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Pensamiento critico una_destreza_intelectual_pp27

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Pensamiento critico una_destreza_intelectual_pp27

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  6. 6. 9L]PZ[H :LUMLYKPHS[ =VS 5¢ H|V ? 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! XL MHS[H 9LJVUVJLY SHZ SHNUHZ L_PZ[LU[LZ LU SH YLJV NPKH KL KH[VZ ` JVTWSL[HYSHZ SVZ LYYVYLZ TmZ MYLJLU[LZ KLS WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV LTP[PY QPJPVZ IHZHKVZ LU UH PUMVYTHJP}U PUJVTWSL[H;HTIPtU SHZ OHIPSPKHKLZ HU[LYPVYLZ 0 000 =0 =000 ` 0? ` WV[LUJPHSLZ ` HWV`HY SHZ JVUJSZPVULZ LU L]PKLUJPHZ -VYTSHY L_HJ[HTLU[L LS WYVISLTH ZZ ,Z[L LZ LS WYPTLY WHZV KL SH ZVSJP}U KL WYVISLTHZ HS KL[LYTPUHY LS WYVISLTH ` ZZ JHZHZ LZ WVZPISL KL[LYTP WYL]LUPYSVZ YLZVS]LYSVZ V JVU[YVSHYSVZ MVYTSHJP}U L_HJ[H KLS WYVISLTH H`KH H SH WLYZVUH ` H SVZ KLTmZ H L]HSHY Z WLUZHTPLU[V U KPHNU}Z[PJV ` L]P[H LS [YH[HTPLU[V KLS WYVISLTH 7YLKLJPY SVZ WYVISLTHZ HTLU[H LS WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV WYVISLTH ` [YH[HYSVZ ZP VJYYLU ,Z[V LZ LZLUJPHS LU ZHSK L_WLYPLUJPH ?00 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! ,Z[HISLJLY SHZ WYPVYPKH KLZ WVZ[LYPVY TLU[L WLSPNYVZV KL SH ZVSJP}U KLS WYVISLTH H V[YVZ WYVISLTHZ L]P[HYm UH ZVSJP}U YmWPKH ` WVJV ZLNYH SVZ VIQL[P]VZ H JTWSPY ?000 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! +L[LYTPUHY VIQL[P]VZ KL JVUZLNPY LS ZHYPV ` JmUKV KLIL ZLY JHWHa KL OHJLYSV (`KHU LU LZ[H OHIPSPKHK WYLNU[HYZL ¦JmS LZ LS VIQL[P]V KL TP WLUZHTPLU[V ¦*mU[V [PLTWV [LUNV ,Z[V H`KH H JLU[YHY SH PU[LY]LUJP}U 3VZ VIQL[P]VZ KLYP]HU ?0= 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! +L[LYTPUHY PU[LY]LUJPV TVUP[VYPaHY WYL]LUPY JVU[YVSHY V YLZVS]LY SVZ WYVISLTHZ ` SVNYHY SVZ VIQL[P]VZ WYLKLJPY YLZWLZ[HZ H SHZ HJJPVULZ ?= 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! ,]HSHY ` JVYYLNPY ULZ[YV WLUZHTPLU[V )ZJHY LYYVYLZ LU ULZ[YV WLUZHTPLU[V KL[LYTPUHY LS UP]LS KL JVUZLJJP}U KL SHZ OHIPSPKHKLZ KL WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV ` OHJLY SHZ JVYYLJJPVULZ ULJL ZHYPHZ ,S WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV LZ U WLUZHTPLU[V HJ[P]V KLSPIL WLUZHTPLU[V H ]LJLZ LZ LYY}ULV IZJHUKV ULZ[YVZ LYYVYLZ WVKLTVZ JVYYLNPYSVZ WYVU[V ` HTLU[HY SH WYV IHIPSPKHK KL U YHaVUHTPLU[V Z}SPKV ,]HSHY ` JVYYLNPY LS WLUZHTPLU[V LZ U WYVJLZV JVU[P HU[LZ KLZJYP[HZ
  7. 7. 9L]PZ[H :LUMLYKPHS[ =VS 5¢ H|V ,S WLUZHTPLU[V JYP[PJV LU LUMLYTLYxH PTWSPJH JVUVJPTPLU YLZWVUZHIPSPKHK HZTPY SVZ YPLZNVZ KPZJPWSPUH WLYZL]L YHUJPH JYLH[P]PKHK JYPVZPKHK PU[LNYPKHK ` OTPSKHK L_HJ[V YLSL]HU[L WSHZPISL JVUZPZ[LU[L S}NPJV WYVMUKV [P]V ` QZ[V ` LZ[mUKHYLZ WYVMLZPVUHSLZ JYP[LYPVZ t[PJVZ JYP[LYPVZ WHYH SH L]HSHJP}U YLZWVUZHIPSPKHK WYVMLZPVUHS ,Z[VZ JVTWVULU[LZ UVZ WLYTP[LU WHZHY KLS WYPTLY UP]LS KL WLUZHTPLU[V JYP[PJV ImZPJV HS ZLNUKV TmZ JVT ZL YLHSPaH ` WVY LS KLZHYYVSSV KL SH WYVMLZP}U ;VTLTVZ JVTV LQLTWSV SH L[HWH KL ]HSVYHJP}U KL SH ULJLZPKHK KL ZLNYPKHK KL U HKS[V TH`VY LU OLTVKPmSPZPZ ]LmTVZSV KL SH ZPNPLU[L THULYH! ?=0 7YmJ[PJH KL SH /HIPSPKHK! +LZHYYVSSHY U WSHU +L[LYTPUHY SVZ WYVISLTHZ WYPVYP[HYPVZ PKLU ]LUJPVULZ KL[LYTPUHY SVZ WYVNYLZVZ WHYH LS SVNYV KL SVZ JHJP}U YLHSPaHKH 3H KVJTLU[HJP}U JSHYH ` JVTWSL[H WYVWVYJPVUH SHZ IHZLZ KL SH L]HSHJP}U ,QLTWSV KL HWSPJHJP}U KLS WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV 3LNV KL HUHSPaHY SHZ OHIPSPKHKLZ WYVWLZ[HZ WVY (SMH WLYTP[LU H [YH]tZ KLS WYVJLZV KL LUMLYTLYV MVTLU[HY LS KLZHYYVSSV ` HWSPJHJP}U KLS WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV LU SVZ WYVMLZPVUHSLZ KL LUMLYTLYxH LZ[L [PWV KL WLUZHTPLU[V ¸OHJL¹ ZPUV ¸ZHILY OHJLY¹ LZ[V PTWSPJH THULQHY UH ZLYPL KL JVTWL[LUJPHZ WYVMLZPVUHSLZ IHZHKHZ LU Z}SPKVZ JVUVJPTPLU[VZ ¸ZHILY¹ ` [HTIPtU UH HJ[P[K WYVMLZPVUHS LZ[mUKHYLZ WYVMLZPVUHSLZ KL JPKHKV IHZHKV LU SH t[PJH WV[LUJPHSPKHKLZ KL SH WLYZVUH OTHUH LZ KLJPY KLZHYYV SSHY LS ¸ZLY¹ KLS WYVMLZPVUHS ,Z[H YLSHJP}U ZL L]PKLUJPH LU LS ZPNPLU[L KPHNYHTH!
  8. 8. 9L]PZ[H :LUMLYKPHS[ =VS 5¢ H|V Ç ,U JPKHKV KL ZHYPV LU OLTVKPmSPZPZ J`H TV]PSPKHK V KL[LYPVYV ZLUZVYPHS LZ[t PUJYLTLU[HKV Ç ,_WLYPLUJPH WLYZVUHS LU LS JPKHKV KL WLYZVUHZ LUMLYTHZ Ç ,_WLYPLUJPH KL WYVISLTHZ KL ZLNYPKHK HJJPKLU[LZ JHxKHZ KLZJVTWLUZHJP}U LU SH KPmSPZPZ LU[YL V[YVZ ]P]PKHZ JVU V[YVZ ZHYPVZ Ç (WSPJHY LZ[mUKHYLZ PU[LSLJ[HSLZ KL L_HJ[P[K HS ]HSVYHY SVZ YPLZNVZ WHYH SH ZLNYPKHK KLS JSPLU[L ,UMLYTLYxH )HZHKH LU ,]PKLUJPHZ OVQH KL ]HSVYHJP}U JSHYVZ ` JVTWSL[VZ Ç (WSPJHY LZ[mUKHYLZ WHYH SH WYmJ[PJH KL LUMLYTLYxH WVY LQ 7YV[VJVSVZ KL WYL]LUJP}U KL JHxKHZ KL WYL]LUJP}U KL PU MLJJPVULZ PU[YHOVZWP[HSHYPHZ TLKPKHZ KL WYLJHJP}U UP]LY ZHS WYPTLYVZ H_PSPVZ LU[YL V[YVZ Ç 5LJLZPKHKLZ OTHUHZ ImZPJHZ Ç *VUVJLY -HJ[VYLZ KL 9PLZNV ` MHJ[VYLZ WYV[LJ[VYLZ WHYH SH ZLNYPKHK KLS ZHYPV WVY YPLZNVZ MxZPJVZ PUKP]PKHSLZ YPLZNVZ HTIPLU[HSLZ HZVJPHKVZ HS LU[VYUV ZHUP[HYPV KL SH ZHSH KL KPmSPZPZ ULJLZPKHK KL ZLNYPKHK ZLNYPKHK KL JSPLU[L WVY LQLTWSV ZV KL OLWHYPUH SHIPSPKHK OLTVKPUmTPJH LU[YL V[YVZ SVZ YPLZNVZ Ç :LY YLZWVUZHISL YLJVNPLUKV KH[VZ L_HJ[VZ ` UV ZLZNHKVZ ZVIYL SVZ YPLZNVZ WHYH SH ZLNYPKHK KLS ZHYPV Ç 4VZ[YHY KPZJPWSPUH HS YLHSPaHY UH ]HSVYHJP}U TL[PJSVZH KLS LU[VYUV ` KLS ZHYPV =(369(*065 ]HSVYHJP}U KLS WYVJLZV Z[LK WLKL OHJLY LS LQLYJPJPV KL JVTWSL[HY LZ[L [PWV KL WLUZHTPLU[V LU SHZ V[YHZ MHZLZ KLS WYVJLZV LUMLYTLYV ,S KLZHMxV HJ[HS! LS Tt[VKV KL LUZL|HUaH ,S KLZHMxV LZ[m LU[VUJLZ LU SH MVYTHJP}U UP]LYZP[HYPH ` LU LS TVKLSHQL KL SHZ LUMLYTLYHZ KVJLU[LZ JSxUPJHZ LU [HU[V LU LS HSH JVTV LU JSxUPJH WHYH SSLNHY H ZLY WLYZVUHZ 4HNUZZLU 3 L[ HS 7YPJL ( 7YPJL ) 4VYH IHZHKV LU SVZ WYVISLTHZ SH PUKHNHJP}U JVSHIVYH[P]H LS HUmSPZPZ LU WLYZWLJ[P]H LS ZV KL ZPTSHJPVULZ THULQV KL JHZVZ JSxUPJVZ ZV KL WVY[HMVSPVZ KL HWYLUKPaHQL LS KLS WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV LU LUMLYTLYxH TH`VY L_WLYPLUJPH KLILU ZLY TLU[VYHZ ` HJVTWH|HY H SVZ LZ[KPHU[LZ ` LUMLYTLYHZ YLJPtU YLJPIPKHZ H KLZHYYVSSHY LS WLUZHTPLU[V JYP[PJV H [YH]tZ KL SH PUKHNHJP}U JLZ[PVUH TPLU[V YLZVSJP}U KL SVZ WYVISLTHZ JSxUPJVZ 7VY V[YH WHY[L PTWSPJH JVU[HY JVU ZPZ[LTHZ KL L]HSHJP}U KPZ[PU[VZ UV TLTVYxZ[PJVZ JVTV OH ZPKV OHIP[HS ZPUV KL WLUZHTPLU[V ,S WLUZHTPLU[V JYx[PJV WLYTP[L H SH LUMLYTLYH WYVJLZHY ` HUHSPaHY SH PUMVYTHJP}U ZVSJPVUHY WYVISLTHZ JSxUPJVZ ` KLJPKPY ZVIYL HJJPVULZ H [VTHY 6LYTHUU 4 *VUJSZPVULZ ,S LU[VYUV HJ[HS KL SVZ JPKHKVZ KL SH ZHSK JHKH ]La TmZ JVTWSLQVZ OHJL YNLU[L JVU[HY JVU WYVMLZPVUHSLZ JHWHJLZ KL YLZVS]LY WYVISLTHZ JVTWSLQVZ ,Z[V PTWSPJH WLYZVUHZ JVU Z}SPKH MVYTHJP}U WYVMLZPVUHS UP]LYZP[HYPH WLUZHTPLU[V JYP[PJV JYLH[P]V ` TL[HJVNUP[P]V KL [HS UH PTHNLU ZVJPHS KL SH LUMLYTLYxH IHZHKH LU LS JVUVJP TPLU[V L_WLYPLUJPH JVTWL[LUJPHZ WYVMLZPVUHSLZ THULQV KL LZ[mUKHYLZ KL JPKHKVZ ` UH HJ[P[K KL PUKHNHJP}U TPLU[VZ WYVWPVZ KL SH KPZJPWSPUH
  9. 9. 9L]PZ[H :LUMLYKPHS[ =VS 5¢ H|V )PISPVNYHMxH (SMHYV ¶ 3L-]YL 9VZHSPUKH ,S WLUZHTPLU[V *Yx[PJV LU WYPVY L_WLYPLUJL 1VYUHS VM (K]HUJL 5YZPUN H )YVHKILHY 1; 2L`ZLY )) (U HWWYVHJO [V [LHJOPUN MVY /LHS[O 6J[ ! YLM *LSPH 34 .VYKVU 79 ZPUN WYVISLTIHZLK SLHYUPUN UV]PJL UYZLZ 1VYUHS MVY 5YZLZ PU :[HMM +L]LSVWTLU[ 1HU-LI ! *VSS *LZHY 7VaV 1 0 :HYHIPH ) =HSSZ , 3VZ *VU[LUPKVZ KL SH 9LMVYTH! ,UZL|HUaH ` (WYLUKPaHQL KL *VUJLW[VZ 7YVJLKPTPLU[VZ ` (J[P[KLZ (SH ??0 ,KP[VYPHS :HU[PSSHUH +L )VUV ,K^HYK (WYLUKLY H 7LUZHY WVY [P 4PZTV ,KP[VYPHS 7HPKVZ .YVZ : )LNV|H ;LVYxHZ JVNUP[P]HZ KL LUZL|HUaH ` HWYLUKPaHQL ,KP[VYPHS ,) )HYJLSVUH .LYYLYV )LY[OH ,S 7LUZHTPLU[V *Yx[PJV JVTV OHIPSPKHK NTJ*6.O[T .LYYLYV )LY[OH ,S 7LUZHTPLU[V *Yx[PJV JVTV /HIPSPKHK *VNUP[P]H 9L]PZ[H (JHKLTPH HIYPS *VUZPKLYH[PVU VM PUKP]PKHS KPMMLYLUJLZ ZPUN [OL 4`LYZ )YPNNZ ;`WL 0UKPJH[VY 1VYUHS VM 7Z`JOVSVNPJHS ;`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` :TTLY ! 1VYUHS VM 5YZPUN ,KJH[PVU 5V] ! 5YZPUN ,KJH[PVU LULYV ]VS 5‡ WW H ^P[O HJ[P]L SLHYUPUN Z[YH[LNPLZ 5YZL ,KJH[VY 1HU -LI !

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