OERScout Technology Framework
A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
Technical Seminar
19th July 2013
Wawasan Open University and DISTED College
Ishan Abeywardena
MSc, MSc (Brunel), BSc (Bang...
Acknowledgments
This research project is funded:
• as part of a doctoral research through the Grant (# 102791) generously ...
Seminar Outline
• Introduction to Open Educational Resources;
• Review of the Current OER Search Dilemma;
• Parametrically...
A Technical Perspective
Definition
Current Status
The “O” in OER
Copyright
Access
Curation
Sustainability
Impact
Future Direction
Abeywardena, I.S...
“web-based materials,
offered freely and openly
for use and re-use in
teaching, learning and
research” (Joyce, 2007).
Joyc...
“teaching, learning and research
materials in any medium, digital
or otherwise, that reside in the
public domain or have b...
OER: Just another means of getting there…
four ‘R’s model:
 Reuse
 Redistribute
 Revise
 Remix
Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four ...
Increasing openness of the four ‘R’s: adapted from
(Hilton et al., 2010)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YkbeycRa2A
Lets watch a video on CC
Unported
Ported
Access (ALMS)
Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Framewor...
Content repositories
Portal repositories
Content and portal repositories
McGreal, R. (2010). Open Educational Resource Rep...
Sustainability
Downes, S. (2007). Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledg...
basis for training the global masses
increased access
reduced costs
increased equity
Impact
Future?
Lets watch a video on
mooc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW3gMGqcZQc
The Current OER Search Dilemma
• Current State of OER
• The Dilemma
• Some Existing
Solutions
– Pearson’s Project
Blue Sky
– GLOBE
– LRMI
• However…
Abey...
Current State of OER
So…how do I find the material I need for my teaching?
Google“AdvancedSearch”resultsforOERonChemistry(24thMay2012)
Literature
• ...The problem is in finding the resources, and more correctly finding the “right”
resources. Using a regular...
Native search mechanisms perhaps?
Identify which material to look for (e.g. integration, C++ programming)
Identify the search queries (e.g. “undergraduate m...
Frustrated??
Some Existing Solutions
• Federated Search: BRENHET2; OpeScout;
Global Learning Object Brokered Exchange
(GLOBE); and Pear...
Metadata
IEEE-LOM
DCMI
Federated Search
Institution
Repos
Institution Institution
Repos Repos Repos Repos Repos
Organisation Consortium
Federatio...
Apples
Processed Products
Nutrition
Varieties
Juice
Sauce Cider
McIntosh
Pink Lady
Honeycrisp
Disease Prevention
Fiber
Vit...
Yeah…but which one do I choose?
http://www.pearsonlearningsolutions.com/pearson-bluesky/
http://www.globe-info.org/
http://creativecommons.org/tag/learning-resource-metadata-initiative
However…the issue is
Desirability of OER using D-index
• Usefulness of OER
• The Desirability of OER
• Measuring the
Desirability using D-
index
Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R.,...
How useful is a resource really?
Measures of usefulness
Openness
Accessibility
Relevance
Less useful resources are less desirable for teaching and learning needs….
What is Desirability?
i.e. Desirability
D-index = (level of access x level of openness x relevance) / 256
Openness
Permission Value
Reuse 1
Redistribute 2
Revise 3
Remix 4
The level of openness based on the four R’s of openness
...
Access
Access to editing
tools
Level of expertise required to
revise or remix
Meaningfully
editable
Source-file access Val...
Relevance
Search rank Value
Below the top 30 ranks of the search results 1
Within the top 21-30 ranks of the search result...
Calculation
Original search results (OER Commons example)
Calculation of D-index
After application of D-index
Sample Search
Search Rank Title CC Lisence File Type
1 18.01 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF
2 Calculus for Begin...
Application of D-index
Rank After
Applying D-
index
Original
Search
Rank Title CC Lisence File Type D-index
1 2 Calculus f...
Benefits of the D-index
The application of the D-index
greatly improves the effectiveness of
the search with respect to lo...
OERScout Technology Framework
• What is OERScout?
• Why use it?
Abeywardena, I.S., Chan, C.S., &
Tham, C.Y. (2013). OERScout
Technology Framework: A Nov...
i. Facilitate finding, retrieving
and sharing of OER.
Encourage the
development of user-
friendly tools to locate and
retr...
Specific & Relevant
• Specific: the suitability of an OER for a particular
teaching need.
For example, an OER on physics f...
What is OERScout
 READS
 LEARNS
 RECOMMENDS
A Text Mining Algorithm
The ‘Bag of Words’
Getting Smarter
Term Dictionary
Making the Connection
Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM)
KDM
Web Server hosting
OERScout KDM
Server Tools creating KDM
OERScout
Web Service
OERScout Client
Deployment
The Cluster Map
User Interface
Advantages of OERScout
• Generates ranked lists of
relevant OER
• Incorporates the
Desirability framework
• Uses faceted s...
About…
Ishan Abeywardena
Deputy Dean and Senior Lecturer, School of Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, Penan...
Media Sources
• http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Multimedia_icon.png/120px-Multimedia_icon.png
• h...
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
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OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search

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This technical seminar explains how OERScout uses text mining techniques to autonomously mine domain specific metadata for search purposes, how it utilises a faceted search approach to zero-in on resources and how it incorporates the desirability framework to recommend useful resources for academic purposes. The seminar also gives a technical overview of OER and explores the current OER search dilemma.

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OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search

  1. 1. OERScout Technology Framework A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search
  2. 2. Technical Seminar 19th July 2013 Wawasan Open University and DISTED College Ishan Abeywardena MSc, MSc (Brunel), BSc (Bangalore), MIEEE, MBCS, MIET, MTA Deputy Dean and Senior Lecturer School of Science and Technology Wawasan Open University Penang, Malaysia
  3. 3. Acknowledgments This research project is funded: • as part of a doctoral research through the Grant (# 102791) generously made by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada through an umbrella study on Openness and Quality in Asian Distance Education. • by the Education Assistance Program (EAP) of Wawasan Open University, Malaysia. Ishan Sudeera Abeywardena acknowledges the support: • by Tan Sri Dato’ Emeritus Professor Gajaraj Dhanarajan, Dato’ Dr Wong Tat Meng, Professor Dato’ Dr Ho Sinn Chye and Professor Dr Tham Choy Yoong of Wawasan Open University; • by Dr Chan Chee Seng and Dr S. Raviraja of University of Malaya; • by Professor A. Kanwar and Dr. V. Balaji of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), Vancouver, Canada through an Executive Secondment (4th – 25th May 2012); • by the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where he is currently pursuing his doctoral research in Computer Science; • by the School of Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, 54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050, Penang, Malaysia where he is currently employed;
  4. 4. Seminar Outline • Introduction to Open Educational Resources; • Review of the Current OER Search Dilemma; • Parametrically measuring the Desirability of OER using D-index; • Faceted Search of OER using OERScout.
  5. 5. A Technical Perspective
  6. 6. Definition Current Status The “O” in OER Copyright Access Curation Sustainability Impact Future Direction Abeywardena, I.S. (2012). A report on the Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources (OER): An Exploration of Technologies Available. Commonwealth of Learning.
  7. 7. “web-based materials, offered freely and openly for use and re-use in teaching, learning and research” (Joyce, 2007). Joyce, A. (2007). OECD Study of OER: Forum Report, OECD. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/forumsfiche.php?queryforumspages_id=33.
  8. 8. “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions” (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) UNESCO. (2012, June 22). 2012 PARIS OER DECLARATION. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from unesco.org: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/WPFD2009/English_Declaration.html
  9. 9. OER: Just another means of getting there…
  10. 10. four ‘R’s model:  Reuse  Redistribute  Revise  Remix Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. O
  11. 11. Increasing openness of the four ‘R’s: adapted from (Hilton et al., 2010)
  12. 12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YkbeycRa2A Lets watch a video on CC
  13. 13. Unported Ported
  14. 14. Access (ALMS) Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. • Access to editing tools • Level of expertise required to revise or remix • Meaningfully editable • Source file access
  15. 15. Content repositories Portal repositories Content and portal repositories McGreal, R. (2010). Open Educational Resource Repositories: An Analysis. Proceedings: The 3rd Annual Forum on e-Learning Excellence, 1-3 February 2010, Dubai, UAE. Curation
  16. 16. Sustainability Downes, S. (2007). Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects , 3. 1. Endowment Model 2. Institutional Model 3. Governmental Model 4. Partnerships and Exchanges Model 5. Membership Model 6. Donations Model 7. Conversion Model 8. Contributor-Pay Model 9. Sponsorship Model
  17. 17. basis for training the global masses increased access reduced costs increased equity Impact
  18. 18. Future?
  19. 19. Lets watch a video on mooc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW3gMGqcZQc
  20. 20. The Current OER Search Dilemma
  21. 21. • Current State of OER • The Dilemma • Some Existing Solutions – Pearson’s Project Blue Sky – GLOBE – LRMI • However… Abeywardena, I.S., & Chan, C.S. (2013). Review of the Current OER Search Dilemma. Proceedings of the 57th World Assembly of International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET 2013), Nonthaburi, Thailand.
  22. 22. Current State of OER
  23. 23. So…how do I find the material I need for my teaching?
  24. 24. Google“AdvancedSearch”resultsforOERonChemistry(24thMay2012)
  25. 25. Literature • ...The problem is in finding the resources, and more correctly finding the “right” resources. Using a regular search engine like Google to find content is not always a viable option as it will generate too many answers. There is, hence, a need to easily find relevant content...” (Hatakka, 2009) • “searching this way (using existing search engines such as Google) might be a long and painful process as most of the results are not usable for educational purposes” (Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski, 2010) • No single search engine is still able to locate resources from all the OER repositories (West & Victor, 2011) • One of the major barriers to the use and re-use of OER is the difficulty of finding quality OER matching a specific context (Dichev & Dicheva, 2012) • “…the problem with open content is not the lack of available resources on the Internet but the inability to locate suitable resources for academic use” (Unwin, 2005).
  26. 26. Native search mechanisms perhaps?
  27. 27. Identify which material to look for (e.g. integration, C++ programming) Identify the search queries (e.g. “undergraduate mathematics”) Locate repository (word of mouth, some link somewhere, go to the more popular repositories) Run multiple queries to find resources Read each resource to identify the usefulness (openness, access, relevance) Identify useful resources Repeat steps 3-6 on multiple repositories (hundreds to thousands…..) Native Search in Repositories Locate repository (word of mouth, some link somewhere, go to the more popular repositories) Run multiple queries to find resources Read each resource to identify the usefulness (openness, access, relevance) Identify useful resources
  28. 28. Frustrated??
  29. 29. Some Existing Solutions • Federated Search: BRENHET2; OpeScout; Global Learning Object Brokered Exchange (GLOBE); and Pearson’s Project Blue Sky. • Semantic Search: OER-CC ontology; the “Assistant” prototype; the “Folksemantic” project; and “Agrotags”.
  30. 30. Metadata IEEE-LOM DCMI
  31. 31. Federated Search Institution Repos Institution Institution Repos Repos Repos Repos Repos Organisation Consortium Federation User Metadata
  32. 32. Apples Processed Products Nutrition Varieties Juice Sauce Cider McIntosh Pink Lady Honeycrisp Disease Prevention Fiber Vitamins Semantic Search
  33. 33. Yeah…but which one do I choose?
  34. 34. http://www.pearsonlearningsolutions.com/pearson-bluesky/
  35. 35. http://www.globe-info.org/
  36. 36. http://creativecommons.org/tag/learning-resource-metadata-initiative
  37. 37. However…the issue is
  38. 38. Desirability of OER using D-index
  39. 39. • Usefulness of OER • The Desirability of OER • Measuring the Desirability using D- index Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R., & Tham, C.Y. (2012). Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D- index. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 104- 121 (ISI-indexed publication).
  40. 40. How useful is a resource really?
  41. 41. Measures of usefulness Openness Accessibility Relevance
  42. 42. Less useful resources are less desirable for teaching and learning needs…. What is Desirability?
  43. 43. i.e. Desirability D-index = (level of access x level of openness x relevance) / 256
  44. 44. Openness Permission Value Reuse 1 Redistribute 2 Revise 3 Remix 4 The level of openness based on the four R’s of openness Mapping the CC licenses to the 4 R’s Permission Creative Commons (CC) licence Value Reuse None 1 Redistribute Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND) 2 Revise Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 3 Remix Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) Attribution (CC BY) 4
  45. 45. Access Access to editing tools Level of expertise required to revise or remix Meaningfully editable Source-file access Value LOW HIGH NO NO 01 LOW HIGH NO YES 02 LOW HIGH YES NO 03 LOW HIGH YES YES 04 LOW LOW NO NO 05 LOW LOW NO YES 06 LOW LOW YES NO 07 LOW LOW YES YES 08 HIGH HIGH NO NO 09 HIGH HIGH NO YES 10 HIGH HIGH YES NO 11 HIGH HIGH YES YES 12 HIGH LOW NO NO 13 HIGH LOW NO YES 14 HIGH LOW YES NO 15 HIGH LOW YES YES 16 ThelevelofaccessbasedontheALMSanalysis
  46. 46. Relevance Search rank Value Below the top 30 ranks of the search results 1 Within the top 21-30 ranks of the search results 2 Within the top 11-20 ranks of the search results 3 Within the top 10 ranks of the search results 4 The level of relevance based on search rank (Vaughan, 2004) • Users will only consider the top ten ranked results for a particular search as the most relevant; • Users will ignore the results below the top 30 ranks. Vaughan, L. (2004). New measurements for search engine evaluation proposed and tested. Information Processing and Management 40, 677–691.
  47. 47. Calculation Original search results (OER Commons example) Calculation of D-index After application of D-index
  48. 48. Sample Search Search Rank Title CC Lisence File Type 1 18.01 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 2 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 3 18.01 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 4 18.013A Calculus with Applications CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 5 18.02 Multivariable Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 6 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 7 Calculus Online Textbook CC BY-NC-SA PDF 8 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 9 18.075 Advanced Calculus for Engineers CC BY-NC-SA PDF 10 MATH 140 - Calculus I, Summer 2007 CC BY-NC-SA Protected Top 10 search results returned by MERLOT for the keyword “calculus”
  49. 49. Application of D-index Rank After Applying D- index Original Search Rank Title CC Lisence File Type D-index 1 2 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 0.75 2 4 18.013A Calculus with Applications CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 0.75 3 8 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 0.75 4 14 Multivariable Calculus CC BY HTML/Text 0.75 5 19 MATH 10250 - Elements of Calculus I, Fall 2008 CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Text 0.56 6 20 18.022 Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 0.56 7 22 Single-Variable Calculus I CC BY HTML/Text 0.50 8 25 Single-Variable Calculus II CC BY HTML/Text 0.50 9 15 Highlights of Calculus CC BY-NC-SA Video 0.42 10 21 Calculus I CC BY HTML/Text 0.38 Top 10 results when D-index is applied to the results returned by MERLOT
  50. 50. Benefits of the D-index The application of the D-index greatly improves the effectiveness of the search with respect to locating the most useful resources for use and reuse.
  51. 51. OERScout Technology Framework
  52. 52. • What is OERScout? • Why use it? Abeywardena, I.S., Chan, C.S., & Tham, C.Y. (2013). OERScout Technology Framework: A Novel Approach to Open Educational Resources Search. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, In press. (ISI-indexed publication)
  53. 53. i. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER. Encourage the development of user- friendly tools to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs. (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) The Declaration UNESCO. (2012). Paris OER Declaration, Retrieved September18, 2012 from http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/Paris%20OER%20Declaration_01.pdf
  54. 54. Specific & Relevant • Specific: the suitability of an OER for a particular teaching need. For example, an OER on physics from the final year syllabus of a physics degree would not be suitable for a high school physics class. • Relevant: the match between the content of the OER and the content needed for a particular teaching need. For example, physical chemistry is not relevant for a teaching need in organic chemistry.
  55. 55. What is OERScout
  56. 56.  READS  LEARNS  RECOMMENDS A Text Mining Algorithm
  57. 57. The ‘Bag of Words’
  58. 58. Getting Smarter
  59. 59. Term Dictionary
  60. 60. Making the Connection
  61. 61. Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM)
  62. 62. KDM
  63. 63. Web Server hosting OERScout KDM Server Tools creating KDM OERScout Web Service OERScout Client Deployment
  64. 64. The Cluster Map
  65. 65. User Interface
  66. 66. Advantages of OERScout • Generates ranked lists of relevant OER • Incorporates the Desirability framework • Uses faceted search
  67. 67. About… Ishan Abeywardena Deputy Dean and Senior Lecturer, School of Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, Penang, Malaysia • MSc in Wireless Enterprise Business Systems, Brunel University, UK. • MSc in Engineering Management, Brunel University, UK. • BSc in Computer Science, Bangalore University, India. • PhD Candidate in Computer Science, University Malaya, Malaysia. Areas of specialisation: text mining, metadata, faceted search Professional Member of – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (MIEEE) – British Computer Society (MBCS) – Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) – Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) Official Profile: http://www.wou.edu.my/IshanAbeywardena.html Professional Profile: http://www.linkedin.com/in/ishansa Research Profile: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ishan_Abeywardena/ Tech Blog: http://www.ishantalks.com E-mail: ishansa@wou.edu.my
  68. 68. Media Sources • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Multimedia_icon.png/120px-Multimedia_icon.png • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Nuvola_multimedia.png/120px-Nuvola_multimedia.png • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/Open_Clip_Art_Library_Piggy_Bank.svg/120px- Open_Clip_Art_Library_Piggy_Bank.svg.png • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Active_learning_-_jigsaw_map_of_Southeast_Asia.jpg • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%8F_800px-Ua-er9m-558-20070728.jpg • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Public_Bus,_Cairo_02.JPG • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polski_Fiat_126p_in_Krak%C3%B3w_(MWM_2010).jpg • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PLM_2011_64_Jetalliance_Lotus.jpg • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YkbeycRa2A • hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu

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