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Quality of work life sustains robust work culture an empirical study on ntc mills
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Quality of work life sustains robust work culture an empirical study on ntc mills
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1. International Journal of Management (IJM), – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online) IJMVolume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), pp. 37-43© IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.html ©IAEME QUALITY OF WORK LIFE SUSTAINS ROBUST WORK CULTURE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON NTC MILLS P. Mohanraj Assistant Professor, Dept. of Management Studies Chettinad College of Engineering and Technology Karur, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org A.Ashok kumar Assistant Professor, VSA School of Management Uthamasolapuram, Salem – 636010, India. Email: email@example.com Dr. M. Arunachalam Principal Rajagiri Dhawood Batcha College of Arts and Science, Papanasam, Thanjavur District, India. ABSTRACT The present study attempts to assess prevailing of Quality of Work life (QWL) condition in National Textile Corporation (NTC) mills in Tamilnadu and how QWL sustains healthy and strong work culture. QWL includes adequate and fair remuneration, safe and healthy working conditions and social integration in the work organization that enables an individual to develop and use all his or her capacities. Most of the definitions aim at achieving the effective work environment that meets with the organizational and personal needs. It is an attempt to identify role of QWL to sustain a robust work culture to the workers of the NTC mills. Primary data were collected through a well structured undisguised questionnaire. This study has highlighted some positive aspects of QWL and the main finding is that employees of different status differ in their preference of QWL factors. The results of this study reveal that the expectation of flexi-working condition & alternative work schedule is high. The workers’ perception towards the facets of the 37
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEQWL was different and the workers have high dissatisfaction with existence of somefacets of the QWL, such as Welfare facilities, Recognition and Physical workingconditions. The strategies which are recommended here is to give divergent facet ofQWL to the workers in different status and improve the Interpersonal relations,Participatory management and Physical working conditions to ensure robust workculture.Keywords: Quality of Work life, Facets of QWL, Robust work culture, Participatorymanagement.INTRODUCTION Quality of work life (QWL) refers to the Favorableness or unfavorableness of jobenvironment for people. It refers to the quality of relationship between employees andthe total working environment. The basic purpose is to develop work environment thatare excellent for people as well for the work culture of the organization. Many expertsdefine quality of work life as “a process of joint decisions making, collaboration andbuilding mutual respect between management and employees”. It is concerned withincreasing labour-management co-operatives to solve the problems at improvingorganizational performance and employee’s satisfaction. Quality of Work Life (QWL) is a multifaceted concept, implying the concern forthe members of the organization irrespective of the level they belong to. QWL covers apersons perception or feelings about every dimension of work including economicrewards and benefits, security, working conditions, organizational and interpersonalrelationships and intrinsic meaning in a persons life. The basic concept underlying theQWL is what has come to known as "humanization of work". It involves thedevelopment of an environment of work that stimulates the creative ability of the workersand generates cooperation and a strong work culture. Culture is made up of the values,beliefs, underlying assumptions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a group of people. Inmany ways, culture is like personality. In a person, the personality is made up of thevalues, beliefs, underlying assumptions, interests, experiences, upbringing, and habitsthat create a person’s behavior. A norm of accountability will help make your 38
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEorganization successful. A strong (Robust) work culture helps the organization to realizeits business goal easily and effectively.LITERATURE REVIEW According to Loscocco and Roschelle (1991), the most common assessment ofQWL is the individual attitudes. This is because individual work attitudes are importantindicators of QWL. The ways that people respond to their jobs have consequences fortheir personal happiness, the effectiveness of their work organizations and even thestability of society. Individuals selectively perceive and make attributions about their jobsin accordance with the expectations they bring to the workplace. The Employee benefitsprotect employees from risks that could jeopardize their health and financial security.They may also provide services or facilities that many employees find valuable. Inaddition, benefit plans that are designed to increase in value over time encourageemployees to remain with their employer (Gomez-Mejia: 2001), consequently, they havea moderating effect on firm productivity, irrespective of industry or firm size. A majorresult of a study conducted by Susan J. Harrington (2006) reveals that higher levels ofhierarchical and rational values were associated with higher levels of quality of work lifeand less professional isolation among textile employees. A study conducted by James W.Westerman (2007), examine the relationship between personality, work environmentpreferences, and the outcome variables, performance and commitment. This studyindicates that the relationship between personality, work environment, and employeeoutcomes. The significance of employee goal-orientation preferences is fully mediatingthe relationship between personality and workplace outcomes.RATIONALE OF THE STUDY The National Textile Corporation Limited (NTC) is a Central Public SectorEnterprise under the Ministry of Textiles which was incorporated in April 1968 formanaging the affairs of sick textile undertakings, in the private sector, taken over by theGovernment and starting with 16 mills in 1968. The number of units increased to 119 by1995, which are controlled by NTC (HC) Limited with the help of 9 subsidiaryCorporations. The National Textile Corporation (NTC) owned 15 textile units in TamilNadu and Pondicherry, over 4,500 textile workers are employed. So, a specific study is 39
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEessential to identify the need and existence of QWL in this sector. This study is designedto explore the prevailing conditions of QWL and to suggest for ensuing robust workculture to the textile workers. The suggestions help the policy makers to improve thequality of work life for promoting a strong work culture.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The major objectives of this study are to identify prevailing quality of work lifeconditions in NTC mills of Tamilnadu and to sustain a robust work culture throughQWL. This study was confined to the permanent workers of NTC Mills in Tamilnadu.Spinning workers from seven sections namely Blow room, Carding, Comber Preparatory,Draw frame, Spinning, Winding and Doubling were interviewed. The methodologyinvolved collecting primary data and secondary data and analysed with suitable statisticaltools for interpretation. Primary data were collected through a well structured undisguisedquestionnaire. The questionnaire was of multiple choice types and Likert scale was usedas the rating scale. The required secondary data have been collected from referencebooks, websites and brochures related to this industry. The research was in descriptivenature.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The data gathered were analysed by using the methods of ‘Z’ test, Correlation,Chi-square and other tools. Totally 09 facets of QWL was taken, The method of ‘Z-test’analyses shows (Table -1) that textile workers perceived different facets of QWL withdifferent intensities of influencing their work culture. They perceived the following facetof QWL positively contributing to strong work culture. They were: Interpersonalrelationship, Recognition, Participatory Management, Work load and Physical workingconditions. The respective mean score of theses facets are 4.12, 4.07, 3.78, 3.65 and3.33, respectively. The remaining four factors of QWL: Training facilities, Job security,Welfare facilities and Duration of work preferred with the mean score of 2.59, 2.34, 1.91,and 1.46, respectively. It is found that 18 percent of the NTC mill workers were highlysatisfied with available QWL factors and remaining 34 and 48 percent of the workers hadindicated moderate and low satisfaction respectively (Table-2). In general, most of themare dissatisfied with the prevailing conditions of QWL factors. 40
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEME Table 1: Mean score of the specific QWL factors sustains robust work culture S.No. QWL factors Mean scores Standard Z Deviation 1 Physical working conditions 3.33 1.00 1.54 2 Training facilities 2.59 0.95 1.63 3 Welfare facilities 1.91 0.82 1.98 4 Interpersonal relationship 4.12 0.37 1.99 5 Recognition 4.07 0.46 1.87 6 Work load 3.65 0.77 1.19 7 Participatory Management 3.78 0.74 1.85 8 Duration of work 1.46 0.68 2.92 9 Job security 2.34 0.89 0.82Source: Primary Data Table 2: Differences in the overall satisfaction on the availability of QWL factors in NTC Mills Level of Satisfaction Score Range Total No. of Workers in percentage Low 38-51 48 Medium 52-65 34 High 66-79 18Source: Primary Data The correlation value (Table-3) in this study is +0.6575 and research shows that“Culture” and “Job satisfaction and QWL measures” are factors that prove to besignificantly correlated to each other. A Chi-square test applied to find the significantrelationship between QWL measures and employee’s Work culture (H1). It is calculatedthat the Chi-square value (135.70) is greater than the tabulated value (9.488), therefore itis significant. It is found that the term QWL have different connotations to differentpersons, the factor contributing QWL are also varied. To the workers on the Blow room,Carding, Comber Preparatory preferred more on the QWL factors of Welfare facilities,work load and physical conditions. To the workers in Draw frame, Spinning, Windingand doubling sections preferring Training facilities and Duration of work. The youngprofessionals are giving much importance on Recognition and Job security but theexperienced workers giving priority on Participatory management of the QWL factors. In 41
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEgeneral, most of the workers prefer Industrial relations is the main QWL factor tosustaining robust work culture. Table 3 “Work Culture” and “Job satisfaction and QWL measures”. (Analysis done by applying Correlation Co-efficient) A B C D E F G H I 40 68 20 400 -15 238 -308 II 30 72 10 100 -11 130 -114 III 20 83 0 0 0 0 0 IV 10 0 -10 100 -83 6960 834 ∑= 20 600 -109 7328 412[A-Culture, B-Midpoint X, C- Job satisfaction and QWL measures, D- dx= x-20, E- (dx)2, F- dy= y-83,G- (dy)2 , H- dx.dy.].CONCLUSION It is suggested that the employees who have great in culture tend to have highexpectations in the quality of work life and Job satisfaction. Thus NTC mills canconcentrate on organization culture by providing adequate QWL conditions. It has beenproved that the QWL factors are essential for promoting a strong work culture. A goodhuman resource climate, work culture can cause to develop a feeling towards thecompany and also that would motivate them to do the job well.REFERENCES1. Feuer, D., 1989. Quality of work life: a cure for all ills? Training: The Magazine of Human Resources Development, 26: 65-66.2. Gomez-Mejia, L.R., Balkin, D.B. and Cardy, R.L. (2001), Managing Human Resources, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.3. Hackman J.R. and Suttle J.L. (1997). Improving life at work: Behavioral science approaches to organisational change. California; Good year. 42
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEME4. James W. Westerman, (2007) The Effects of Work Environment on the Personality- Performance Relationship: An Exploratory Study, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. XIX, pp: 288-30.5. Loscocco, K.A. and A.R. Roschelle, (1991). Influences on the quality of work and non-work life: two decades in review. J. Vocational Behavior, 39: 182-225.6. Susan J. Harrington, Julie Santiago, (2006), Organizational Culture and Telecommuters’ Quality of Work Life and Professional Isolation, Volume 6, Issue 03. 43