Usability und agile Softwareentwicklung

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Integration benutzerzentrierter Methoden in agile Projekte

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  • Heute möchten wir über ein Thema sprechen das immer öfter in Projekten relevant wird. Die Kombination agiler Softwareentwicklung mit Usability-Methoden.

    Zunächst werde ich auf Usability Engineering eingehen
    Danach zeigen welche Besonderheiten es bei agilen Prozessen gibt
    Und schließlich wie sich die beiden Vorgehensweisen kombinieren lassen
  • http://www.uselog.blogspot.de/2008/11/users-fix-parking-ticket-machine-ui.html#!http://uselog.blogspot.com/2008/11/users-fix-parking-ticket-machine-ui.html

    Worum geht es bei Usability?

    Jeder kennt das Problem – Dinge die man nicht bedienen kann lauern überall im Alltag.
    Automaten jeglicher Art sind ein beliebtes Beispiel. Wer kennt das auch?
    Warum sind Automaten ein Problem?

    Hier ein Beispiel aus den USA, dort haben Nutzer Hinweise am Automaten angebracht damit dieser besser zu bedienen ist.
  • Man lernt vieles durch diese Analyse was man sonst vergessen würde, z.B.
    - Hektische Situation, Zeitdruck, laute Umgebung, Gepäck, Kinder etc., Nutzer haben beschränkte Aufmerksamkeit, lesen wenig
    - Nutzertypen: Reisende sind oft Erstnutzer, genauso gibt es aber auch Dauernutzer – wie viele von welcher Nutzergruppe?
    Welche Erwartungen haben die Nutzer, Welche Aufgaben muss der Automat beherrschen, welche am häufigsten, welche seltener?
    Beispiel: Wie werden die Nutzer zahlen? Wer bezahlt bar und wie viele mit Karte?

    Methoden:
    Beobachtung
    Interviews
    Umfragen / Fragebögen
    Vergleichsstudien / Konkurrenzanalyse etc.
  • Prototyp wird mit echten Nutzern unter möglichst realistischen Bedingungen getestet
    Dabei ist es nicht wichtig, dass es sich um ein vollständig funktionierendes Produkt handelt. Um Usability-relevante Erkenntnisse zu erlangen reicht oft eine Skizze aus.
  • Wie hätte Leonardo da Vinci gearbeitet wenn er die Mona Lisa iterativ gemalt hätte?
  • Seit der 90er leichtgewichtige Entwicklungsmodelle, 2001 als agil benannt
    2013 setzen bereits 84% der Unternehmen agile Prozesse ein (VersionOne, 2013)
    Scrum und XP sind am weitesten verbreiten -> Bild Scrum
  • Kombination aus inkrementeller und iterativer Entwicklung.
  • Nachteile erläutern:
    Anforderungen / Design wird früh fest eingefroren, Anforderungen dürfen sich nicht mehr ändern
    Man muss alle Details vorab kennen und berücksichtigen
    - Bei technischen Umsetzungsproblemen kann nicht mehr auf das Design Einfluss genommen werden
    - Bei längeren Projekten können sich Ziele ändern
  • Parallel Tracks von SE und UE
    Vorgeschalteter Sprint 0 – UE kann Gesamtkonzept erarbeiten (LDUF, das in Inkremente zerlegt werden kann), SE kann SW Architektur umsetzen und sich mit der Technologie vertraut machen (keine Tätigkeiten mit Bezug zur Nutzungsoberfläche)
    Auf multiple Tätigkeiten der Usability Engineers hinweisen (Entwerfen, Begleiten, Evaluieren)
  • Usability und agile Softwareentwicklung

    1. 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG ● ● Usability und agile Softwareentwicklung Integration benutzerzentrierter Methoden in agile Projekte Dr. Florian Geyer - itemis AG
    2. 2. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Warum Usability? Ticket Machine in Arkansas (US) © wikimedia 2
    3. 3. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Usability Engineering Vorgehensmodell Usability Engineering nach ISO 9241 Design Evaluation 3
    4. 4. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Usability Engineering Analyse – Nutzungskontext verstehen und beschreiben http://hcidiary.wordpress.com/ 4
    5. 5. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Usability Engineering Design – Gestaltungslösungen entwickeln ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG https://www.behance.net/gallery/9205477/Ergonomic-Ticket-Machine 5
    6. 6. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Usability Engineering Evaluation – Produktentwürfe mit echten Nutzern testen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG http://idea9106designthinking.wordpress.com/tag/submission-part-b/ 6
    7. 7. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Usability Engineering Iterationen: Analyse, Design und Evaluation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Übergabe an die Entwicklung: • Skizzen • Wireframes • Prototypen • Storyboards • User Interface Spezifikation • Styleguides 7
    8. 8. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Usability Engineering Iterative Entwicklung Iterative Entwicklung baut zunächst eine rohe Vision und verfeinert schrittweise. Iteration erlaubt es von einer vagen Idee auszugehen. Größere Anpassungen zwischen Iterationen möglich. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 1 2 3 4 5 Quelle: http://agileproductdesign.com/presentations/index.html 8
    9. 9. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Agile Softwareentwicklung 9
    10. 10. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Agile Softwareentwicklung Vorgehensmodelle agiler Softwareentwicklung (SCRUM) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://www.bestoutcome.com/assets/images/Agile/SCRUM-overview-resize.png 10
    11. 11. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Agile Softwareentwicklung Inkrementelle Entwicklung Inkrementelle Entwicklung baut ein Teil nach dem anderen. Es muss eine konkrete Vision geben um Inkremente definieren zu können. Anpassungen an bereits entwickelten Inkrementen nicht möglich. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 1 2 3 4 5 Quelle: http://agileproductdesign.com/presentations/index.html 11
    12. 12. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Agile Softwareentwicklung Inkrementelle & Iterative Entwicklung Basierend auf einer groben Vision werden schrittweise Verfeinerungen vorgenommen. Es werden zunächst die wichtigsten Inkremente entwickelt. Es verbleibt die Möglichkeit Anpassungen zwischen Iterationen vorzunehmen. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://aseriesoftubes.com/wp-content/uploads/mona_jonah-640x209.jpg 12 1 2 3 4 5
    13. 13. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Agile Softwareentwicklung User Stories und Inkremente ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-jySCPZkngcs/T2DrcIrEscI/AAAAAAAABw4/u1xrp-n0ISQ/s1600/UserStoryMap.png 13
    14. 14. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Integration beider Ansätze 14
    15. 15. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Usability Engineering Iterationen: Analyse, Design und Evaluation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Übergabe von Inkrementen an die Entwicklung: • Skizzen • Wireframes • Prototypen • Storyboards • User Interface Spezifikation • Styleguides 15
    16. 16. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Agiles Usability Engineering Usability Engineering in agilen Prozessen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 16 Quelle: http://benmelbourne.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/waterfall-vs-agile-ux.png
    17. 17. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Fazit Integration von Usability Engineering in agile Prozesse Usability Engineering  Von isolierter Praxis zu integrierter Kooperation  Gestaltung von Inkrementen / Features statt ganzheitlichen Produkten  Weniger Dokumentation durch leichtgewichtige Entwürfe statt ausführlicher UI Spezifikation  Design und Evaluation gemeinsam mit Entwicklern ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 17 Agile Softwareentwicklung  Integration einer vorgelagerten Visionsphase mit Nutzungskontextanalyse  Einbindung echter Nutzer in den Entwicklungsprozess (Product Owner + Usability Engineer)  Aktive Beteiligung an Usability- Aktivitäten  Integration von Design Sprints für Feature-übergreifende Gestaltung und Redesigns
    18. 18. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Dr. Florian Geyer Usability Engineer florian.geyer@itemis.de +49 160 90887803 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG itemis AG | Am Brambusch 15-24 | D-44536 Lünen | www.itemis.de
    19. 19. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Diskussion ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ©Q iuteemllei:s h AttpG://www.lutz-knopek.de/pressemitteilungen/dr-lutz-knopek-anderung-des-transplantationsgesetzes-soll-organspendebereitschaft-erhohen/

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