klebt diese an die Wand
    Sichtbar für alle, Grobe Sortierung
    Rundenbasiert jeder Teilnehmer nacheinander
    Zeit für Rückfragen, Verständnisfragen, aber nicht Diskussion!
  • Die gesammelten Notizen werden in eine sinnvolle Anordnung gebracht.
    Dabei: Diskussion über Ähnlichkeiten, Zuständigkeiten, Konflikte, offene Fragen, Wissenslücken
    Auswahl von wichtigen Anforderungen und deren Zusammenhänge
    Ziel: eine gemeinsame Struktur, die den Konsens der Gruppe wiederspiegelt
  • Das Ergebnis ist eine hierarchisierte Struktur, die für die weitere Umsetzung wichtige Anhaltspunkte liefern kann
    Kategorien (Rote Ovale)
    Unterkategorien (farbige Notizen)
    Ähnliche Anforderungen

    Ermöglicht:
    Aufteilen von Zuständigkeiten
    Sammlung ähnlicher Konzepte = Vereinfachung der Komplexität
    Evaluation von Anforderungen, da von allen gesehen und diskutiert
  • Empfohlen als Einstieg in die Kooperation
    In frühen Phasen um Wissen zu sammeln
    Als Koordinationswerkzeug für weitere Prozessschritte

    Diagramm kann in Büro aufgehängt werden. Gemeinsame Referenz
  • Einfache Methode um erstes Feedback einzuholen ohne die Anwendung zu programmieren

    Ziel: Feedback aus einer anderen Perspektive erhalten (z.B. von zukünftigen Benutzer der nicht am Prozess beteiligt ist)
    Divergenz und Konvergenz: Erstellung von Varianten oder Alternativen und Eingrenzung von Anforderungen
    Wichtig: Entscheidungsfindung für den Prozess
  • Der Designer skizziert die Anwendung auf Papier
    Dabei können auch bereits vorhandene Entwürfe verwendet werden
    Annotationen können Varianten visualisieren
  • Abläufe der Anwendung werden entworfen
    Entwicklung von unterschiedlichen Abläufen auf unterschiedlichen Blättern
  • Ein zukünftiger Benutzer wird eingeladen
    Erklärung des Nutzungsszenarios falls der Benutzer nicht bereits involviert ist
  • Der Benutzer wird gebeten die Anwendung auf Papier zu bedienen
    Dabei sollen die Schritte kommentiert werden. „Ich möchte das auswählen und drücke auf den Button“

    Der Designer tauscht die Entwürfe einfach durch ein anderes Papier aus und simuliert so einen Ablauf
  • Wird verwendet um einen ersten Eindruck auf die Benutzerreaktion zu erhalten bevor man mit der Umsetzung beginnt
    Anforderungen können so validiert werden, ob sie den gewünschten Effekt haben
    Ideen für weitere Anforderungen können entstehen durch Benutzerkommentare
    Hilft bei der Auswahl möglicher Alternativen, Einschränkung und Fokussierung
  • Für beide Methoden benötigt man nur einfache Werkzeuge.
  • Die Umgebung sollte passend gestaltet sein
  • Probleme mit diesen Methoden:
    Es entstehen physische Artefakte
    Schwer zu archivieren und über Email zu verteilen


    Bessere Integration in digitale Arbeitsabläufe notwendig!
  • Gemeinsam kreativ für bessere Software - Vortragsreihe Dortmund

    1. 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG ● ● Vortragsreihe Dortmund „Gemeinsam kreativ für bessere Software“ Florian Geyer Usability Engineer 19.03.2013
    2. 2. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Übersicht Die itemis AG stellt sich vor  Gründung im Jahr 2003  Mehr als 160 Mitarbeiter  Stammsitz in Lünen bei Dortmund  Niederlassungen in Deutschland, Frankreich und der Schweiz  Strategisches Mitglied der Eclipse Foundation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 2
    3. 3. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Übersicht Die itemis AG stellt sich vor  Intensive Verzahnung mit Forschungseinrichtungen  Spezialist für modellbasierte, generative Entwicklungsverfahren  Geschäftsbereiche  Enterprise Application Development  Embedded Software Development  Usability Engineering  Agiles Projektmanagement  Mobile Strategieberatung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 3
    4. 4. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Spezifikationen, für alle verständlich! Spezifikationen, schnell und einfach! Spezifizieren Sie komplexe Applikationen in kürzester Zeit und behalten Sie die Auswirkungen und Risiken von Anforderungsänderungen durch den gesamten Entwicklungsprozess im Blick. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 4 http://www.yakindu.de/requirements/ Spezifikationen, fehlerfrei!
    5. 5. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Kunden 5
    6. 6. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kontakt: André Ufer andre.ufer@itemis.de 0231 9860 263 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG itemis AG | Am Brambusch 15-24 | D-44536 Lünen | www.itemis.de 6
    7. 7. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG ● ● Gemeinsam kreativ für bessere Software Kreative Methoden für die Entwicklung gebrauchstauglicher Software Vortragsreihe Dortmund, 19.03.2013
    8. 8. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Vorschau  Software und Kreativität!?  Kreativität: Versuch einer Definition  Softwareentwicklung: Iteration und Exploration  Teamarbeit: Wissen effektiv kombinieren  Methoden  Beispiel: Affinity Diagramming  Beispiel: Paper Prototyping  Ausblick  Werkzeuge und kreative Umgebungen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 8
    9. 9. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Kreativität Versuch einer Definition 9
    10. 10. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Das kreative Produkt 10
    11. 11. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Die kreative Person 11 Gold, 2007
    12. 12. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Der kreative Prozess Explorativer Ablauf • Lösungsorientiert • Divergenz & Konvergenz • „Reflective Practice“ Teamarbeit • Spontanität & Offenheit • Neugier und Mut Methoden • Situationsabhängig • Informal, Flexibel • Erlernbar! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 12
    13. 13. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Softwareentwicklungsprozess Iteration und Exploration 13
    14. 14. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Kreativität als Prozess Ist kein analytischer Prozess Akzeptiert, dass Probleme nicht genau spezifiziert werden können Lösungsorientiert Interdisziplinäres Teamwork Informal & „chaotisch“, „Spielerei“ 14 Softwareentwicklung Strukturierter, analytischer Prozess Spezifikation ist notwendig für Projektplanung Problemorientiert, Anforderungsmanagement Koordination verschiedener Rollen Formal und gut dokumentiert
    15. 15. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Abstraktes Prozessmodell 15 Buxton, 2007
    16. 16. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Wasserfall Modell 16
    17. 17. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Erweitertes Wasserfallmodell (Iterationen) 17 Royce, 1970
    18. 18. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Agile Softwareentwicklung (z.B. Scrum) 18 Wikipedia
    19. 19. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Usability Engineering: Explorative Anforderungsanalyse 19 DIN EN ISO 9241-210, 2010
    20. 20. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Iteration & Exploration Iteration: Inkrementelle Verfeinerung Kleine Korrekturen Exploration: Alternativen entwickeln Entscheidungen verwerfen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 20 Buxton, 2007
    21. 21. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Evolution des Softwareentwicklungsprozesses 21 Buxton, 2007
    22. 22. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Teamarbeit Wissen effektiv kombinieren 22
    23. 23. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Stakeholder im Entwicklungsprozess Entwickler (Interaktions-)Designer Produktmanager Requirements Engineers Usability Engineers Sales Management ... Benutzer!? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 23
    24. 24. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Potential Gruppenarbeit Mehr Wissen, mehr Ideen? 24 Warr, 2007
    25. 25. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Potential Gruppenarbeit Mehr Wissen, mehr Ideen? 25 Warr, 2007
    26. 26. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kreativitätsblocker Gegenseitige Blockierung Bewertungsangst (z.B. Experte vs. Laie) Starke Persönlichkeiten Soziales Faulenzen (Trittbrettfahrer) Frühe Fixierung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 26
    27. 27. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kreativitätsblocker: Maßnahmen Moderation der Kreativarbeit Gestaltung von Verhaltens-regeln ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG und Methoden Verwendung geeigneter Materialien Gestaltung der Arbeitsbereiche und Umgebung 27
    28. 28. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Methoden Kreativitätstechniken gezielt einsetzen 28
    29. 29. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Methoden - Übersicht Concept Maps Denkhüte Galeriemethode Zukunfts-Werkstatt ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 29 Affinity Diagramming Paper Prototyping Card Sorting Brainsketching KJ Methode Methode 635 Brainwriting Mind Mapping Collective Notebook Metaplan
    30. 30. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Methoden - Übersicht Concept Maps Denkhüte Galleriemethode Zukunfts-Werkstatt ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 30 Affinity Diagramming Paper Prototyping Card Sorting Brainsketching KJ Methode Methode 635 Brainwriting Mind Mapping Collective Notebook Metaplan
    31. 31. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Affinity Diagramming Methode zur Konsolidierung und Analyse von Anforderungen Phasen: 1) Erstellung von Anforderungen 2) Präsentation in der Gruppe 3) Diskussion und Sortierung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 31 Gröninger, German UPA
    32. 32. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 1 Individuelle Generierung von Anforderungen Vorsortierung 32
    33. 33. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 2 Präsentation der Anforderungen Anpinnen an Whiteboard oder Wand 33
    34. 34. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 3 Sortieren der Anforderungen in Cluster (Affinities) Erstellung von Hierarchien 34
    35. 35. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Ergebnis 35
    36. 36. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzen und Verwendung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 36 Bei unklaren Anforderungen in frühen Phasen Zur Konsolidierung und Analyse von Wissen und Perspektiven
    37. 37. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Paper Prototyping Methode zur frühen und informalen Erhebung von Nutzerfeedback Phasen: 1) Abläufe Skizzieren 2) Varianten Entwickeln 3) Nutzungstest vorbereiten 4) Simulation der Interaktion ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 37 Gröninger, German UPA
    38. 38. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 1 Skizzieren der Anwendung auf Papier Annotation von Screenshots / digitalen Entwürfen 38
    39. 39. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 2 Abläufe der Anwendung entwerfen Entwicklung von Alternativen und Varianten 39
    40. 40. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 3 Einladen eines potentiellen Benutzers Erläuterung eines Nutzungsszenarios 40
    41. 41. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Phase 4 Simulation der Nutzerinteraktion Austauschen der Skizzen nach Ablaufvarianten 41
    42. 42. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Nutzen und Verwendung ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 42 Einbezug des späteren Benutzers vor der Entwicklung Test von Interaktionsabläufen und Funktionen
    43. 43. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Ausblick Kreatives Arbeiten etablieren 43
    44. 44. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Werkzeuge Haftnotizen und Papier sind effektiv und effizient! Ausreichend Material zur Verfügung stellen Ein Moderationskoffer verfügt über die wichtigsten Materialien Materialien sind für verschiedene Methoden geeignet ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 44
    45. 45. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kreative Umgebungen Kreativität braucht Freiraum Viel Platz um Ideen und Konzepte sichtbar & vergleichbar zu machen Gemeinsame Orte für spontane Treffen Verwendung von Computern ist oft von Nachteil! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 45
    46. 46. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Herausforderungen Formale Prozesse benötigen strukturierte Dokumentationen Wissensmanagement ist in kreativen Situationen schwierig Nacharbeit und Analyse notwendig Rolle des „Dokumentators“ hilfreich ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 46
    47. 47. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Zukunftsvision Hybride Werkzeuge für kreative Gruppenarbeit 47
    48. 48. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 48
    49. 49. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Fazit Bessere Software erfordert Iteration & Exploration Kreativität in frühe Phasen integrieren Methoden sind einfach und erlernbar Herausforderungen im Bereich der Dokumentation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 49
    50. 50. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Literatur ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Bill Buxton: Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007 Terry Winograd: Bringing Design to Software, ACM Press, 1997 Donald Schön: The Reflective Practitioner, Basic Books, 1983 Bryan Lawson: How Designers Think, Elsevier, 1997 50
    51. 51. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Florian Geyer florian.geyer@itemis.de Michael Jendryschik michael.jendryschik@itemis.de ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG itemis AG | Am Brambusch 15-24 | D-44536 Lünen | www.itemis.de
    52. 52. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Qualitätssteigerung durch Usability Engineering Nutzungsanalysen Gestaltung Consulting  Modellierung von Nutzungsanforderungen  Benutzungstests im Usability-Testlabor  Nutzerinterviews ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 52 Intuitive Anwendungen und weniger Nutzungsprobleme Schnellere Zielerreichung Integration von Benutzern in den Design- und Entwicklungsprozess Potentialanalyse  Konzeptentwicklung  Nutzungsszenarien  Interaktionsdesign  Sketching & Prototyping  Etablierung eines Usability-Prozesses  Usability-Grundlagen  Methoden-Schulung  Heuristische Reviews Ergebnis: Kostensenkung in Entwicklung und Wartung um Faktor 100 bis 1000!
    53. 53. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kommende Veranstaltungen der itemis AG 2013 • EclipseCon 2013 25.03.2013 – 28.03.2013, Boston, Massachusetts • REFSQ 2013 – Requirements Engineering Foundation for Software Quality 08.04.2013 – 11.04.2013, Essen, Vortrag: Jens Trompeter • Code Generation Conference 2013 10.04.2013 – 12.04.2013, Cambridge, UK • Frühjahrstagung GSE Arbeitsgruppe Software Engineering 15.04.2013 – 17.04.2013, Köln, Vortrag: Thorsten Kamann • Vortragsreihe Bonn: Clojure at Work 25.04.2013, Bonn, Vortrag: Falko Riemenschneider ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 1

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