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Create an End User Adoption Strategy Erica Toelle Twitter: @EricaToelle
About Erica2004 Began working with SharePoint2005 Started as a business consulting vendor with Microsoft2007 Started consulting with the SharePoint Product Team2008 Began working with SharePoint 20102009 Started a SharePoint Consulting Company2012 Started working with Microsoft IT
Agenda1. What are the benefits of investing in end user adoption?2. What is Organizational Change Management (OCM) and End User Adoption?3. An overview of the OCM work stream4. Examples of key deliverables / artifacts5. OCM for large projectsThis presentation is about the “people” side of a technologyproject, using SharePoint as our example.
Benefits of End User AdoptionA McKinsey study reviewed 40 major projectsand examined the effect of an OrganizationalChange Management (OCM) program on aprojects Return on Investment (ROI).
Benefits of End User AdoptionThe study concluded that the ROI was:• 35% when there was a poor OCM program or no program• 143% when an excellent OCM program was part of the initiative
Why Do You Care?For SharePoint projects, OCM costs shouldamount to 10-20% of the total resource budget.
What is End User Adoption?• A metric? • Clear metrics that• Training? define success?• Communication? • Defining use cases / user centered design?• Marketing? • Create a technically• Stakeholder or well designed leadership buy-in? solution?• Governance? • Usefulness of the• Having clear solution? definition of success? • Solving a business problem?
What is End User Adoption?• Often used as an abstract concept that stands for "success" of the solution as judged by the end users / consumers of the solution.• It stands for "was run the project well and is the end product a well designed solution?“• Success as defined at the beginning of the project is from the point of view of whoever is writing the check and the people that has bet that the solution has value to the consumer• Success is defined at the end by whether or the consumer actually uses the solution
What is Organizational Change Management (OCM)?• A systematic process that mitigates risks and leverages change as a resource for project success• An actionable, process-driven effort with work streams of activities and tasks• Has templates, forms, checklists and quality measurements that drive the OCM process Credit: Fred Asher
The Change CurveImportant! This is from The Performance Dipthe user perspective Organizational Change Initiative Complete Uninformed Business Performance Individual Change Informed Optimism Phases of Transition Optimism/ Uncertainty Denial Endings Transitions New Beginnings Anger Acceptance Testing Pessimism Despair/ Skepticism Valley of Despair Time How people feel Impact to your business
Adoption EffortAdoption/Ownership occurs over time & with increasingeffort Adoption/Ownership: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users demonstrate their commitment to the change Adoption/Ownership initiative. They feel responsible and accountable for the project’s success. Shared Shared Commitment: Sponsors, Stakeholders, andChange Effort Commitment End Users agree with the objectives of the project and Level of express their support for the change. Shared Shared Understanding: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and Understanding End Users understand the project and how the change it will impact them. Awareness Awareness: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users are aware of the project objectives, activities, and timeline. Time
OCM Work StreamsLeadership & Gain understanding and agreement from leadership and those affected that Stakeholder the change is in their best interest. Have them follow through on calls toCommitment action. Define how job descriptions change once SharePoint is implemented. ThisRole Design includes how the solution will be maintained and what training is needed for whom. Use existing communication channels to get the right message to the rightCommunication people at the right time. Plan training on specific SharePoint solutions and processes. General Training SharePoint training will not work for the masses.
OCM Work Stream Artifacts Define Design Build Launch Operate Organizational Leadership & Mitigate Create Operations Culture Stakeholder Resistance to Training Plan Assessment Assessment Change Leadership & Change Stakeholder Ongoing Magnitude Training Plan Execute Training Commitment Training Assessment Change Communication Role Design Inventory and Execute Communication Plan Plan Role MappingCommunication Stakeholder Meetings Super User Training Super User Execution Strategy Technical Project Activities
Define: Magnitude of Change Assessment• Use for: – Understanding how large the change is and why – Informing the OCM budget• What it is: – A way for the OCM resources and project team to understand risks due to scope – A starting point for cataloging and mitigation of risks – Informs the OCM strategy: training communications, etc.
Define: Magnitude of Change Assessment Not as Complex Very Complex Complex1 The number of stakeholder group affected 1-5 5-15 15+2 Impact to stakeholders on core competencies Low Medium High3 Number of individuals affected by the change 1-25 25-150 150+4 Centralized or decentralized locations One 2-4 4+5 Number of International Users One 2 Countries 3+ Country Countries6 Required simultaneous changes to strategy, process, technology 1 2-3 All 4 and skills7 Degree of cross functional collaboration and involvement 1-2 BUs 2-4 BUs 5+ BUs8 The degree to which departments are siloed Not siloed Some silos Many silos9 Users have been involved in system design All Some None
Define: Magnitude of Change Assessment Not as Complex Very Complex Complex10 Timeframe for implementation Extended Aggressive Compact11 What is the business significance of the change? Non critical Important LOB Bottom line impact impact / mission critical12 Involvement / presentence of multiple consultants, vendors Just You 1 other 2+ others and / or third parties13 Degree of executive / leadership consensus regarding future Much Some Little or vision None
Define: Organizational Culture Assessment• Use for: – Understanding the organization’s culture – Identify risks to the project imposed by organizational change – Informing the OCM budget• What it is: – A way for the OCM resources and project team to understand risks due to culture – An analysis that can be used in stakeholder conversations – Helps to plan for risk mitigation and OCM activities
Define: Organizational Culture Assessment Not as Complex Very Complex Complex1 The number of existing change initiatives for end users27 None 1-2 3+2 Degree of cultural transformation required14,15,16 Low Medium Extensive3 Organization’s history of change26 Positive Neutral Negative4 Quality and timely decision making within the Extensive Medium Low organization85 Employees feel their voice is heard in their organization8 Definitely Sometimes Definitely Not6 Degree of commitment from key stakeholder groups Much Some Little7 There is a technology deterministic / isolation view in Little Some Much the organization9
Define: Organizational Culture Assessment Not as Complex Very Complex Complex8 Understand of need for and implications of change by end users22 Extensive Some Little9 Effective methods of communication (formal and informal) are utilized in Definitely Sometimes Definitely Not the organization2110 Managers of the groups that will be affected are committed to the Much Some Little change811 Measurable goals for the change have been developed 1 Major Some Minor12 A compelling need for change has been communicated by upper and Extensive Some None middle management to end users23, 2413 Employees in the organization perceive that leader “walk the talk”27 Much Some No Agreement Agreement Agreement14 The change is viewed as an ongoing process, and not an event within a Yes Some Groups Not at all specific time period815 The organization has an fatalistic culture, based on fear8, 11,12, 13 No Somewhat Yes
Define: Change Inventory• Use for: – Understanding how many changes we are asking the organization to make – Understanding what changes impact each role and / or stakeholder group – Informs the communication plan: This is what you will tell people• What it is: – A list of the desired changes, categorized by role – Later (in the define phase) these will be prioritized by positive business impact and risk
Define: Change InventoryGroup Name of Change Description Impacted Impacted Business Risk Priority Stakeholders Roles BenefitWorkflow Finance workflow Re-engineer the Finance Group Procurement Large Medium 3 re-engineering workflow to execute on personnel SharePointAll Web publishing Distribute news All All Large Low 1 through portal instead of emailAll Project Manage projects using Project Managers Project Medium Medium 2 Management a SharePoint solution Managers Solution A “change” is anything that impact people, process or technology.
Design: Stakeholder Assessment• Use for: – Understanding who is impacted by the change – Understanding the current and future levels of commitment• What it is: – A way for the OCM resources and project team to accomplish the to-be state in a structured manner – The basis of the communications plan
Design: Stakeholder Assessment Individual Current Future Target Project Players or Impact Commitment Commitment Communications Risk Groups Level Level Level Senior High Aware Buy-in High Low ExecutiveStakeholder Sales Managers Medium Unaware Aware Low MediumGroup Name Finance High Unaware Owner Medium Medium Workflow usersLegend:Impact on Project – High, Medium, LowCurrent Commitment Level – Unaware, Aware, Buy-In, OwnerFuture Commitment Level – Unaware, Aware, Buy-In, OwnerProject Risk – High, Medium, LowTarget Communications Level – High, Medium, Low
Design: Stakeholder Assessment• How do you do it? 1. Schedule working session with key client and/or client counterparts - this is typically a 2 hour session 2. Use brown paper or print in large form a blank stakeholder analysis template. 3. Identify key stakeholders. 4. Rate the risk level for each stakeholder group. Risk indicates those identified stakeholders whose resistance could put a successful change transition in jeopardy and/or could put the project itself at risk. 5. Rate how the change is going to impact the identified stakeholders: low, medium, high. 6. Transition the workshop to developing risk mitigation approaches for each group. 7. Depending on time, work through each stakeholder group and identify the change action required to move them to the appropriate adoption level, the appropriate communication vehicle, responsible party and timing. 8. Identify what coalitions you need them to help you build. 9. Execute Change Action Plan and build into overall change management project plan.
Design & Build: Stakeholder Meetings• Use for: – Creating awareness, buy-in and / or ownership among project stakeholders (depending on desired outcome) – Clearly communicating project information and asks – Provides an opportunity for two way communication• What it is: – A meeting or series of in person meetings
Design and Build: Stakeholder Meeting Objectives• Agenda: 1. Review project objectives • Gain agreement with stakeholder 2. Approach timeline (next artifact) 3. Impact to their group / employees 4. Asks / Feedback • Make sure they understand their importance to making the change happen • Need to understand their three biggest roles in the project
Stakeholder Meeting Outcomes Awareness Shared Buy-In Ownership UnderstandingKnowledge of project and objectives XStakeholder Agrees with project objectives XAn understanding of how the change will impact their group XAwareness of groups policies to which you must adhere XKnowledge of existing processes that will be impacted XIdentification of other stakeholders you may have missed XKnowledge of competing initiatives and “busy times” XKnowledge of preferred communication channels XIdentification of change champions XAwareness of existing materials that can be leveraged by the XprojectStakeholder agrees to be a project spokesperson X
Design: Stakeholder Visualization• Use for: – Allows the project team to visualize the project and whether they are asking too much / too little of people – Allows all stakeholders to see how their actions and tasks impact everyone else• What it is: – A visualization of key milestones, asks and activities
Design: Communications Plan• Use for: – Creating shared understanding with the team about who we are telling what, when, how, and why – Informing stakeholder how you will communicate with them going forward & what they can expect – Execution of the communications plan should create shared understanding & commitment with stakeholders• What it is: – The master plan of who you are telling what – Consists of a communication plan and channel plan
Design: Communications Plan Content SubAudience Audience Channel Frequency Purpose Developer Sender Discuss key accomplishments, Status call and Weekly upcoming milestones, issues / risks, John Doe Jane Doe email recap and action items. Provide credibility to the project Managers CFO Update Monthly and create awareness and shared John Doe Jane DoeFinance understanding through updates. Leadership Continually evangelize work and Monthly John Doe Jane Doe Monthly Calls highlight project “wins”. Update on project efforts with links End Users Web Portal Weekly Updates John Doe Jane Doe to supporting detail. Status call Discuss key accomplishments, Weekly upcoming milestones, issues / risks, John Doe Jane Doe Account And email recap and action items. Managers Account Provide visibility into the business segmentation and Weekly impact of the project. Ask questions John Doe Jane Doe Sales pipeline meeting as necessary. The role-targeted newsletter will Account Weekly Account Will submit aggregate many messages currently John Doe Jane Doe Wins Newsletter content on a bi- sent through email and other Team newsletters weekly basis Update on project efforts with links Web Portal Weekly Updates John Doe Jane Doe to supporting detail.
Design: Communication Channel Assessment Weekly Newsletter Web Portal Email RecapsAudience Content should be directed to weekly newsletter if it is This is the primary source for all non-actionable messages for Target by role/community actionable, timely, and helps the field meet revenue goals the field. Product updates, contests, and other kinds of useful or other commitments. information.Content The content is organized by role groups and sent via ThePortal offers broad information, as well as role-targeted Org will only allow you to use this channel email as an imbedded XML document. Based on user- information. following approval by the Official profile, employee receives weekly newsletter that You may submit content at any time, either as an update Communication team. includes broad information as well as specific content to a page that already exists or you may request a new Use smart formatting: segmented by role. page be created. Subject: Action Required (AR), FYI, or End weekly newsletter articles should be actionable, of Message (EOM) clearly stating what the reader should do and what benefit the action has for the reader. After reviewing: the managing editor or community owners Executive Summary: Who, Action, & Time determine that the content you submitted should be in 1st paragraph Articles may be up to 1,500 characters and must be displayed differently than you indicated on your original submitted in the form of a plain text file (.txt). Save the detail for the body of the submission, you will be notified via email of those changes paragraph prior to the content being published.Deadline for Content must be submitted by end of day Wednesday to N/A Request comms sent via email to the Official be included in the following Monday publication. Communication alias (listed below)submissionLocation of Web-based form is at the following link: Click here to Email content to: Email content to: complete form firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.comCadence Weekly On as needed basis: generally expect a 24-48 hour turnaround On as needed basis time to publicationReview Review and editing process conducted by the All portal content submissions will go through a review process This requires leadership approval communication team and the community owners. conducted by the communication team and the community -Measures will be taken to ensure any emailProcess owners. messages are targeted to the appropriate audience for the message.Who Owns Communication team: Communication team: Communication team: Specific name Specific name Specific name
Design: Communications Checklist Use preferred senders to deliver the communication Use multiple voices and channels to communicate Honesty is the only policy Communicate clearly and predictably Answer “why is this change happening” and “what is the risk of not changing” Answer “What’s in it for me” Don’t have communications come from the project team or project leaders Use face to face communication Repeat key messages 5-7 times Create opportunities for two way communication Evaluate the effectiveness of your communications
Design: Training Plan• Use for: – Providing the knowledge stakeholders and users will need to obtain buy-in or ownership level of adoption• What it is: – The master plan of what training will be provided, by role and stakeholder group
Design: Types of Training On Demand Cost ($) Cost (Resource)Purchase videos XRecord videos XWritten XdocumentationOffice.com XInstructor led - internal XInstructor led - External XHelp Desk Call XSuper User X
Design: Super User Strategy• Use for: – Having a “go-to” person in each stakeholder group – Owner level commitment to the change – First place to ask questions – Helps to identify and manage resistance to change• What it is: – A person who is selected as a super user – Also known as change champion, power user, etc.
Design: Super User StrategyCharacteristics:• Be well networked within the organization and respected by peers• Want to make a difference in a organization they are fully committed to• Have the courage to speak up for what they believe in• Be seen as ‘go to’ people and opinion makers• Have a broad understanding of the organization and how it works• Be able to translate the overall change vision into local what’s in it for me scenarios• Feel passionate about the change while being empathetic to the mindset and behavior shift their colleagues will need to go through• Tuned in to the mood of the area they are in and able to pick up on resistance to the change, lack of understanding of the change journey and communication gaps between the business and the program
Launch: Plan for Resistance to Change Expect and Plan for Resistance: Make a plan as a baseline but expect to put out fires Identify possible areas of resistance: Stakeholder assessment Identify what resistance might look like: stakeholder meetings When resistance occurs understand why / root cause at the individual and group level Monitor executives, managers and end users Prepare people that have credibility and respect with those at a high risk for resistance to help mitigate
How to Scale OCM for Large Projects OCM Project Management Office Resources Department #1 Department #2 Department #3 Department #4 Resource Resource Resource Resource
Further Learning Full Day End User Adoption Strategy Workshop Led by Erica Toelle http://ericatoelle.co m/speaking/Richard Harbridge: User Adoption Activities Listing Thank you to my former OCM mentor AmaliaErica Toelle’s Website GoodwinSusan Hanley’s WebsiteProsci: Change Management Research and Training
References1. McKinsey ROI Study Summary2. Why Intranet Governance is Overrated – It’s Really About Change Management3. OCM Overview – Fred Asher