Present Simple v. Present Continuous
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Present Simple v. Present Continuous

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This is a grammar review for EFL/ESL students

This is a grammar review for EFL/ESL students

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Transcript

  • 1. The Present tenses Simple Present and Present Continuous
  • 2. Simple Present
    • We form affirmative statements with a subject and a verb or a verb + -s or –es
          • I like tennis Mary likes tennis
    We use the auxiliary verbs do/does to form negative statements, questions and short answers We don’t like football John doesn’t like baseball Why do you like tennis? Do you like squash? Does John like baseball? What does the referee do? Yes, we do No, he doesn’t
  • 3. Uses of the present simple
    • To describe repeated actions or habits
        • I get up at seven every morning
    • To talk about things that are always or generally true
        • The sun sets in the west
    • To describe a permanent situation or a condition with no definite start or finish but which is true now
        • We live in London
    • With adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, …
        • She often studies in the library
    • With time expressions such as every day/ week/ year, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening and at night
        • I go to the gym once a week
    • To express future meaning with actions and events that are part of a fixed timetable
        • The train leaves at 8’30
    • To describe a scene in the past in a vivid way
        • Then he comes and says …
  • 4. Verb endings
    • Present Simple
    • We add –s to most verbs: walks, gets, …
    • We add –es to verbs that end in sh, ch, ss or o: finishes, goes, catches , …
    • If a verb ends in a consonant +y, we change the y to i and add –es: tries, studies, …
    • If a verb ends in a vowel +y, we add –s: pays, plays, …
  • 5. Present Continuous
    • We form the Present Continuous tense with the present tense of be + a verb + -ing
          • They are playing baseball
          • They aren’t succeeding
          • Who is winning?
          • Why is that player running now?
  • 6. Uses of the Present Continuous
    • To talk about something which is in progress at the moment of speaking
        • It is raining now
    • To talk about something which is in progress around the present, but not exactly at the time of speaking
        • Peter is looking for a job these days
    • To talk about situations which are developing or temporary
        • Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives
    • With adverbs such as always or constantly to express complaints and annoyance
        • He is always calling me late at night
    • With time expressions such as now, at the moment, at present, these days, nowadays and today
        • I’m writing an e-mail right now
    • To talk about future arrangements or plans
        • I’m meeting Peter tomorrow
  • 7. Verb endings
    • Present Continuous
    • For most verbs, we add –ing: starting, playing, studying, …
    • If the verb ends in a consonant +e, we drop –e and add –ing: living, deciding, …
    • If the verb has one syllable and ends in a single vowel + a consonant, we double the consonant and add –ing: stopping, planning, …
    • Exceptions:
    • If the verb ends in w or x, we don’t double the final consonant: fixing, showing, …
    • If the verb has 2 syllables, ends in a vowel + a consonant and the stress on the last syllable, it doubles the final consonant: preferring, beginning
    • If the verb has 2 syllables and ends in –l, it doubles the l: travelling
    • If the verb ends in –ie, it changes –ie to –y and adds –ing: tying, dying
  • 8. Stative and action verbs
    • Stative verbs
    • They describe a state. Something that is and stays the same
        • He seems very tired
    • There are different types:
    • Verbs of senses: feel, see, sound, hear, smell, taste
    • Verbs of mental states: believe, realise, remember, know, …
    • Verbs of possession: belong, have, own, possess
    • Verbs of feeling or emotion: like, hate, adore, love, wish, …
    • Verbs of measurement: weigh, contain, cost, measure
    • Other verbs that express states: be, exist, seem, owe, require
  • 9. Stative and action verbs
    • Action verbs
    • An action verb describes an action, something that happens
        • I’m reading
    • Action verbs can be in the continuous form
        • I read a book every week
        • This week, I’m reading Moby Dick
  • 10. Stative and action verbs
    • Change of meaning
    • Some verbs change their meaning depending if we use them in the progressive or non-progressive form
      • Think
      • He thinks it is a good idea
      • He is thinking about eating a biscuit
      • Have
      • She has (got) a mobile phone
      • She’s having a great time
      • She’s having breakfast
    • Verbs of seeing and hearing
    • Action verbs: watch, look at, listen to
    • Non-action verbs: see, hear
  • 11. Thanks to Grammar in view, MacGraw Hill Ana Sancho October 2007