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Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 37
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Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)
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Migration amnesty international(1)

  1. 1. Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚ «ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s ≠wØq´UÂ¥KIv¬ô·«_®ªU’•∑HNr√£MU¡±∫UË∞∑Nr«∞uÅu‰≈∞vœË‰ √îdÈ.Ë¥u«§t«∞Fb¥b±s√Ë∞µp«∞c¥s¥BKuÊ≈∞vœË∞W§b¥b…±e¥b«Î±s «ô≤∑NUØU‹Ë«ôß∑Gö‰´Kv√¥bÍ«∞LNd°OsË√Å∫U»«∞FLq«∞Lπdœ¥s±s «∞CLOdË«∞Lu™HOs«∞dßLOOs.˨U∞∂UαU¥Ô∫d«∞c¥s¥H∑IdËÊ≈∞vË{l ¸ßLwË•LU¥W«∞IU≤uʱs•o«∞∑FKOrË«∞B∫WË«∞ºJsË¥ÔJ∑V´KONr«∞FOg Ë«∞FLq≠w√Ë{UŸ≠EOFW˱NOMW.Ë•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s≥w•Iu‚≈≤ºU≤OW, Ë¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞∫Ju±U‹Ë«∞Lπ∑LFU‹Ë√Å∫U»«∞FLqË«_≠d«œ√Ê¥∂c∞u«±e¥b«Î ±s«∞πNuœ∞K∑Lºp°NcÁ«∞∫Iu‚Ë•LU¥∑NU. Ë¥∑CLs≥c««∞Lbîq≈∞v•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ∞L∫W´U±W´s•Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¥u§e«∞JOHOW«∞∑w¥M∂Gw≠ONU√Ê¢∫Lw«∞ºOUßU‹Ë«∞LLU¸ßU‹ «∞∫Ju±OW«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s≠w§LOl±d«•qœË¸…«∞Nπd…. Ë¥ºKj«∞Cu¡´Kv°Fi«≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞∑w¥∑Fd÷∞NU±NU§dËÊ Ø∏OdËÊ,Ë¥∫bœ√§Mb…∞KIOU°∫Lö‹±s√§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s. Ë≥MU„±πLu´WØ∂Od…±s´MUÅd«∞IU≤uÊË«∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚ «ù≤ºUÊ«∞∑w¢JHq•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s.∞Js«∞LAJKW¢JLs≠w«≠∑IU¸ «∞∫Ju±U‹Ëßu«≥U≈∞v«ù¸«œ…∞∑d§LW≥cÁ«∞CLU≤U‹≈∞v¢b«°Od´LKOW Ë•IOIOW.Ë≥MU„•U§Wô¢ªU–≈§d«¡«‹∞∑∫u¥q«∞∫Iu‚«∞u«¸œ…≠w«∞LFU¥Od «∞bË∞OW≈∞v•IOIWË«ÆFW°U∞Mº∂W∞KLNU§d¥s«_≠d«œ. Ë«∞b´u…≈∞v±FU±KW§LOl«∞LNU§d¥s±FU±KW¢∫∑d•IuÆNrËØd«±∑Nr «ù≤ºU≤OW°AJqØU±q≥w≠wÅLOr«_§Mb…«∞LI∑d•W∞bȱMELW«∞FHu «∞bË∞OW∞KIOU°∫Lö‹±s√§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s. «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW «∞FO‡g≠‡w «∞E‡‡‡q ±MELW «∞FHu«∞bË∞OW www.amnesty.org/arabic ±MELW «∞FHu«∞bË∞OW Living in the Shadows: A primer on the human rights of migrants/Arabic AI Index: POL 33/007/2006 Migrants-cov-ar 15/1/07 9:08 pm Page 1
  2. 2. Åu¸…«∞Gö·:¸§U‰¥Ku•uÊ°Q¥b¥Nr±uœ´Os“˧U¢Nr Ë´Uzö¢Nr≠w±∫DWØu∞OU»∞KIDU¸«‹,°DU§OJº∑UÊ, 4002.Ë¥GUœ¸«∞Fb¥b±s«∞A∂UʸËßOU°∫∏Uδs´Lq, ˨U∞∂UαU¥MU±uÊ≠w«∞Fd«¡©u«‰√®Nd,Ë¥FLKuÊ Ë¥bîdËÊ«∞MIuœ«∞∑w¥FuœËÊ°NU≈∞v´Uzö¢Nr. ©sonaP/nosniboRneraK ±D∂u´U‹±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW «∞D∂FW«_Ë∞v6002 ±D∂u´U‹±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW lanoitanretnIytsenmA tairaterceSlanoitanretnI esuoHnosneneBreteP teertSnotsaE1 WD0X1CWnodnoL modgniKdetinU cibara/gro.ytsenma.www//:ptth ©•Iu‚«∞D∂l±∫Hu™W∞LMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW6002 «∞∑dÆOr«∞bË∞w:X-224-01268-0 ¸Ær«∞u£OIW:6002/700/33LOP «∞KGW«_ÅKOW:«ù≤πKOe¥W §LOl«∞∫Iu‚±∫Hu™W.•Iu‚«∞D∂l±∫Hu™W∞NcÁ «∞LD∂u´W,Ë¥πu“≈´Uœ…≤Ad≥U°QÍ√ßKu»ØUÊ˱sœËÊ œ≠l¸ßuÂ_¨d«÷œ´u¥WË≤CU∞OWË¢FKOLOW,Ë∞Jsô ¥πu“≈´Uœ…°OFNU.Ë¥DKV√Å∫U»•Iu‚«∞D∂l¢ºπOq §LOl√®JU‰«ß∑ªb«±NU∞b¥Nr∞GU¥U‹¢IOOr¢Q£Od≥U.√±U _¨d«÷≤ºªNU≠w™dË·√îdÈ√Ë≈´Uœ…«ß∑ªb«±NU ≠w±D∂u´U‹√îdÈ√Ë¢d§L∑NU√Ë¢JOOHNU,≠S≤t¥M∂Gw «∞∫Bu‰´Kv≈–ʱº∂o±s«∞MU®d,˸°LU¥ÔDKVœ≠l ¸ßu±IU°q–∞p. ±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW•dØW´U∞LOW_®ªU’¥MU{Kuʱs√§q«•∑d«Â Ë•LU¥W•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞LF∑d·°NUœË∞OUÎ. Ë¢∑L∏q¸ƒ¥W±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW≠wîKo´U∞r¥∑L∑l≠OtØq®ªh °πLOl•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞LJdßW≠w«ù´öÊ«∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ Ë¨OdÁ±s«∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. ËßFOUÎ∞∑∫IOo≥cÁ«∞dƒ¥W,¢∑L∏q¸ßU∞W«∞LMELW≠w≈§d«¡√°∫UÀ Ë«∞IOU°∑∫dØU‹¢∑L∫u¸•u‰±MlËÆuŸ«ô≤∑NUØU‹«∞ªDOd…∞K∫o≠w «∞ºö±W«∞πºb¥WË«∞FIKOWË≠w•d¥W«∞CLOdË«∞∑F∂OdË≠w´b «∞∑Fd÷∞K∑LOOe≠w≈©U¸´LKNU∞∑Fe¥e§LOl•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ,ËË{l •b∞∑Kp«ô≤∑NUØU‹. ˱MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW±º∑IKW´s§LOl«∞∫Ju±U‹Ë«∞FIUzb «∞ºOUßOWË«∞LBU∞`«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«∞LF∑Ib«‹«∞b¥MOW.Ë≥wô¢R¥bËô ¢FU¸÷√Í•Ju±W√Ë≤EUÂßOUßw,ØLU√≤NUô¢R¥bËô¢FU¸÷¬¸«¡ √Ë∞µp«∞c¥s¢ºFv«∞LMELW≈∞v•LU¥∑Nr.≠Nwô¢ÔFMv≈ô°∫LU¥W•Iu‚ «ù≤ºUÊ°Bu¸…±∫U¥b…. ˱MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW•dØWœ¥LId«©OW±º∑IKW¢Cr±U¥d°u´Kv 8.1±KOuÊ´CuË≤BOd≠w√Ø∏d±s051°Kb«ÎË≈ÆKOLUÎ≠w§LOl√≤∫U¡ «∞FU∞r.Ë¢F∑Lb≠w¢Lu¥KNU´Kv«®∑d«ØU‹√´CUzNUË¢∂d´U‹√≤BU¸≥U ≠w®∑v√¸§U¡«∞FU∞r. Migrants-cov-ar 15/1/07 9:08 pm Page 3
  3. 3. ÆUzLW«∞L∫∑u¥U‹ «∞LIb±W3 •LKW±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW±s√§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s5 «∞∑FU¸¥n8 ±s≥u«∞LNU§d?8 ±s≥u«∞FU±q«∞LNU§d?8 ±s≥u«∞LNU§d¨Od«∞MEU±w?8 ≥q«∞ö§T√Ë©U∞V«∞Kπu¡±NU§d?9 ±U≥w«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s?9 «∞HBq«_ˉ:¥∑Fd{uÊ∞K∑πU≥qË«∞∑NLOgË«ô≤∑NUØU‹11 «∞∑LOOeË«∞FMBd¥WËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V11 «ôß∑Gö‰21 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq41 «∞LπLu´U‹«∞LFd{W°Ab…ô≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ51 «∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs61 ò«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞MU§uÊå61 ò«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞cÍ¢IDFX°Nr«∞º∂qå,°Ls≠ONr©U∞∂u«∞Kπu¡ «∞c¥s¸Ô≠CX©K∂U¢Nr71 «∞MºU¡81 «_©HU‰91 «∞LNU§dËÊ´b¥Lu«∞πMºOW02 «∞HBq«∞∏U≤w:≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…12 ßOUœ…«∞bË∞WË•bËœ≥U12 ßOUßU‹ò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…å22 ò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…åË•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ52 «∞HBq«∞∏U∞Y:•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s°Lu§V«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w72 ±∂b√´b«∞∑LOOe82 «∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW«_îdÈ∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ03 «∞HBq«∞d«°l:ØOn¢ÔM∑Np•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s43 Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 1
  4. 4. ±d«Æ∂Wœîu‰«∞LNU§d¥sË´uœ¢Nr43 •o«∞LGUœ¸…Ë«∞Fuœ…≈∞v«∞u©s«_Â43 «∞∫o≠w•d¥W«∞∫dØW˱JUÊ«ùÆU±W83 «∞∫o≠w«∞∫OU…Ë«∞ºö±W«∞πºb¥WË«∞FIKOW83 «´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq93 «∞∫o≠w«∞∫OU…«∞ªUÅWË«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W04 «ô´∑IU‰14 «∞∑d•OqË«∞Ddœ24 «∞Ddœ«∞πLU´w44 «∞∑Nd¥V44 «ô¢πU¸64 «∞b´U¸…«∞Iºd¥W74 «∞ºªd…94 «ô≤∑NUØU‹«∞Ld¢J∂W≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤e¥XË«∞u§NW«∞MNUzOW05 «ô≠∑IU¸≈∞v«∞Fb«∞W«ù§d«zOW05 «∞LBUœ¸…«∞∑FºHOW∞Ku£Uzo15 «∞∫d±Uʱs«∞∫Bu‰«∞L∑JU≠T´Kv«∞∑FKOr25 «≤Fb«Â«∞ºJs«∞JU≠w35 ´b«∞∑L∑l°Lº∑uȱFOAWØU·Ë«∞∫Bu‰´Kv«∞d´U¥W«∞B∫OW45 «≤∑NUØU‹«∞∫o≠w«∞FLqË«∞∫Iu‚√£MU¡«∞FLq65 ´LU∞W«∞b¥sË«∞d‚95 «∞∫d±Uʱs•d¥W¢Q∞On«∞πLFOU‹06 «∞IOuœ¨Od«∞Cd˸¥W«∞LHdË{W´Kv•d¥W«∞∑F∂Od06 «∞∫d±Uʱs«∞∫o≠w•d¥W«∞b¥s16 «≤∑NUØU‹«∞∫o≠w«∞∫OU…«∞FUzKOW√ËË•b…«∞FUzKW26 «∞HBq«∞ªU±f:ØOn¥LJMMU•LU¥W•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s46 «∞LπUô‹«∞dzOºOW«∞∏LU≤OW–«‹«_Ë∞u¥W∞bȱMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW56 1.«∞∑dØOe´Kv√Ë∞µp«_Ø∏d´d{W∞KªDd56 2.«∞b´u…≈∞v«∞∑Bb¥o´Kv«∞BJu„«_ßUßOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ Ë•Iu‚«∞FLqË¢MHOc≥U66 3.«∞LDU∞∂W°b¸§W√Ø∂d±s«∞LºU¡∞W96 4.«∞LDU∞∂W°ºOUßU‹∞KNπd…¢∫Lw•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ87 5.«∞b´u…∞Le¥b±s«_°∫UÀË∞∂OU≤U‹√≠Cq97 6.≈œ¸«Ã±u{uŸ«∞LNU§d¥s≠wÅKV«∞LMU™d«‹•u‰«∞Nπd…08 7.•LU¥W«∞Lb«≠FOs´s•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ28 8.“¥Uœ…Ë´w«∞d√Í«∞FU°∫Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥sË≈ßNU±U¢Nr≠w«∞Lπ∑Ll38 ≥u«±g58 Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 2
  5. 5. ±ºdœ RPHCA«∞LO∏U‚«_≠d¥Iw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊË«∞AFu» RHCA«ô¢HUÆOW«_±d¥JOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ IA±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW CEPA«∞∑FUËÊ«ôÆ∑BUœÍ≠w±MDIW¬ßOUË«∞L∫Oj«∞NUœ∆ NAESA¸«°DWœË‰§Mu»®d‚¬ßOU TAC«¢HUÆOW±MU≥CW«∞∑Fc¥V˨OdÁ±s{dË»«∞LFU±KW√Ë«∞FIu°W«∞IUßOW√Ë «∞ö≈≤ºU≤OW√Ë«∞LNOMW(4891) WADEC«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…(9791) CRC«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq(9891) RHCE«ô¢HUÆOW«_˸˰OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ SAWOCE«∞LπLu´W«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W∞bˉ¨d»√≠d¥IOU UE«ô¢∫Uœ«_˸˰w MICG«∞KπMW«∞FU∞LOW∞KNπd…«∞bË∞OW RPCCI«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW(6691) DRECI«ô¢HUÆOW«∞bË∞OW∞KICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ(5691) RCSECI«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW(6691) OLI±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW MOI«∞LMELW«∞bË∞OW∞KNπd… RUSOCREM«∞ºu‚«∞LA∑dØW∞KILl«∞πMu°w_±d¥JU«∞πMu°OW «¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s«ô¢HUÆOW«∞bË∞OW∞∫LU¥W•Iu‚§LOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s Ë√≠d«œ√ßd≥r(0991) ECSO±MELW«_±sË«∞∑FUËÊ≠w√˸˰U ssecorPalbeuP«∞LR¢Ld«ùÆKOLw_±d¥JU«∞ALU∞OWË«∞ußDv«∞ªU’°U∞Nπd… «¢HUÆOW«∞ö§µOs(1591)«ô¢HUÆOW«∞ªUÅW°u{l«∞ö§µOs(1591) °dË¢uØu‰«∞FUÂ7691«∞∂dË¢uØu‰«∞ªU’°u{l«∞ö§µOs(7691) CDAS±πLu´W¢MLOW√≠d¥IOU«∞πMu°OW CRAAS¸«°DW§Mu»¬ßOU∞K∑FUËÊ«ùÆKOLw °dË¢uØu‰«∞∑Nd¥V°dË¢uØu‰«_±r«∞L∑∫b…∞LMU≥CW¢Nd¥V«∞LNU§d¥s°d«ÎË°∫d«Î˧u«Î(0002) «¢HUÆOW«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW(4591)«¢HUÆOW°AQÊË{l«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW(4591) «¢HUÆOW«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW(1691)«¢HUÆOW°AQÊîHi•Uô‹«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW(1691) °dË¢uØu‰«ô¢πU¸°dË¢uØu‰±Ml«ô¢πU¸°U_®ªU’Ë°ªUÅW«∞MºU¡ Ë«_©HU‰Ë±∫U¸°∑tË«∞LFUÆ∂W´KOt(0002) RHDU«ù´öÊ«∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ(8491) OCSENU±MELW«_±r«∞L∑∫b…∞K∑FKOrË«∞∏IU≠WË«∞FKuÂ. RCHNU«∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…∞ARËÊ«∞ö§µOs FECINUÅMbË‚«∞DHu∞W«∞∑U°l∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b… DAGW±πLu´W«∞FLq«∞∑U°FW∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…«∞LFMOW°Uô´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHw Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 1
  6. 6. 2«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 2
  7. 7. ±Ib±W ©u«‰¢U¸¥a«∞∂Ad¥W,ØU≤X«∞Nπd…˱U“«∞X±s•IUzo«∞∫OU….Ë¢∑MuŸ«_ß∂U»«∞∑w ¢RœÍ≈∞v«∞Nπd…˨U∞∂UαU¢∑ºr°U∞∑FIOb.Ë¥M∑Iq°Fi«∞MU”≈∞vœË‰§b¥b…∞∑∫ºOs Ë{FNr«ôÆ∑BUœÍ√Ë∞L∑U°FW¢FKOLNr.Ë¥GUœ¸¬îdËÊ°öœ≥r≥d°Uαs«≤∑NU„•IuÆNr «ù≤ºU≤OW,±∏q«∞∑Fc¥V√Ë«ô{DNUœ√Ë«∞M‡e«Ÿ«∞LºK`√Ë«∞HId«∞LbÆl.Ë¥d•qØ∏OdËÊ ∞Le¥Z±s«_ß∂U». Ëô¢MDuÍ«∞Nπd…œ«zLUδKv«ô≤∑IU‰±s°Kb≈∞v¬îd.ØLU√≤N‡U¢∫‡bÀ{Ls •‡bËœ«∞bË∞W,±∏öδMb±U¥NU§d«∞MU”±s«_¸¥U·≈∞v«∞LbÊ°∫∏Uδs´L‡q√Ë ±º∑I∂q√≠Cq.1 Â.«±d√…®U°W¢b¸”≈œ«¸…«_´LU‰≠w≤OπOd¥U,¢∫b£X≈∞ONU±πLu´W±s«_®ªU’Ë√ÆMF∑NU °U∞ºHd≈∞v√ß∂U≤OU.ËËÔ´b‹°u™OHW§Ob…¢ºL`∞NU°S¸ßU‰≤Iuœ≈∞v´UzK∑NU.Ë´IV¸•KWÅF∂W œ«±X•u«∞wß∑W√®NdßU≠d‹≠ONU´Kv±∑s®U•MW√˱AOUδKv«_Æb«Â,ËÅKX≈∞v√ß∂U≤OU ±l•u«∞w84®ªBUάîd.Ë´∂d‹«∞LCOo´Kv±∑s“˸‚ÅGOd,≠w¸•KWÆU∞X∞LMELW«∞FHu «∞bË∞OW≈≤NU∞s¢MºU≥U√°b«Î.Ë´Mb±UËÅKX≈∞v±b¸¥b,ØUÊ«_®ªU’«∞c¥sË´bË≥U°U∞FLq≠w «≤∑EU¸≥U.Ë√°KGu≥U√≤NU¥πV√Ê¢FLqØGU≤OW±s√§q¢ºb¥b«∞b¥s«∞∂U∞m000,05¥u¸Ë«∞cÍ √Ô≤Ho´Kv«∞d•KWË√≤NU∞s¢∫Bq´Kv•d¥∑NU≈∞v√Ê¢ºbœ–∞p«∞L∂Km.ËßQ∞XÂ.´LU≈–«ØUÊ °S±JU≤NU¢ºb¥bœ¥MNU´s©d¥o«∞FLq≠w√¥WË™OHW√îdÈ,∞JMNr¸≠Cu«–∞pË•∂ºu≥U∞Lb… £ö£W√®Nd°bËÊ√Ê¢dÈ√•b≈∞v√ÊË«≠IX. √ß∂U≤OU:«∞∫bËœ«∞πMu°OW-«∞bË∞W¢b¥d™Nd≥U∞K∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞ö§µOs Ë«∞LNU§d¥s(¸Ær«∞u£OIW:5002/800/14RUE). 3 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 3
  8. 8. ˨U∞∂UαU¥∑r¢Bu¥d«∞Nπd…´Kv√≤NU™U≥d…•b¥∏W.Ë≠w«∞∫IOIW¢MI]q «∞MU”œ«zLUΕu‰«∞FU∞r.≠∂Os«∞FU±Os5181Ë4191≥U§d“≥U¡06±KOuÊ≤ºLW ±FELNr±s√˸˰U≈∞v«_±d¥J∑OsËÆU¸…√ËÆOU≤OU˧Mu»√≠d¥IOUË®dÆNU. Ë≥U§d01±ö¥Os®ªh¬îd±s¸ËßOU≈∞vßO∂Od¥UˬßOU«∞ußDv.Ë«≤∑Iq •u«∞w21±KOuÊÅOMwË6±ö¥Os¥U°U≤w≈∞v®d‚¬ßOU˧Mu°NUË≥U§d5,1 ±KOuÊ®ªh±s«∞NMb≈∞v§Mu»®d‚¬ßOU˧Mu»√≠d¥IOUË®dÆNU.2ËØUÊ ´bœßJUÊ«∞FU∞r≠w«∞H∑d…–«¢NU¥ÔIb]¸°LU¥∑d«ËÕ°Os089±KOuÊ≤ºLWË057,1 ±KOuÊ≤ºLW.3 Ë«∞OuÂ≠SÊ´bœ«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∑MIKuÊ´∂d«∞∫bËœ«∞bË∞OW{µOq§b«ÎÆOUßUÎ °Fbœ«∞c¥s¥d«Ë•uʱJU≤Nr.4Ë¥FOgÆd«°W002±KOuÊ5≤ºLW±s√ÅqßJUÊ«∞FU∞r «∞∂U∞m´bœ≥r4,6±KOU¸≤ºLW6îU¸Ã«∞∂Kb«∞cÍË∞bË«≠Ot.7√Í®ªhË«•b±sØq53 √˱U¥Id»±s3°U∞LUzW±sßJUÊ«∞FU∞r. ¥FOg09±KOuÊ´U±q±NU§dîU¸Ã°Kb«≤Nr«_ ˱l–∞p,¢eœ«œ«∞Nπd…Ë¢B∂`√Ø∏d°dË“«Î.ËË≠IUÎ∞LMELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW,¥FOg •u«∞w09±KOuÊ´U±q±NU§dË¥FLKuÊîU¸Ã°Kb≥r«_Â.Ë¢AJq«∞MºU¡«üÊÆd«°W ≤Bn«∞ºJUÊ«∞LNU§d¥s,•OY¥FLKs°Bu¸…¸zOºOW≠wÆDUŸ«∞ªb±U‹ËØFLU∞W ±∑b≤OW«∞LNU¸«‹;Ë≠w°Fi«∞LMU©o¢d¢Hl≥cÁ«∞Mº∂W√Ø∏d. Ë¢∫bÀ«∞Nπd…°OsØq±MU©o«∞FU∞rËœ«îqØq±MDIW±MNU.Ë°OMLU¢r≈¥ö¡ Æb¸Ø∂Od±s«ô≥∑LU°∫dØW«_®ªU’±s«∞FU∞r«∞MU±w≈∞v«∞FU∞r«∞L∑Du¸,≈ô√≤t ±s«∞LNr√¥CUΫùÆd«¸°U_´b«œ«∞J∂Od…±s«∞MU”«∞c¥s¥M∑IKuÊ°OsœË‰≤Bn «∞Jd…«∞πMu°w.8 Ë¥LJs√Ê¢JuÊ«∞Nπd…ƺd¥W√Ë¢Du´OW.ËÆb¢MAQ´s«∞∫U§W∞KHd«¸±s Ë{l±∫Hu·°U∞LªU©d√Ë´sË´b°∫OU…√≠Cq≠w±JUʬîd.Ë¢ALq«∞Fu«±q «∞∑w¢b≠l«∞MU”≈∞v±GUœ¸…œ¥U¸≥r«≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊË«∞HIdË«≤Fb«Â«_±s «∞∂AdÍ˨OU»«∞∑MLOW«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË≠d’«∞FLqË´b«∞LºUË«…œ«îq«∞bˉ√Ë ≠OLU°OMNUË«∞MLu«∞ºJU≤wË¢b≥u¸«∞∂OµWË«∞Ju«¸À«∞D∂OFOW.Ë¢ALq«∞Fu«±q«∞∑w ¢πc»«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞vœË‰§b¥b…≤Ih«∞Ob«∞FU±KWË¢d«§l´bœ«∞ºJUÊ,±LU ¥∫Lq≠w©OU¢t°AdÈ«∞FLqË•OU…√≠Cq,˱u«Åö‹Ë√≤ELW≤Iq√ßdŸË√¸îh Ë≠w°Fi«∞∫Uô‹√Ø∏d√±U≤UÎ;Ë˧uœ®∂JU‹«∞Nπd…«∞∫U∞OWË√°MU¡«∞A∑U‹; 4«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 4
  9. 9. Ë≈±JU≤OW≈¸ßU‰≤Iuœ≈∞v«∞∂Kb«_Âù´U∞W«∞FUzKW«∞L∂U®d…Ë«∞LL∑b…. Ë≠w≈©U¸«Æ∑BUœ«∞Fu∞LW,•b£X“¥Uœ…≠w«∞∑πU¸…°Os«_±rË≠w•dØW¸√” «∞LU‰´∂d«∞∫bËœ.Ë¥FMw¢Ib«∞∑IU≤W«≤t√Å∂`±s«_ßNq´Kv«∞Fb¥b±s«∞MU” ±GUœ¸…°Kb≥r.°Ob√Ê«∞IOuœ«∞LHdË{W´Kv•dØW«_®ªU’Ë√≤ELW«∞Nπd…Æb ®Nb‹“¥Uœ….Ë°U‹±s«∞BFV´Kv«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s«∞bîu‰≈∞v«∞bˉ«∞∑w ¥IBbË≤NU.≥c«¥FMw√ʱe¥b«Î±s«∞LNU§d¥s¢∑IDl°Nr«∞º∂q≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤e¥X «∞∑wÆBbË«√ÅöΫ∞ºHd´∂d≥U.Ë¥∑J∂bØ∏Od±s√Ë∞µp«∞c¥s«ß∑DU´u««∞uÅu‰ ≈∞v«∞bˉ«∞∑w¥IBbË≤NU≤HIU‹®ªBOW˱U∞OW±d¢HFW.Ë¥FLq´bœØ∂Od±MNr ≠w«∞IDUŸ¨Od«∞dßLw±s«ôÆ∑BUœ•OY¥FLKuʱIU°q√§d±∑bÊ̱lœ¸§Wô ¢ÔcØd±s«∞∫LU¥W∞∫IuÆNr«ù≤ºU≤OWË•IuÆNrØFLU‰.Ë¥B`–∞p°AJqîU’ ´Kv√Ë∞µp«∞c¥s¥LKJuʱNU¸«‹ÆKOKW.Ë«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞c¥s¥FOAuÊË¥FLKuÊ≠w Ë{l¨Od≤EU±w-Ë≥r√®ªU’ô¥∫LKuÊ√–≤UÎÆU≤u≤OUÎ∞Kbîu‰≈∞v«∞∂Kb√Ë«∞∂IU¡ ≠Ot-¨U∞∂UαU¥∑Fd{uÊ°Ab…ô≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. Ë¥Ôö•k±Kn•IUzo√´b¢t±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW√Ê«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥sòô ¥∂∫∏uÊ°∂ºU©W´s´Lq√≠Cq.°q¥∂∫∏uÊ´s√Í´Lq¥b≠FNr≈∞v–∞p«∞HIdË´b «∞AFu¸°U_±UÊå.9Ë¥Eq«∞HIdË«≤Fb«Â«_±s-°LU≠w–∞p«_±s«∞Gc«zw-Ë«ù§∫U· «∞BU¸Œœ«îq«∞bˉË≠OLU°OMNU«_ß∂U»«∞dzOºOW«∞∑w¢b≠l√®ªUÅUδb¥b¥sô¢ªU– Æd«¸«∞AdËŸ≠w¸•ö‹«∞Nπd…«∞L∫Hu≠W°U∞LªU©d. Ë¢u•w«_ß∂U»«∞LFIb…Ë«∞L∑Mu´W«∞∑w¢JLsîKn«∞Nπd…°QÊ√≠Cq©d¥IW¸°LU ∞KMEd≈∞ONU≥w«´∑∂U¸≥UßKºKW±∑u«ÅKW¢∑d«ËÕ°Os«∞∫d«„«∞IºdÍË«∞∑Du´w.Ë°Os ≥c¥s«∞MIOCOs,≥MU„œ¸§U‹±∑HUË¢W±s•d¥W«ôî∑OU¸√Ë«ùØd«Á≠w«∞Id«¸«‹«∞∑w ¥∑ªc≥U«∞LNU§dËÊ∞ö≤∑IU‰≈∞v°Kb¬îd. •LKW±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW±s √§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s ¥ºU˸±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW«∞IKo´Kv«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¢MEd «∞LMELW≈∞vòœË¸…•OU…å«∞Nπd…:Æd«¸±GUœ¸…«∞∂Kb«_Â;˸•KW«∞Nπd…;°LU≠ONU «∞uÆX«∞cÍ¥∑rÆCUƒÁ≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤‡e¥X;Ë«∞uÅu‰≈∞v«∞bË∞W«∞LIBuœ…Ë«∞LJuÀ ≠ONU;Ë«∞Fuœ…«∞L∫∑LKW≈∞v°Kb«∞LMAQ.Ë©u«‰œË¸…«∞∫OU…≥cÁ,¢dØe±MELW«∞FHu «∞bË∞OW´Kv«_Ë{UŸ«∞∑w¥JuÊ«∞LNU§dËÊîö∞NU´d{W∞ö≤∑NUØU‹≈∞v√ÆBv •b,Ë´Kv√Ë∞µp«_≠d«œ√Ë«∞πLU´U‹«_Ø∏d´d{W∞KªDd-°Ls≠ONr«∞LNU§dËÊ 5 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 5
  10. 10. ¨Od«∞MEU±OOsË«∞LNU§dËÊ«_©HU‰Ë«∞LNU§d«‹±s«∞MºU¡. Ë¢∫∑Hq±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW°SßNU±U‹«∞LNU§d¥s≠w±π∑LFU¢Nr«∞πb¥b…,´Kv ÅFOb«∞LNU¸«‹Ë«∞Lu«¸œË«∞∑MuŸ.Ë¢Id°U∞Le«¥U«∞∑w¢πK∂NU«∞Nπd…≈∞v«∞bˉ«_Â,∞Of ´KvÅFOb«∞∑∫u¥ö‹«∞LU∞OWË•ºV,°q√¥CUΫ∞LNU¸«‹Ë«∞LFU¸·«∞πb¥b…√Ë«_≠Cq ∞bÈ«∞FUzb¥s≈∞v√Ë©U≤Nr. Ë¥MEd≥c««∞Lbîq≈∞v•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s≠w±ºRË∞OU‹ËË«§∂U‹«∞∫Ju±U‹ Ëßu«≥U±s«∞πNU‹«∞HU´KW°U∞Mº∂W∞KNπd….Ë¥dØe´Kv«∞JOHOW«∞∑w¥πV√Ê¢∫Lw °NU«∞ºOUßU‹Ë«∞LLU¸ßU‹«∞∫Ju±OW«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë≈–« ≤Ed≤U≈∞v√Ë{UŸ«∞LNU§d¥s≠w´U∞r«∞OuÂ,≠Ls«∞u«{`√Ê•Ju±U‹´b¥b… ¢∑IU´f´s√œ«¡Ë«§∂U¢NU•OU∞Nr.≠∑JuÊ«∞L∫BKW√≤t≠wØq´UÂ¥KIv¬ô· «_®ªU’±Bd´Nr√£MU¡±∫UË∞∑Nr«∞bîu‰≈∞vœË‰√îdÈ.Ë¥u«§t«∞Fb¥b±s √Ë∞µp«∞c¥s¥Mπuʱs«∞L∫MW«∞LdË´W˨U∞∂UΫ∞L∑L∏KW°U∞ºHd≈∞vœË∞W§b¥b… ±e¥b«Î±s«ô≤∑NUØU‹Ë«ôß∑Gö‰´Kv√¥bÍ«∞LNd°OsË√Å∫U»«∞FLq«∞Lπdœ¥s±s «∞CLOdË«∞LºRË∞Os«∞dßLOOs.˨U∞∂UαU¥Ô∫d«∞c¥s¥H∑IdËÊ≈∞vË{l¸ßLw Ë•LU¥W«∞IU≤uÊ∞Nr±s•o«∞∑FKOrËîb±U‹«∞B∫WË«∞ºJsË¥ÔJ∑V´KONr«∞FOg Ë«∞FLq≠w√Ë{UŸ±d¥FW˱NOMW. Ë¥ÔKIw≥c««∞Lbîq«∞Cu¡´Kv°Fi«ô≤∑NUØU‹«∞∑w¥∑Fd÷∞NU«∞LNU§dËÊ Ë¥∫bœ√§Mb…∞K∫Lö‹±s√§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¢∫∑UÃ≥cÁ«∞∫LKW≈∞v«∞∑dØOe ´Kv≈œ¸«ÃÆCOW«∞LNU§d¥sË•IuÆNr≠wÅLOr√Í≤IU‘•u‰«∞Nπd…Ë´Kv «“œ¥Uœ«∞LºU¡∞W´Kv«≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞Ld¢J∂W{b«∞LNU§d¥s,Ë´Kv {LUÊ¢LU®w«∞∑Ad¥FU‹Ë«∞ºOUßU‹«∞u©MOWË«ùÆKOLOW«∞L∑FKIW°U∞Nπd…±l «∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. Ë«∞b´u…≈∞v±FU±KW§LOl«∞LNU§d¥s°U•∑d«ÂØU±q∞∫IuÆNrËØd«±∑Nr «ù≤ºU≤OW≥w≠wÅKV«_§Mb…«∞LI∑d•W∞LMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW∞KIOU°∫Lö‹±s √§q•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë≥MU„•U§W∞u{l«ß∑d«¢OπOU‹∞K∑BbÍ∞K∑CKOq «ù´ö±wË«∞∑∫OeË«∞ªu·«∞cͨU∞∂UαU¥AJqßLW«∞MIU‘«∞cÍ¥b˸•u‰ÆCU¥U «∞Nπd…°OsÅMUŸ«∞Id«¸Ë«∞πLNu¸«∞FUÂ.Ë¢AJq“¥Uœ…Ë´w«∞d√Í«∞FU«∞L∂Mw´Kv •πZ±∑u«“≤WËÆUzLW´Kv«∞LFd≠W§e¡«Î•Ou¥Uαs√§Mb…•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞ªUÅW °∫Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s.Øc∞p¢I∑Cw«∞∫LKW«∞MU§∫W≈ÆU±W¢∫U∞HU‹±l«∞LNU§d¥s ˧U∞OU¢NrË«∞LMELU‹¨Od«∞∫Ju±OWËßu«≥r±s«∞c¥s¥FLKuÊ´Kv•LU¥W•Iu‚ 6«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 6
  11. 11. «∞LNU§d¥sË¢Fe¥e≥U. Ë¥ºFv«∞Lbîq≈∞v°Ku¸…«∞dßU∞W«∞dzOºOW ∞LMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW≈∞v«∞d√Í«∞FUÂ˱FbÍ «∞ºOUßWËßu«≥r±s«∞πNU‹«∞HU´KW:˱HUœ≥U √Ê•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s≥w•Iu‚≈≤ºU≤OW. Ë¢∂FUÎ∞c∞p,¢b´u±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW«∞LAU¸ØOs≠w«∞∫Lö‹Ë«∞b´U…Ëßu«≥r±s «∞MADU¡≈∞v«∞∑dØOe´Kv£LU≤w±πUô‹¸zOºOW–«‹√Ë∞u¥W´Mb«∞∑dË¥Z∞∫Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥s: 1.«∞∑dØOe´Kv«∞LNU§d¥s«_Ø∏d´d{W∞KªDd-«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOsË«∞MºU¡ «∞LNU§d«‹Ë«_©HU‰«∞LNU§dËÊ. 2.«∞b´u…∞K∑Bb¥o´Kv«∞LFU≥b«‹«∞dzOºOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊË•Iu‚«∞FLqË¢MHOc≥U, Ë°ªUÅW«ô¢HUÆOW«∞bË∞OW∞∫LU¥W•Iu‚§LOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥sË√≠d«œ√ßd«≥r («¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s) ±ö°f±LeÆW˱KDªW°U∞b±U¡´Uzb…_•b«∞LNU§ød¥øs ´U∞IW´Kv«_ßOπW«∞AUzJW«∞∑w¢HBq«∞πOV«_ß∂U≤w ≠w±KOKOW´s«∞LGd»,√Ø∑u°d/¢Ad¥s«_ˉ5002.Ë≠w Øq´UÂ¥∫Uˉ¬ô·«∞LøNøU§ød¥øsË©øU∞ø∂øw«∞øKøπøu¡,«∞øc¥øs ¥M∑Lw«∞Fb¥b±MNr≈∞v±MDIW§Mu»«∞B∫d«¡«_≠d¥IøOøW, «∞F∂u¸≈∞v√˸˰U´s©d¥o«∞πO∂Os«_ß∂U≤OOs≠wß∂∑øW ˱KOKOW. ©JoséPalazón/PRODEIN 7 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 7
  12. 12. 3.«∞LDU∞∂W°b¸§W√Ø∂d±s«∞LºU¡∞W∞ú≠d«œË«∞πNU‹«∞∑U°FW˨Od«∞∑U°FW∞KbË∞W´Kv «_ÅFb…«∞bË∞OWË«ùÆKOLOWË«∞u©MOW. 4.«∞b´u…ô¢∂UŸßOUßU‹∞KNπd…¢∫Lw•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. 5.«∞b´u…ù§d«¡±e¥b±s«_°∫UÀË¢u≠Od±FDOU‹√≠Cq. 6.≈œ¸«Ã±u{uŸ«∞LNU§d¥s˱π∑LFU¢Nr≠wÅKV«∞LMUÆAU‹«∞∑w¢b˸•u‰«∞Nπd…; Ë«ô´∑d«·°b˸≥r≠wÅOU¨W«ôß∑d«¢OπOU‹«∞ö“±W∞∫LU¥W•IuÆNrË¢MHOc≥U Ë{LUÊ≥c««∞b˸. 7.•LU¥W«∞Lb«≠FOs´s•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞c¥s¥FLKuÊ´Kv•LU¥W«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW ∞KLNU§d¥sË¢Fe¥e≥U. 8.“¥Uœ…Ë´w«∞d√Í«∞FU°∫Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥sË≈ßNU±U¢Nr«ù¥πU°OW≠w«∞Lπ∑Ll. «∞∑FU¸¥n ±s≥u«∞LNU§d? «∞LNU§d≥u®ªh¥M∑Iq±sØUÊ≈∞v¬îd∞KFOgË´Uœ…∞KFLq,≈±U°Bu¸…±RÆ∑W√Ë œ«zLW.01ËÆb¥M∑Iq«∞LNU§dËÊœ«îq°Kb≥r«_Â√Ë≈∞v°Kb¬îd.ËÆb¥CDdËÊ∞KLGUœ¸… _≤Nrô¥LKJuʱU¥JHw±s«∞LQØq√Ë«∞LU¡√Ë«∞LQËÈ,√Ë∞CLUÊßö±∑NrË√±MNr≥r Ë´Uzö¢Nr.ËÆb¥M∑IKuÊ∞K∫Bu‰´Kv´Lq√Ë∞πLl®LKNr±l√≠d«œ´UzK∑Nr.Ë¥d•q Ø∏OdËÊ∞Le¥Z±s«_ß∂U». ±s≥u«∞FU±q«∞LNU§d? ¥ÔFd]·«∞FU±q«∞LNU§d≠w«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s°Q≤tò«∞Aªh«∞cÍßOLU¸” ´LöÎ¥JU≠Q´KOt√Ë¥LU¸ßt≠w«∞∫U{d√Ë«∞LU{w≠wœË∞Wô¥AJq≠ONU±u«©MUÎå. («∞LUœ…2(1)). ±s≥u«∞FU±q¨Od«∞MEU±w? «∞FU±q¨Od«∞MEU±w11≥u®ªhô¥∫Lq≈–≤UÎÆU≤u≤OUÎ∞K∂IU¡≠wœË∞W±COHW.Ëô ¥bîq§LOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞vœË∞W√Ë¥IOLuÊ≠ONU°bËÊ¢Bd¥`√Ë°bËÊË£Uzo. ≠L∏öÎ,¨U∞∂UαU¥ÔeËœ«∞LNd°uÊ«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¥∑r¢Nd¥∂Nr≈∞vœË∞W∞KFLq≠ONU°u£Uzo ±e˸….ËÆb¥B∂`Ë{l«∞LNU§d¨Od≤EU±w°Fbœ±s«∞Dd‚.Ë√•OU≤UÎÆb¥∫bÀ–∞p °bËÊÆBb;Ë√•OU≤UÎ√îdÈÆb¥JuÊß∂V¢GOOd«∞u{l¢FºHOUÎ˱π∫HUÎ.Ë≠wßOU‚ ¸•KWË«•b…,Æb¥bîq«∞LNU§dË¥ªdñs«∞u{l¨Od«∞MEU±wË≠IUÎ∞KºOUßU‹ «∞∫Ju±OWË√≤ELW«∞∑Q®Od«‹.Ë«∞FU±q«∞cÍô¥∫LqË£Uzo≥u®ªh¥H∑Id≈∞v«∞u£Uzo «∞∑w¢LJΩMt±s«∞bîu‰°Bu¸…ÆU≤u≤OW≈∞v«∞∂Kb√Ë«∞∂IU¡≠Ot. 8«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 8
  13. 13. ≥q«∞ö§T√Ë©U∞V«∞Kπu¡±NU§d? «Ø∑º∂X∞HEWò«∞ö§Tå±FMv±FOMUÎ≠w«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w.Ë¢AOd≈∞v√Í®ªh±u§uœ îU¸Ã°KbÁ«_ÂË∞b¥tòîu·±s«ô{DNUœÆUzr´Kv√ßU”§Ob¥º∑Mb≈∞v«∞Fd‚√Ë «∞b¥s√Ë«∞Iu±OW√Ë«ô≤∑LU¡≈∞v§LU´W«§∑LU´OW±FOMW√˸√ÍßOUßw±FOså21Ë≥u °U∞∑U∞w¨OdÆUœ¸´Kv«∞Fuœ…≈∞v–∞p«∞∂Kb√˨Od±º∑Fb∞c∞p.Ë«∞MEU«∞IU≤u≤w«∞cÍ ¥MD∂o´Kv≥Rô¡«_®ªU’¥ALq«¢HUÆOW«∞FUÂ1591«∞ªUÅW°u{l«∞ö§µOs («¢HUÆOW«∞ö§µOs)Ë°dË¢uØu‰«∞FUÂ7691«∞LK∫o°NU,≈{U≠W≈∞v´bœ±s±FU≥b«‹ •Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊË«∞BJu„«ùÆKOLOW∞ö§µOs.Ë¥Id«ù©U¸«∞IU≤u≤w∞ö§µOs°QÊ∞b¥Nr «•∑OU§U‹îUÅW∞K∫LU¥W«∞bË∞OW°º∂V•IOIW´b¢L∑FNr°∫LU¥W°Kb≥r«_Â.Ë∞c«, °OMLU¥ÔMEd≈∞v«∞ö§µOs´Kv√≤Nr¥ª∑KHuÊ´s«∞LNU§d¥s,≠S≤Nr¨U∞∂UαU¥ºU≠dËÊ ±FNrË¥º∑ªb±uÊ©d‚«∞ºHd√ËÆMu«‹«∞∑Nd¥V≤HºNU,˨U∞∂UαU¥∑Fd{uÊô≤∑NUØU‹ ±AU°NW∞∫IuÆNr«ù≤ºU≤OWË≥r≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤e¥X√Ë«∞bˉ«∞LIBuœ…. Ë©U∞V«∞Kπu¡≥u®ªh¥DKV«∞∫LU¥WØö§T¸¨r√≤tÆbô¥ÔF∑d·°t¸ßLOUÎ °Q≤tØc∞p.Ë¢MD∂o∞HEW¸ßLOUδKv®ªh¥M∑EdÆd«¸«∞∫Ju±W√Ë«∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU ∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…∞ARËÊ«∞ö§µOs•u‰©K∂t∞K∫Bu‰´KvË{lô§T.Ëô¥IKq´b «ô´∑d«·«∞dßLw±s•It≠w•LU¥W«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞ö§µOs∞t. ±U≥w«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s? ≈Ê«ô¢HUÆOW«∞bË∞OW∞∫LU¥W•Iu‚§LOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥sË√≠d«œ√ßd≥r-«¢HUÆOW «∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s-≥w≈•bÈß∂l±FU≥b«‹œË∞OW√ßUßOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ.31ËÆb œîKX•Oe«∞MHU–≠w1¥u∞Ou/¢Lu“3002.Ë¢F∑d·Åd«•W°U∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl «∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥sË´Uzö¢Nr,•OY¢πLl°Os±FU¥Od√ßUßOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ¢MFJf √¥CUÎ≠w«∞LFU≥b«‹«∞ºX«_ßUßOW«_îdÈ. ˱s√≥r«∞L∂Uœ∆«∞L∫bœ…≠w«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s±∂b√√•IOW§LOl«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥sË√≠d«œ´Uzö¢Nr≠w«•∑d«Â•IuÆNr«ù≤ºU≤OW«_ßUßOW,°Gi«∞MEd´s Ë{FNr«∞IU≤u≤w≠w«∞bË∞W«∞LCOHW.Ë¥∫bœ«∞∫Iu‚«∞∑w¥∑L∑l°NU§LOl«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥sË´Uzö¢Nr,°LU≠Ot«∞∫Iu‚≠w«∞∫OU…(«∞LUœ…9)Ë«∞∫d¥W(«∞LUœ…61) Ë«∞∫LU¥W±s«∞Ddœ«∞πLU´w(«∞LUœ…22)Ë√Ë{UŸ«∞FLq«∞u«≠OW(«∞LUœ…52). Ë≈{U≠W≈∞v–∞p,¢Mh«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s´Kv•Iu‚±FOMW∞KFLU‰ «∞ö§µOsË´Uzö¢Nr«∞Lu§uœ¥s°Bu¸…ÆU≤u≤OW≠w«∞∂Kb«∞LCOn.Ë≥w¢ALq«∞∫o≠w •d¥W«∞∫dØWË«ùÆU±Wœ«îq√¸«{w«∞bË∞W«∞LCOHW(«∞LUœ…93)Ë«∞∫o≠w«∞LFU±KW 9 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 9
  14. 14. «∞L∑ºUË¥W±l«∞Lu«©MOs∞πNW«∞∫LU¥W±s«∞Ddœ±s«∞FLq(«∞LUœ…45). Ë°∫Ku‰ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰6002,ÅbÆX43œË∞W´Kv«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s. Ë•u‰«∞FU∞r,¢Iu«∞LMELU‹¨Od«∞∫Ju±OW°∫Lö‹∞e¥Uœ…«∞∑Bb¥o´Kv≥cÁ «∞LFU≥b…«∞bË∞OW«∞LNLW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊËË{FNU±u{l«∞∑MHOc. 10«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 10
  15. 15. «∞HBq«_ˉ: ±Fd{uÊ∞K∑πU≥q Ë«∞∑NLOg Ë«ô≤∑NUØU‹ «∞∑LOOeË«∞FMBd¥WËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V ¢∑d„«∞Dd¥IW«∞∑w¥Fd÷≠ONU«∞ºOUßOuÊË«∞LºRË∞uÊ«∞dßLOuÊËËßUzq«ù´ö ÆCU¥U«∞Nπd…√£d≥U«∞LKLu”´Kv¢Bu¸«‹«∞d√Í«∞FUÂ∞KLNU§d¥sË•IuÆNr.Ë¥GcÍ «ß∑Gö‰«∞LªUË·«∞AF∂OWË«ß∑ªb«Â«∞LNU§d¥sØJ∂g≠b«¡∞KLAUØq«ô§∑LU´OW «∞L∑Mu´W«∞∑LOOeË«∞FMBd¥WËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V. Ë«∞∑LOOe±s√Í≤uŸØUÊ´Kv√ßf´dÆOW√Ëßu«≥U±LMuŸ≠w§LOl«∞BJu„ «∞bË∞OW«∞dzOºOW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ(«≤Ed√œ≤UÁ).˨U∞∂UαU¢∑Fd÷«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW ∞KLNU§d¥s∞KLºU˱W´Mb±U¢∏Od«∞∑Bd¥∫U‹«∞dßLOW«∞∑∫Oe«∞FMBdÍ√ËØd«≥OW «_§U≤VË¢∫d÷´Kv®s«∞NπLU‹´Kv«∞ºJUÊ«∞LNU§d¥s. ò¢AJqØd«≥OW«_§U≤V«∞Lu§NW{b¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs,Ë°ªUÅW «∞LNU§d¥sË«∞ö§µOsË©U∞∂w«∞Kπu¡,√•b«∞LBUœ¸«∞dzOºOW ∞KFMBd¥W«∞LFUÅd…å «∞HId…61,±s≈´öÊË°d≤U±Z´Lqœ¸°s«∞cÍ«´∑LbÁ«∞LR¢Ld«∞FU∞Lw ∞LMU≥CW«∞FMBd¥WË«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V˱U¥∑FKo°NU ±s¢FBV,1002 11 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 11
  16. 16. ˱Mc≥πLU‹11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002«∞∑wËÆFX≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…«_±d¥JOW, «¢Ôªc‹≠w´bœ±s«∞bˉ¢b«°Od∞∑Fe¥e«_±s¸Øe‹´Kv±d«Æ∂W¢∫dØU‹«∞MU”.ËÆb √£d°Fi≥cÁ«∞∑b«°Od¢Q£Od«Î¨Od±∑MUßV´Kv«∞LNU§d¥sËßu«≥r±Ls∞Oºu« ±u«©MOs.41Ë≠w°Fi«∞bˉ,ËÔÅn«∞LNU§dËÊ,Ë°ªUÅW«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs °Q≤Nr¥AJKuÊ¢Nb¥b«Î√±MOUÎ√Ë√≤Nr√®ªU’¥A∑∂t°Q≤Nr√¸≥U°OuÊ√Ë¥∫∑Lq√Ê¥Ju≤u« Øc∞p. ≈Ê¢∫u¥q«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞vØ∂g±∫dÆWË¢FLb¢Gc¥W±AU´d«∞ªu·Ë¢dßOa «∞LAU´d«∞FMBd¥W√Ë«∞IUzLW´Kv«∞∑LOOe√ËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V±sÆ∂q°Fi«∞ºOUßOOs Ë√§e«¡±sËßUzq«ù´ö«Æ∑dÊ°S§d«¡«‹œ«ßX´Kv°Fi±s√°ºj•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ «_ßUßOW∞KLNU§d¥s,˱s{LMNU«∞∫o≠w•d¥W«∞AªhË√±Mt. Ë¥ÔGK]n§e¡Ø∂Od±s«∞MIU‘«∞cÍ¥b˸•u‰«∞Nπd…°F∂U¸«‹±Gd{W˱NOMW. Ë¢Ôu§]t≈∞v«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∫UË∞uÊ«∞bîu‰≈∞vœË∞W√îdÈ,®∑Uzr±∏qò±NU§d¥s¨Od ®d´OOsåËò±∑DHKOsåËò≠u{u¥OsåË•∑vò¨e«…奺FuÊ≈∞v«î∑d«‚œ≠U´U‹«∞∂öœ °ºu¡≤OW.Ë«∞LGeÈ«∞u«{`≥u√≤Nr¥ºOµuÊ≈∞v«∞MEUÂË¥º∑GKuÊØd«∞bˉ.Ë¢ªKo ≥cÁ«_ËÅU·«ô≤D∂UŸ°QÊ«∞LNU§d¥sô¥LKJuÊ•o«∞bîu‰,∞Of≥c«Ë•ºV,°q ≈≤Nrô¥LKJuÊ√¥W•Iu‚´Kv«ù©ö‚. Ë≠w°Fi«∞bˉ,¢∂Os∞KL∫UØr√Ê¢Ad¥l±∫U¸°W«ù¸≥U»«∞cÍ¥IOb«∞∫Iu‚ «_ßUßOW∞GOd«∞Lu«©MOs¥M∑Np«∞u«§∂U‹«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. òô¥Q¢w«∞∑Nb¥b«∞∫IOIw∞∫OU…«_±W,´KvÅFOb´Og«∞MU”Ë≠IUÎ ∞Iu«≤OMNU«∞∑IKOb¥WËÆOLNU«∞ºOUßOW,±s«ù¸≥U»°q±sÆu«≤OsØNcÁ. Ë–∞p≥u«∞LIOU”«∞∫IOIw∞LU¥LJs∞û¸≥U»√Ê¥∫IIt.Ë«∞∂d∞LUÊ≥u «∞cÍ¥Id¸±U≈–«ØUÊßOLM`«ù¸≥U°OOs±∏q≥c««∞MBdå. ∞u¸œ≥u≠LUÊ,±πKf«∞Ku¸œ«‹,«∞LLKJW«∞L∑∫b….51 «ôß∑Gö‰ ¥∑Fd÷«∞LNU§dËÊ,ôßOLU«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs∞ªDd«ôß∑Gö‰°AJqîU’ ±s§U≤V√Å∫U»«∞FLq˱LU¸ßw«ô¢πU¸Ë«∞LNd°Os.Ë¥FMw«≠∑IU¸≥r≈∞v«∞u{l «∞IU≤u≤w√≤Nr¨U∞∂UαU¥FπeËÊ´s¢QØOb•IuÆNr«∞L∑FKIW°U∞FLq√Ë•IuÆNr«ù≤ºU≤OW 12«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 12
  17. 17. √Ëô¥d¨∂uÊ≠w¢QØOb≥U.Ë¥∑Fd÷«_©HU‰°AJq®b¥b∞öß∑Gö‰;˨U∞∂UαU¢JuÊ «≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞Ld¢J∂W{b«_©HU‰«∞LNU§d¥s±ªHOW§Ob«Î´s√´Os«∞d√Í «∞FUÂ,«_±d«∞cÍ¥ºL`°∫bËÀ«≤∑NUØU‹±d´∂W°ö•ºOVËô´IU».Ë¢∑Fd÷«∞MºU¡ Ë«∞H∑OU‹°AJqîU’∞öß∑Gö‰«∞πMºw±s§U≤V√Å∫U»«∞FLq√Ë«∞Lu™HOs «∞dßLOOs,√Ë≈–«ËÆFs≠w√¥bͱLU¸ßw«ô¢πU¸. Ë¥Ô∫Ed«ß∑Gö‰«∞LNU§d¥s°Lu§V±πLu´W±s«∞BJu„«∞bË∞OW,±s {LMNU: >«¢HUÆOW±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW¸Ær92«∞L∑FKIW°U∞FLU∞W«∞Iºd¥W(«∞ºªd…)√Ë «ù∞e«±OW(0391) >«¢HUÆOW±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW¸Ær281«∞L∑FKIW°∫Ed√ßu√√®JU‰´LU∞W«_©HU‰ Ë«∞FLq«∞Hu¸Í´Kv«∞ICU¡´KONU(9991) >«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW(6691). >«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…(9791) >«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq(9891) >«∞∂dË¢uØu‰«∞ªU’°LMl«ô¢πU¸°U_®ªU’Ë°ªUÅW«∞MºU¡Ë«_©HU‰Ë±∫U¸°∑t Ë«∞LFUÆ∂W´KOt,Ë«∞cÍ¥JLq«¢HUÆOW«_±r«∞L∑∫b…∞LMU≥CW«∞πd¥LW«∞LMELW «∞FU°d…∞K∫bËœ(0002) Ê.¸.±u«©MW≥Mb¥W´Ld≥U82´U±UÎ,√°KGX±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW√≤NU´LKXØFU±KW±M‡e∞OW ≠w«∞Ju¥X∞Lb…£öÀßMu«‹∞r¥ºL`∞NUîö∞NU±ªb˱NU«∞Ju¥∑w°U∞ªdËñs «∞LM‡e‰.ËÆU∞XÊ.¸.≈≤t©KV±MNU«∞FLq∞bÈÆd¥V∞Lªb˱NU∞Lb…£ö£W√¥UÂ.ËÆb «¨∑B∂NU«∞Id¥VË•LKX±Mt.Ë°Fb±UË{FX©HKNU√Ôîc‹≈∞vƺr«∞∑d•Oq≠wßπs «∞MºU¡•OY«´∑IKX±l©HK∑NU.Ë√´Dv±ªb˱NU§u«“ßHd≥UË¢cØd…ßHd≥U≈∞v «∞Ad©W,∞Js«∞Ad©WÆU∞X≈≤NUô¢º∑DOl±GUœ¸…«∞∂öœ±l©HK∑NU°bËʱu«≠IWË«∞b «∞DHKW.ËÆU∞XÊ.¸.∞LMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW≈≤NU∞r¢º∑Dl≈°ö⁄«∞Ad©W√¥s¥FOg«∞d§q, _≤t∞r¥ºL`∞NUÆj°LGUœ¸…±M‡e‰±ªb˱NU,∞c«∞r¢Fd·±JUÊ«∞LM‡e‰«∞cÍ«¨∑B∂X ≠Ot.Ë´Mb±U√§d‹±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW±IU°KW±FNU≠w¥u∞Ou/¢Lu“4002,ØU≤X≥w Ë©HK∑NU±∫∑πe¢Os≠w±dØe«∞∑d•Oq±Mcœ¥ºL∂d/ØU≤uÊ«_ˉ3002Ë¥EqË{FNU ¨OdË«{`.61 13 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 13
  18. 18. «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq «∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs-Ë°ªUÅW«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¢r«ô¢πU¸°Nr,Ë«∞FLU‰«_¸ÆU¡ √Ë«∞LIObËÊ°FIuœ,Ë«∞FLU‰«∞LM‡e∞OuÊ«∞c¥s¥FLKuÊ≠w±MU“‰îUÅW-ÆKLU¥R¢v´Kv –Ød≥r≠w«ù•BU¡«‹«∞dßLOW.Ë¥BFV«∞∑Fd·´Kv«∞FLU‰¨Od«∞MEU±OOs√Ë¢FIV √£d≥r_≤Nr¨U∞∂UαU¥πdœËʱsË£Uzo≈£∂U‹«∞AªBOWË¥ªAuʱs«ô¢BU‰ °U∞ºKDU‹.Ë√•OU≤UÎ¥ºFv«∞LNU§dËÊ√≤HºNr≈∞v«ô°∑FUœ´s«_≤EU¸Øw¥HK∑u«±s «ô≤∑∂UÁ«∞dßLw√Ë«∞ªDd«∞cÍ¥u«§NNr≥r√Ë´Uzö¢Nr. Ë¥∑Fd÷≥Rô¡«∞LNU§dËÊò«∞∂FObËÊ´s«_≤EU¸å∞ªDd«ôß∑Gö‰Ë«ô≤∑NUØU‹°Ab…. Ë¥πFq«≠∑IU¸≥r∞Ku{l«∞IU≤u≤w√Ë«∞u£Uzo±s«∞BFV∞KGU¥W´Kv«∞Fb¥b±MNr«∞LDU∞∂W ©MarkHenley/Panos ´U±q±NU§d±s¬ßOU¥FLq≠w√•b±u«Æl«∞∂MU¡°øb°øw, «_±U¸«‹«∞Fd°OW«∞L∑∫b…. 14«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 14
  19. 19. °∫IuÆNr.Ë√Å∫U»«∞FLq«∞LπdœËʱs«∞CLOd¥b¸ØuÊ–∞p˨U∞∂UαU¥º∑GKu≤t. ¨U∞∂UαU¥πb«∞LNU§dËÊ√≤HºNr±FeË∞Os´s«∞FUzKW√Ë«∞A∂JU‹«ô§∑LU´OW≠w «∞bˉ«∞LIBuœ….Ë¥LJs√Ê¢Fd{Nr«∞Fe∞W«ô§∑LU´OW∞ªDd«ôß∑Gö‰Ë«ô≤∑NUØU‹ °AJqîU’.Ë´Mb±U¥Ju≤uÊ≠wË{l¨Od≤EU±w,¨U∞∂UαU¥ªAuʱs√Ê¥RœÍ «∞Kπu¡≈∞v«∞ªb±U‹√Ë«∞A∂JU‹«ô§∑LU´OW√Ë«∞L∫KOW«∞∑w¥LJs√Ê¢ºU´b≥r≠w «∞∑GKV´Kv´e∞∑Nr≈∞v∞HX≤Ed«∞ºKDU‹≈∞ONrË°U∞∑U∞w¢Fd¥CNr∞ªDd«ô´∑IU‰ √Ë«∞Ddœ. «∞LπLu´U‹«∞LFd{W°Ab…ô≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ ¥∑Fd÷°Fi«∞LNU§d¥s√˱πLu´U‹«∞LNU§d¥s°AJqîU’ô≤∑NU„•IuÆNr «ù≤ºU≤OW,°º∂VË{FNr«∞IU≤u≤w√˧MºNr√Ë´Ld≥r√ËœîKNr√ËË{FNr «ô§∑LU´w√Ë∞G∑Nr√Ë´dÆNr√Ë≈£MO∑Nr√Ëœ¥MNr√˨Od–∞p±s«∞EdË·.˨U∞∂UαU √¸Ë±W®Op«_§d√Ëßπq≥U¢Hw√ËËÅq¢∫u¥q≤IbÍ-Øq±UØU≤u«¥∫∑U§u≤t≥u˸ÆW ù£∂U‹Ë§uœ√•∂UzNr.˱l–∞p,≠S≤t°U∞Mº∂W∞FUzö‹«∞LNU§d¥s«∞LJºOJOOs«∞c¥sÆÔ∑Ku«≠w ≥πLU‹11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002«∞∑wËÆFX≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…«_±d¥JOW,Ë«∞∑w©U∞∂X °∑Fu¥i√˱πdœ®NUœ…Ë≠U…,≠∫∑v¢Kp«∞L∑DK∂U‹«∞BGOd…«∞∂ºODWØUʱs«∞Lº∑∫Oq ¢K∂O∑NU,Ë°ªUÅW≈–«ØUÊ«∞C∫U¥U±u§uœ¥s≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…°Bu¸…¨OdÆU≤u≤OW. ≠∂bËÊ√¸ÆU«∞CLUÊ«ô§∑LU´wËßπö‹«∞Cd«zV-Ë≠w°Fi«∞∫Uô‹°bËÊ®NUœ… ±Oöœ-∞r¥∑LJs√≠d«œ«∞FUzKW«∞L∫eË≤uʱs¢QØOb˧uœ√Æd°UzNr≠w±ºdÕ≥πLU‹ 1002,√Ë¢Ib¥r«∞u£Uzo«∞Cd˸¥W∞K∫Bu‰´Kv•BW±sÅMbË‚±M`≠w«∞L∑ußj√Ø∏d ±s±KOu≤wœËô¸√±d¥Jw°IKOq∞Jq{∫OW. ò´Mb±U¢JuÊ°bËÊË£Uzo≠w√¥WœË∞W,≠JQ≤p¢FOg≠w«∞Eqå,´Kv•bÆu‰≤u¸°d¢u ¢Od«“«”,«∞Lº∑AU¸«∞IU≤u≤w∞K∫LU¥W«∞IU≤u≤OW∞KLu«©MOs«∞LJºOJOOs≠wÆMBKOW«∞LJºOp ≠w≤Ou¥u¸„.ò≠ö√•b¥d«„,Ëô√•b¥ö•k˧uœ„.Ë¥LJMNr¸ƒ¥W´LKp,Ë°Q≤p¢ºNr≠w «ôÆ∑BUœË«∞ºKl«ôß∑NöØOW,∞JMp∞ºX±u§uœ«Î≠w«∞∫IOIWå. ¥ÔF∑Ib√Êß∑W´Ad±u«©MUαJºOJOUÎ-§LOFNr±s«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs-∞Iu« ±Bd´Nr≠w≥πLU‹ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002.°Ob√Ê´Uzö‹îLºW±MNr≠Ij«ß∑DU´X≈£∂U‹ Ë≠U…√•∂UzNU≠w«∞NπLU‹Ë°U∞∑U∞w«ß∑∫IX«∞∑Fu¥i. òô√§u°W_Æd°U¡{∫U¥U11/9«∞LJºOJOOså,√ßu®OU¥∑b°d”,01 ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰4002. 15 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 15
  20. 20. ¥Mb¸Ã«∞LNU§dËÊ«_≠d«œ¢∫X√Ø∏d±s≠µWË«•b…±s≥cÁ«∞HµU‹,°LU¥e¥b±s ¢Fd{Nr∞ªDd«ô≤∑NUØU‹. «∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs ¥∑Fd÷«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞c¥sô¥LKJuÊË£UzoÅ∫O∫W√Ë¥πbËÊ√≤HºNr≠wË{l¨Od ≤EU±w∞ªDd«≤∑NUØp•IuÆNr«ù≤ºU≤OW°AJq±∑e«¥b. ≤Ed«Î∞u{FNr«∞IU≤u≤w¨Od«∞Lº∑Id≠w«∞bË∞W«∞LCOHW,¥Il«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs°ºNu∞W≠d¥ºW∞ö°∑e«“Ë¥∑Fd{uʧb«Î ∞ªDd«ô≤∑NUØU‹Ë«ôß∑Gö‰±s§U≤V√Å∫U»«∞FLq˱u™Hw «∞Nπd…Ë«∞∂OdËÆd«©OOs«∞HUßb¥sË«∞FBU°U‹«ù§d«±OW. ±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW,≤∫u±FU±KW´Uœ∞W∞KFLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s≠w «ôÆ∑BUœÍ«∞FU∞Lw,4002. Ë¢MAQ«∞LAUØq«∞∑w¥u«§NNU«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs°AJq¸zOºw±s«≠∑IU¸≥r ≈∞vË{lÆU≤u≤wË•IOIW√ʱFELNr¥FLKuÊ≠w«∞IDUŸ¨Od«∞dßLw√Ë«Æ∑BUœ«∞Eq. Ë°bËÊË{lÆU≤u≤w√Ë•LU¥WÆU≤u≤OW,¥∑Fd{uÊ∞ªDd«ôß∑Gö‰Ë«ô≤∑NUØU‹±s§U≤V √Å∫U»«∞FLqË«∞Lu™HOs«∞dßLOOs´b¥Lw«∞CLOd´Kv«∞ºu«¡.Ë¥Fd·«∞c¥s ¥d¢J∂uÊ≥cÁ«ô≤∑NUØU‹√≤t±s¨Od«∞L∫∑Lq√Ê¥ªCFu«∞KLºU¡∞W_Ê«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od «∞MEU±OOs¨U∞∂UαU¥LU≤FuÊ≠w«∞Kπu¡≈∞v«∞ºKDU‹ù≤HU–«ô•∑d«Â∞∫IuÆNr.Ë¥ªAuÊ ´Lu±Uαs∞HX«ô≤∑∂UÁ«∞dßLw≈∞ONr,Ë°U∞∑U∞w¥Fd{uÊ√≤HºNr∞ö´∑IU‰√Ë«∞∑d•Oq. ò«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞MU§uÊå ≠w®∑v√≤∫U¡«∞FU∞r,¢d¨r«ô≤∑NUØU‹«∞πºOLW∞K∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW,≠Cöδs «ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s´Kv±GUœ¸…œ¥U¸≥rË≠w√¨KV «_•OUÊ¢d„´Uzö¢Nr√¥CUÎ,°∫∏Uδs«∞ºö±WË«_±sË«∞d“‚«∞Lº∑b«Â.Ë¥M∑IKuÊ≠w ≈©U¸«ß∑d«¢OπOW«∞∂IU¡.Ë«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥HdËʱs«∞∫d±UÊ«∞Ab¥bË«≤∑NUØU‹ «∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W√Ë«ô§∑LU´OW∞b¥Nr√œ≤v•b±s«∞ªOU¸«‹≠w«∞∫OU…Ë≠w«∞Nπd…. ≠LFELNr¥FU≤w±s«∞HId«∞LbÆl.Ë°OMNrØ∏Od±s«∞MºU¡.˨U∞∂UαU¥∑ªcËÊÆd«¸«‹ °U∞Nπd…¢MDuÍ´Kv±ªU©d…®b¥b…Ë–∞p°∫∏Uδs«_±s«∞∂AdÍ_≤HºNrË∞FUzö¢Nr. Ë«∞º∂q«∞IU≤u≤OW∞KNπd…«∞L∑U•W√±UÂ√®ªU’¥AJKuÊ´LUôΨOd±Nd…√ËÆKOKw «∞LNU¸…≤Uœ¸….∞c«±s«∞L∫∑Lq§b«Î√Ê¥∑Q£dË«°U∞IOuœ«∞LHdË{W´Kv«∞Nπd…Ë¥IFu« ≠d¥ºW∞A∂JU‹«ô¢πU¸√Ë«∞∑Nd¥V. 16«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 16
  21. 21. ≠w√§e«¡´b¥b…§b«Î±s«∞FU∞r,°U¢X«∞Nπd…«ß∑d«¢OπOW∞K∂IU¡...˨U∞∂UÎ ±U¢JuÊ«∞πLU´U‹«∞L∫d˱W≠w«∞Lπ∑Ll,±∏q«∞MºU¡Ë«_ÆKOU‹«ù£MOW Ë«∞ºJUÊ«_ÅKOOsË«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW,«_Ø∏d¢∫dÆUÎ∞KLGUœ¸… Ë¥∑Fd{uʧb«Î∞ªDd«∞uÆuŸ°Os√¥bÍ«∞LNd°Os˱LU¸ßw«ô¢πU¸. «∞Nπd…≠w´U∞r±∑d«°j:«¢πU≥U‹§b¥b…∞KFLq.¢Id¥d«∞KπMW «∞FU∞LOW∞KNπd…«∞bË∞OW,√Ø∑u°d/¢Ad¥s«_ˉ5002. «_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∑ªcËÊÆd«¸«∞Nπd…≠w≈©U¸«ß∑d«¢OπOW∞K∂IU¡≤Uœ¸«Î±U¥∑LJMuÊ ±sË{lîDj°b¥KW(ò«ß∑d«¢OπOWîdËÃå)≠w•U‰ØU≤X¢πd°∑Nr≠w«∞Nπd…±ºOµW. ∞c«ô¥πbËÊ√±U±Nr±sîOU¸ßuÈ¢∫Lq«_Ë{UŸ«ôß∑Gö∞OW´Mb±U¥M∑IKuʱs œ¥U¸≥rË¥FOAuÊË¥FLKuÊ°FOb«Î´MNU.Ë«∞Nπd…≠w™q≥cÁ«∞EdË·ô¢FuœîOU¸«Î•d«Î. ò«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞c¥s¢IDFX°Nr«∞º∂qå,°Ls≠ONr©U∞∂u«∞Kπu¡«∞c¥s ¸Ô≠CX©K∂U¢Nr «∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s¢∑IDl°Nr«∞º∂q≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤‡e¥X√Ë«∞u§NW«∞LIBuœ…:Ë¥∫d±uÊ ±s•o«∞bîu‰Ë«∞∂IU¡°Bu¸…ÆU≤u≤OW,∞JMNr¥FπeËÊ´s«∞Fuœ…≈∞v°Kb«≤Nr«_ÅKOW. Ëô¥º∑DOl°Fi«∞LNU§d¥s«∞Fuœ…≈∞v°Kb«≤Nr«_ÅKOW°º∂V«ß∑Ld«¸«≤Fb«Â«_±s √Ë´bÂ˧uœËßOKWÆU≤u≤OW∞KuÅu‰≈∞v≥MU„√Ë«ß∑∫U∞W´uœ¢Nr´LKOUÎ.Ëô¥LM`«∞Fb¥b ±MNr√Í®Jq±s√®JU‰«∞u{l«∞IU≤u≤w,•∑v•OY¥∑∂Os√Ê«∞Fuœ…±º∑∫OKW. Ë«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¢∑IDl°Nr«∞º∂q≥r√®ªU’¸Ô≠CX«∞DK∂U‹«∞∑w Æb±u≥U∞K∫Bu‰´KvË{lô§T.Ë«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¸≠CX©K∂U‹∞πuzNr°Lu§V ≈§d«¡´Uœ‰Ë±d÷Ìô¥∑L∑FuÊ°Fb–∞p°∫LU¥W«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞ö§µOs.°Ob√≤Nr¥πV √Ê¥EKu«¥∑L∑FuÊ°∫LU¥W«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. ß∫V«∞∂U»9±sÆU≤uÊ«∞Kπu¡Ë«∞Nπd…∞KFUÂ4002]≠w«∞LLKJW «∞L∑∫b…[«∞Le«¥U«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞LºU´b…«∞ºJMOW±s´Uzö‹©U∞∂w «∞Kπu¡«∞c¥s¸≠CX©K∂U¢NrË«∞c¥sò¢IU´ºu«´s«¢ªU–îDu«‹ ±FIu∞Wå∞LGUœ¸…°d¥DU≤OU.ËÆb¢Adœ‹«∞FUzö‹ËßÔ∫V«∞b´r±MNU Ë¢FOg≠wîu·±sË{l√©HU∞NU¢∫X¸´U¥W«∞bË∞W. ò°d≤U±Z«∞Kπu¡¥b≠l«∞FUzö‹≈∞v«ôî∑∂U¡å,–ͨU¸œ¥UÊ,13 ¥MU¥d/ØU≤uÊ«∞∏U≤w6002. 17 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 17
  22. 22. Ë¥Ô∫∑πe«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¢IDFX°Nr«∞º∂qË«∞c¥sô¥º∑DOFuÊ«∞Fuœ… ≈∞v°Kb«≤Nr«_ÅKOW¸≥s«ô´∑IU‰«∞LDu‰Ë√•OU≤UΨOd«∞L∫bœ.Ë¥Ô∫d«∞Fb¥b±MNr ±s•o«∞FLq√Ë«∞∫Bu‰´Kv±ºU´b…«∞CLUÊ«ô§∑LU´w√˨Od≥U±s{dË» «∞LºU´b….Ë≤∑OπW∞c∞p,¥FOAuÊ≠w´u“Ë≈±ö‚√Ë¥F∑LbËÊ´Kv«∞πLFOU‹«∞ªOd¥W: Ë¢∑ªKv´MNr≠FKOUΫ∞bË∞W«∞∑w¥FOAuÊ≠ONU. «∞MºU¡ ¢π∂d«∞M‡e«´U‹Ë«∞HIdË«≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞MºU¡´Kv±GUœ¸…°Kb«≤Ns°∫∏Uδs «∞FLq√Ë«_±s.Ë≥MU„«¢πUÁ±∑MUÂÌ≠w±MU©o´b¥b…,Ë°ªUÅW≠w√˸˰UˬßOU, ô≤∑IU‰«∞MºU¡ØLNU§d«‹¥∑L∑Fs°Uôß∑Iö∞OW«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË∞OfØLFuô‹_Æd°U¡ –Øu¸.Ë¢CDdØ∏Od«‹±MNs≈∞v¢d„´Uzö¢Ns˸«zNs. ≈Ê«∞∑LOOe{b«∞MºU¡≠w°Fi°d«±Z«∞Nπd…«∞MEU±OW¥b≠FNs≈∞v«∞Nπd…¨Od «∞MEU±OW,°º∂V´b¢u«≠d«∞º∂q«∞IU≤u≤OW√±U±Ns.Ë¢∑u¸◊√´b«œØ∂Od…±s«∞MºU¡ «∞ö¢w¥FπeÊ´s¢GDOW≤HIU‹ßHd≥s,¨U∞∂UΰbËÊË´w±MNs,±l®∂JU‹«ô¢πU¸. Ë≠w√¨KV«_•OUÊ¥FIV«∞u´b°∫OU…√≠Cq∞FUzö¢Ns«ß∑Gö‰Ë«≤∑NUØU‹,±s{LMNU «∞ºªd…(«∞FLq°bËÊ√§d)√Ë«∞FIuœ«∞Lπ∫HW,√Ë«∞F∂uœ¥W√Ë«_Ë{UŸ«∞A∂ONW °U∞F∂uœ¥W. © Mark Henley/Panos ±NU§‡d«‹≈≤bË≤Oº‡O‡U‹±s´‡ø‡øU±ø‡ø‡øö‹«∞øLøMø‡ø‡ø‡øU“‰≠øw≥øu≤øm Øu≤m¥º‡‡∑d•s¥u´DK∑øNø‡øs´øKøv¸ÅøOøn√•øb«∞øLøFøU°ød≠øw Øu“Ë«Í°UÍ. Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 18
  23. 23. ò≈Ê√¨K∂OW«∞c¥s¥FOAuÊ´KvœËô¸Ë«•b≠w«∞OuÂ√Ë√ÆqË«∞∂U∞m´bœ≥r 5,1±KOU¸≤ºLW≥r±s«∞MºU¡å œ«zd…«∞LFKu±U‹«∞FU±W≠w«_±r«∞L∑∫b…,±Kn«∞∫IUzo1,¢Q≤OY «∞HId71 ¢∑Fd÷«∞MºU¡«∞LNU§d«‹°AJqîU’∞ªDd«∞∑LOOeË«ôß∑Gö‰Ë«ô≤∑NUØU‹, °º∂VË{FNsØMºU¡√˱NU§d«‹√˨Od±u«©MU‹,˨U∞∂UÎØLFU±ö‹≠w√ßu«‚´LU∞W ¢HBq°Os«∞d§U‰Ë«∞MºU¡-±∏öÎØFU±ö‹≠w«∞LMU“‰Ë√±UØs«∞FLq«∞A∂Ot°U∞ºªd… √Ë≠wÆDUŸ«∞πMf.81Ë≠w√¨KV«_•OUÊ¥FAs°FOb«Î´s√≤EU¸«∞Lπ∑LlË¥LJs√¥CUÎ √Ê¥u«§Ns±e¥b«Î±s«∞∫u«§e«∞IUzLW´Kv«∞MuŸ«ô§∑LU´w≠w˧t•Iu‚≈≤ºU≤OW±∏q ¢JU≠R«_§d√Ë«∞∫Bu‰´Kv«ù≤BU·√Ë«∞∑Fu¥i. «_©HU‰ ¥∑Fd÷«_©HU‰°AJqîU’∞Kªb«ŸË«ôß∑Gö‰°º∂VÅGdßMNr√Ë´bÂ≤Cu§Nr √Ë«≠∑IU¸≥r≈∞v«∞∑FKOr.Ë¥∑r¢u™On«∞Fb¥b±MNr°Bu¸…¨OdÆU≤u≤OW∞KIOU°Qßu√ √®JU‰«∞FLU∞W«∞∑w¥∫∑Lq√Ê¢K∫o«_–È°B∫∑Nr«∞FIKOWË«∞πºb¥W.Ë¢ALq√≤u«Ÿ «∞FLq«∞∑w¥CDd«_©HU‰«∞LNU§dËÊ≈∞v«∞I∂u‰°NU«∞∑ºu‰Ë«_≠öÂË«∞Bu¸«∞b«´d… Ë«∞∂GU¡«∞IºdÍË°Ol«∞Lªb¸«‹Ë«ô≤CLUÂ≈∞v«∞Iu«‹«∞LºK∫W√Ë«∞FLU∞W«∞LM‡e∞OW≠w √Ë{UŸ®∂Ot°U∞d‚.91˨U∞∂UαU¥Il«_©HU‰{∫U¥U∞LLU¸ßw«ô¢πU¸Ë√Å∫U»«∞FLq «∞Lπdœ¥s±s«∞CLOd°bËÊ√Ê¢∑UÕ∞Nr≈±JU≤OW∞KNd». ò°bËÊË£UzoÅ∫O∫W,Æb¥u«§t]«_©HU‰[±AUØq≠w«∞∫Bu‰´Kv «∞ªb±U‹«_ßUßOW˱AUØq±l«∞IU≤uÊ.ËÆb¥ÔHBq«_©HU‰´s Ë«∞b¥Nr≠w•U‰¢uÆOHNLU√Ë«´∑IU∞NLU;Ë≠w°Fi«∞∫Uô‹,√´Ob «_©HU‰≈∞v√Ë©U≤Nr°bËʸ«®b¥så. ò±IU¸°W∞∫Iu‚«∞DHq¢∑FKo°U∞Nπd…«∞bË∞OWË«ô¢πU¸:±MEu¸ ∞KOu≤ºOnå,˸ÆWÆÔb±X≠w«ô§∑LUŸ«∞∑MºOIw«∞∏U∞Y«∞ªU’°U∞Nπd… «∞bË∞OW,≤Ou¥u¸„,72-82√Ø∑u°d/¢Ad¥s«_ˉ4002. Ë¥e¥b´b«∞bÆW≠w•Hkßπö‹«∞Lu«∞Ob≠w«∞∂Kb«_ÅKw∞KDHq±sîDd «ô¢πU¸°t°Nb·«ß∑Gö∞t§MºOUÎ√Ë≠w«∞FLq.≠S–«ØUÊ«∞u§uœ«∞IU≤u≤w∞KDHq¨Od ±ºπq°Bu¸…œÆOIWËØU≠OW,¢∑CU¡‰≠d’¢IHw√£d–∞p«∞DHq¢CUƒôήb¥b«Î. 19 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 19
  24. 24. Ë«_©HU‰«∞c¥s¥u∞bËÊ≠w«∞ªU¸Ã,Ë°ªUÅW∞LNU§d¥sô¥∫LKuÊË£Uzo,Æbô¢∑UÕ ∞Nr≈±JU≤OW¢ºπOqËôœ¢Nr.Ë°U∞∑U∞w,ô¥∑r¢ºπOq«∞Fb¥b±s√©HU‰«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s ËÆb¥B∫∂uÊ´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW.ØLU¥Iq«•∑LU‰œîu‰√©HU‰«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs ≈∞v«∞Lb«¸”√Ë«∞∫Bu‰´Kv«∞d´U¥W«∞B∫OW«∞∑w¥∫∑U§u≤NUîö‰©Hu∞∑Nr. «∞LNU§dËÊ´b¥Lu«∞πMºOW ¢ÔFdΩ·«ô¢HUÆOW«∞ªUÅW°u{l«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW(«¢HUÆOW´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW ∞KFUÂ4591)«∞Aªh´b¥r«∞πMºOW°Q≤tò®ªhô¥F∑∂d±u«©MUαs§U≤V√¥WœË∞W °Lu§VÆU≤u≤NUå.Ë∞Of§LOl«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW±s«∞LNU§d¥s.˱l–∞p≠SÊ «∞∑IU´f´s«ô´∑d«·°U∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s´Kv±d«∞ºMOsË«∞FIuœË•∑v «∞IdËÊ¥L∏qß∂∂UαNLUÎ∞u§uœ´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW≠w±ª∑Kn√§e«¡«∞FU∞r.Ë«∞LNU§dËÊ, Ë°ªUÅW«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs,¨U∞∂UαU¥FπeËÊ´s¢ºπOqËôœ«‹√©HU∞Nr√Ë ¥ªAuÊ≠Fq–∞p≠w«∞∂Kb«Ê«∞∑w¥IBbË≤NU,Ë∞c«¥LJs√Ê¥B∂`≥Rô¡«_©HU‰´b¥Lw «∞πMºOW.Ë¢∫dÂÆu«≤Os«∞Nπd…≠w°Fi«∞bˉ«_©HU‰«∞c¥s¥u∞bËÊ_°MU¡¨Od ±u«©MOs±s•Iu‚«∞πMºOW•∑vË∞uØU≤X«∞M∑OπW√Ê¥B∂`«∞DHq´b¥r«∞πMºOW. Ë¥∑∫u‰«∞Fb¥b±s«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∑r«ô¢πU¸°Nr,ôßOLU«∞MºU¡Ë«_©HU‰≈∞v´b¥Lw «∞πMºOW≠FKOUαsîö‰±BUœ¸…√˸«‚√£∂U‹®ªBO∑Nr±s§U≤V«∞L∑U§d¥s°Nr. ¥LJs«´∑IU‰«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOWË«∞Lu§uœ¥sîU¸Ã°Kb«≤Nr «_Â√Ë«∞bË∞W«∞∑wØU≤u«¥IOLuÊ≠ONUßU°IUÎ∞H∑d«‹©u¥KW≈–«¸≠CX ¢Kp«∞bˉ±M∫Nr•o«∞bîu‰±πbœ«Î≈∞v√¸«{ONU.Ë≠w√¨KV«_•OUÊ, ≠SÊ«_®ªU’«∞c¥sô¥º∑DOFuÊ√Ê¥∏∂∑u«Ë§uœ«¸¢∂U◊ÆU≤u≤w∞Nr °bË∞W±U¥∫d±uÊ•∑v±s√°ºj«∞∫Iu‚-•Iu‚«∞∑FKOrË«∞d´U¥W «∞D∂OWË«∞FLq. «∞πMºOWË«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW-Ø∑OV_´CU¡«∞∂d∞LUÊ-«∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU ∞ARËÊ«∞ö§µOsË«ô¢∫Uœ«∞∂d∞LU≤w«∞bË∞w,5002. •Ew«_®ªU’´b¥Lu«∞πMºOW°U´∑d«·îU’≠w«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w.Øc∞p¢∑L∑l «∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU∞ö§µOs«∞∑U°FW∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…,Ë≥wËØU∞W«_±r«∞L∑∫b…«∞LºRË∞W´s •LU¥W«∞ö§µOsË«∞∑w¢FLq´Kv≈¥πUœ•q∞LAUØq«∞ö§µOs,°Bö•OU‹´U∞LOW ±∫bœ…∞LMl«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOWË«∞∑IKOq±MNUË•LU¥W§LOl«_®ªU’´b¥Lw«∞πMºOW. Ë¢ALq≥cÁ«∞Bö•OU‹«∞∑dË¥Z∞K∑Bb¥o´Kv«¢HUÆO∑Os¢∑FU±öʱl«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW: «¢HUÆOW«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW4591Ë«¢HUÆOWîHi•Uô‹«≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW(«¢HUÆOW«≤Fb«Â «∞πMºOW∞KFUÂ1691).02 20«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 20
  25. 25. «∞HBq«∞∏U≤w: ò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…å ¥∑L∏q°U´Y«∞IKo«∞dzOºw∞bȱMELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW≠w{LUÊ«•∑d«Â«∞∫Iu‚ «ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥sË•LU¥∑NUË¢Fe¥e≥U.Ë≠w•Os√Ê¢BLOrßOUßU‹«∞Nπd…≥u √ßUßUαºQ∞W¢ªhØq•Ju±W´Kv•b…,≈ô√Ê√¥WßOUßU‹ØNcÁ¥πV√Ê¢∑DU°o±l «∞IU≤uÊË«∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. ßOUœ…«∞bË∞WË•bËœ≥U ßu«¡≠w«∞bˉ«∞GMOW√Ë«∞HIOd…,¥F∂d«∞MU”«∞∫bËœØq¥uÂ,√•OU≤UÎ≤∑OπW«ô¢HUÆOU‹ «∞∏MUzOW°Os«∞bˉ,Ë≤∑OπW«∞FLKOU‹«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W«∞FU∞LOW√Ë«ùÆKOLOW˨U∞∂UÎ≠w¢MIö‹ ∞ú®ªU’¨OdîU{FW∞KºODd…Ë«∞∑MEOr.Ë≠wËÆX¢ÔF∑∂d≠OtßOUœ…«∞bË∞W°Q≤NU ±Fd{W∞KªDd,¢AJq¢b«°Od±d«Æ∂W«∞Nπd…,±∏q®dË◊¢Q®Od«‹«∞bîu‰√Ë≤IU◊ «∞∑H∑Og´Mb«∞∫bËœËßOKW™U≥d…∞KFOUÊ∞∑QØObßOUœ…«∞bË∞W. Ë¢∑L∑l«∞bË∞W°U∞∫o«∞ºOUœÍ≠w±LU¸ßW«∞ºKDW´Kv•bËœ≥U.Ë≥c«¥FMw√≤NU ¢LU¸”Ëô¥WÆCUzOW•Bd¥W´Kv√¸«{ONU.Ë≥MU„´bœÆKOq±s«∞LπUô‹«∞∑w ¢LU¸”≠ONU«∞∫Ju±U‹≥c««∞∫o°Iu…√Ø∂d±LU¢LU¸ßt≠w±πU‰«∞Nπd…. 21 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 21
  26. 26. °Ob√Ê«∞ºOUœ…∞OºX±DKIW. ≠U∞ºOUœ…¢FMw√Ê«∞bË∞W¢º∑DOl±LU¸ßWËô¥WÆCUzOW•Bd¥W´Kv √¸«{ONU...∞Js«∞ºOUœ…∞OºX±DKIW ßKDW«∞ºOUœ…∞OºX°ö•bËœ.Ë°d¨r√Ê«∞bˉ¢∑L∑l°U∞∫o≠w±LU¸ßW«∞ºKDW ´Kv•bËœ≥U,≈ô√≤t¥∑d¢V´KONU√¥CUÎË«§V«•∑d«Â«∞u«§∂U‹«∞IU≤u≤OW«∞bË∞OW«∞∑w ¢∑∫LKNU©u«´OW,°LU≠ONU•LU¥W«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s.Ëô¥LJs «ß∑ªb«Â«∞ºOUœ…Ø∫πWœ≠U´OWô¸¢JU»√≠FU‰¨OdÆU≤u≤OW°Lu§V«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w.12 Ëô¥LJs∞KbË∞W√Ê¢JuÊ«≤∑IUzOW≠w«∞∫Iu‚«∞∑w¢D∂INU.≠FKONU±LU¸ßWßKDU¢NU «∞Ad´OW°dËÕ«∞LºRË∞OWË°LU¥∑LU®v±l«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w. ßOUßU‹ò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…å ¢Aπl±FEr«∞ºOUßU‹«∞∫Ju±OW-ùœ«¸…«∞Nπd…-°Fi«_≤u«Ÿ«∞Lª∑U¸…∞KNπd…, °OMLU¢∏∂j¸ßLOUÎ√≤u«´UÎ√îdÈ.≠U∞Fb¥b±s«∞∫Ju±U‹«∞∑w¢AOd´KMUÎ≈∞v«∞Cd˸… «∞LDKIWù°FUœ«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs´s√¸«{ONU¢Juʱº∑Fb…∞∑∫Lq˧uœô°q •∑v≤Lu√ßu«‚«∞FLq¨Od«∞dßLOW«∞∑w¢F∑Lb«´∑LUœ«ÎØ∂Od«Î´Kv´LU∞W«∞LNU§d¥s ¨Od«∞MEU±OOs.Ë°OMLUÆCX«∞∫Ju±U‹¢IKOb¥UΰQÊ«∞Nπd…±ºQ∞WßOUœ¥WËœ«îKOW ØKOUÎ,≈ô√ʱFELNU√Æd«üÊ°U≤FJUßU¢NU´∂d«∞∫b˜ˮU¸„≠w´LKOU‹£MUzOW√Ë ≈ÆKOLOW√ËœË∞OWùœ«¸…«∞Nπd…. Ë¢∫∂c°Fi«∞∫Ju±U‹«∞Nπd…,°º∂V«∞IOLW«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W∞K∑∫u¥ö‹≈∞v«∞bË∞W «∞LdßKW,≠Cöδs«∞Le«¥U«ô§∑LU´OWË«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W∞KFLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s≠w«∞bË∞W «∞L∑KIOW.Ë¢∑ºU≥q°Fi«∞bˉ≈“«¡«∞Nπd…_≤NU¢b¸„«∞IOLW«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W∞IDUŸ «∞ºu‚¨Od«∞dßLOW«∞cÍ¥FLq≠Ot±FEr«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¢AπlœË‰√îdÈ «∞LNU§d¥s´Kv«∞FLq≠wÆDU´U‹¢FU≤w±s≤Ih≠w«∞FLU∞W.Øc∞p¢R£d«∞Mº∂W «∞FU∞OW∞KºJUÊ«∞LºMOsË«ô≤ªHU÷«∞NUzq≠w±Fbô‹«∞ªBu°W≠w«∞bˉ «∞L∑Du¸…´Kv«∞∫Ju±U‹∞LU≠Ot±BK∫W«∞Nπd…,∞Of√ÆKt∞K∫HUÿ´Kv≤EU±w ±FU®U‹«∞∑IU´bË«∞CLUÊ«ô§∑LU´wË≈¥πUœ´bœØU·±s±Ib±w«∞d´U¥W. Ë«∞bˉ«∞∑w¢dßq«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞v«∞ªU¸Ã¢∑DKl≈∞v«∞∫Bu‰´Kv±e¥W¢∫u¥ö‹ «∞LNU§d¥sôÆ∑BUœ¥U¢NU.22Øc∞p¢ºFv≥cÁ«∞bˉ≈∞v«ôß∑HUœ…±s±e«¥Uò≥πd… «_œ±GWå´Mb±U¥Fuœ±u«©Mu≥U≈∞v«∞u©sËÆb«Ø∑º∂u«±NU¸«‹§b¥b…≠w«∞bË∞W «∞∑w´LKu«≠ONU. 22«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 22
  27. 27. °Ob√Ê«∞Fb¥b±s«∞ºOUßOOsËßu«≥r±s±FbÍ«∞ºOUßW¥∑Q£dËʧb«Î°U∞∑Bu¸ «∞IUzq≈Ê«¢ªU–±uÆn±∑Abœ≈“«¡«∞Nπd…ßOe¥b±s®F∂O∑Nr∞bÈ«∞MUî∂Os. Ë¥LJs°ºNu∞WîKo«∞ªu·,«∞cÍ¥∑πKv≠w«∞dœËœ«∞FMBd¥WËØd«≥OW«_§U≤V,≠w ÅHu·«∞πLNu¸,Ë¥AJq«∞LNU§dËÊ≥b≠UÎßNöÎ.ØLU√ÊßOUßU‹¢IOOb«∞Nπd… ¥LJs√Ê¢M∂l±s±AU´dË≥LuÂË©MOW≈“«¡ «∞ªDd«∞L∑Bu¸«∞cÍ¥AJKt«∞LNU§dËÊ, ôßOLU«∞LNU§dËʨOd«∞MEU±OOs,´Kv«∞Nu¥W «∞Iu±OW√Ë√±s«∞∂öœ.Ë≥MU„«∞Fb¥b±s «ô¢HUÆOU‹«∞∏MUzOW«∞L∂d±W°Os«∞bˉ ∞KºODd…´Kv«∞Nπd….Ë≥w¢ALq«¢HUÆOU‹ «∞FLU∞WË«¢HUÆOU‹∞LFU∞πW°u«´YÆKo±∏q«∞∑Nd¥VË«ô¢πU¸.Ë¢FIb°Fi«∞bˉ «_«¢HUÆOU‹±lœË‰«∞u§NW«∞LIBuœ…∞∫LU¥W´LU∞NU«∞LNU§d¥s√Ë∞CLUÊ œîu∞Nr≈∞v√ßu«‚«∞FLq≠w«∞bˉ«∞∑w¥IBbË≤NU.˨U∞∂UαU¢∑DKlœË‰«∞u§NW «∞LIBuœ…∞FIb«¢HUÆOU‹∞KFuœ…Ë«ùœîU‰±s§b¥b±l«∞bˉ«_ÅKOW˜ˉ «∞∑d«≤e¥X.Ë¢∑ªc≥cÁ«ô¢HUÆOU‹®Jq«¢HUÆOU‹¢AGOKOW√Ë«¢HUÆOU‹≈©U¸√Ë ±cØd«‹¢HU≥r. © EMPICS ´LU‰±NU§dËÊ√§øU≤øV¥ø∫ø∑øπøuÊ´øKøv«∞øªøDøu«‹«∞ø∑øw «¢ªc¢NU•Ju±WØu¸¥U«∞πMu°OW∞∑d•Oq«∞FLU‰«_§øU≤øV «∞c¥s°Iu«´IV«≤∑NU¡¢Q®Od«‹œîøu∞øNør,≠øw±øNød§øUÊ √ÆOr≠wßu‰,°Ju¸¥U«∞πMøu°øOøW,≠ø∂ød«¥ød/®ø∂øU◊6002. ËØø∑øV´øKøv´ÔBøU°øW¸ƒËßøNør®øFøøøU¸¥øøøIøøøu‰ò≤øøøDøøøU∞øøøV °∑Q®Od«‹´Lqå. 23 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 23
  28. 28. Øc∞p¢AU¸„•Ju±U‹´b¥b…≠w¢d¢O∂U‹≈ÆKOLOW¢Mh´Kvœ¸§U‹ ±∑HUË¢W±s«∞∫d«„∞Lu©Mw«∞bˉ«_´CU¡.≠L∏öÎ,¢LM`«¢HUÆOU‹«∞LπLu´W «ôÆ∑BUœ¥W∞bˉ¨d»√≠d¥IOU(≈¥Ju«”)±u«©Mw¢Kp«∞bˉ•oò«∞bîu‰≈∞v Ë«ùÆU±WË«ôß∑Id«¸å≠w√¥WœË∞W´Cu.Ë≠w«ô¢∫Uœ«_˸˰w,¥ÔºL`∞Lu«©Mw œË‰«ô¢∫Uœ«_˸˰w°U∞∫d«„«∞JU±q,°LU≠w–∞p_¨d«÷«∞FLq.Ë¥ÔdØe «∞∫d«„œ«îq«∞ºu‚«∞LA∑dØW∞KILl«∞πMu°w_±d¥JU«∞πMu°OW(±dØußu¸)¥ÔdØe •Bd«Î´Kv¢MIq«∞LNMOOs.Ë≠w¬ßOU,«∞∑wØU≤X≠ONU«ô¢HUÆOU‹«∞LKe±W•u‰ ÆCU¥U«∞Nπd…≤Uœ¸…,≠SÊ«∞bˉ«∞∑w¢∑Q∞n±MNU¸«°DWœË‰§Mu»®d‚¬ßOU (¬ßOUÊ)Ë«≠IX±s•OY«∞L∂b√´Kv≠∑`ÆDU´U‹±FOMW√±U«∞FLU‰«∞IUœ±Os ±sœË‰¬ßOUÊ.Ë≈{U≠W≈∞v–∞p,≠S≤t°Lu§V°d≤U±Z≠OOM∑OUÊ∞KFLq∞KFU 4002,«∞∑e±X«∞bˉ«_´CU¡≠w¬ßOUÊ°BOU¨WÅp∞∑Fe¥e•Iu‚«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥sË•LU¥∑NU.Ë«¢ºLX±MDIW«∞Ad‚«_Ëßj°U∞L∏q°Uô≠∑IU¸≈∞v «¢HUÆOU‹±Ke±W•u‰«∞Nπd….Ë«ß∑Nb≠XßKºKW±s«∞KIU¡«‹∞∫u«¸5+5 «∞ªU’°U∞Nπd…≠w¨d»«∞L∑ußj,Ë«∞∑w«ß∑CU≠∑NU«∞LMELW«∞bË∞OW∞KNπd… °Os2002Ë4002¢Fe¥e«∞∑MºOoË¢∫b¥b«∞dœËœ–«‹«∞BKW´Kv¢FIOb√≤LU◊ «∞Nπd…≠w≥cÁ«∞LMDIW. Ë´Kv«∞BFOb«∞bË∞w,ßFX«∞∫Ju±U‹∞K∑uÅq≈∞v≈§LUŸ•u‰±∂Uœ∆ ´U±W¥d¢Je´KONU≤EUÂœË∞wòùœ«¸…«∞Nπd…å.˱s«_±∏KW«∞∫b¥∏W´Kv–∞p, ±∂Uœ¸…°OdÊ,Ë≥w´LKOW¢AU˸¥W°Os«∞∫Ju±U‹¢Nb·≈∞vò¢∫IOo≈œ«¸… √≠Cq∞KNπd…´Kv«∞Lº∑uÈ«ùÆKOLwË«∞bË∞w±sîö‰«∞∑FUËÊ«_≠Cq°Os «∞bˉ.å32Ë≥MU„±∏U‰¬îd≥u«∞FLKOW«∞∑AU˸¥W«∞∫Ju±OW«∞bË∞OWœ«îq±MELW «∞FLq«∞bË∞OW.ËÆbœ´X«∞πKºW«∞∏U≤OWË«∞∑ºFuÊ∞LR¢Ld«∞FLq«∞bË∞w±MELW «∞FLq«∞bË∞OW≈∞v¢MHOcîDW´Lq•u‰«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s¢Nb·≈∞v{LUÊ ®Lq«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s≠w≤Bu’«∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞KFLqË«ß∑HUœ¢Nr±s Æu«≤Os«∞FLqË«∞Iu«≤Os«ô§∑LU´OW«∞u©MOW«∞LFLu‰°NU.Ë∞∑∫IOo–∞p, «´∑Lb‹«∞NOµW«∞∫UØLW≠w±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW≈©U¸«Î±∑Fbœ«∞πu«≤V¨Od ±Ke°AQÊ≥πd…«∞FLU∞W. Ë«∞LMELW«∞bË∞OW∞KNπd…≥w±MELW¨Od•Ju±OW«{DKFX°b˸ÆOUœÍ≠w «∞LMUÆAU‹«∞∑w¢b˸•u‰≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…≠w«∞ºU•W«∞bË∞OWË¢KFVœË¸«Î±∑e«¥b «_≥LOW≠w≈´b«œßOUßWœË∞OW∞KNπd….Ë¥∑πKv–∞p°u{uÕ≠wò«∞∫u«¸«∞bË∞w •u‰«∞Nπd…å42«∞cÍ¥Nb·≈∞v¢Fe¥e¬∞OU‹«∞∑FUËÊ°Os«∞∫Ju±U‹≠w±πUô‹ ±∏q«∞Nπd…Ë«∞∑πU¸…Ë«∞FLU∞WË«∞B∫WË«∞∑MLOW.Ëô¢∑L∑l«∞LMELW«∞bË∞OW∞KNπd… 24«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 24
  29. 29. °Bö•OU‹¸ßLOW∞K∫LU¥W√Ë°Q¥W±ºRË∞OW∞û®d«·´Kv±FU≥b…œË∞OW¢∫Lw «∞LNU§d¥s. ò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…åË•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ Øw¥JuÊ≤EUÂò≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…å≠FUôÎ,≠ö¥JHw√Ê¥Juʧb¥d«Î°∏IW«∞bˉ˕ºV, °q√¥CUΧb¥d«Î°∏IW«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë∞∑∫IOo–∞p,¥M∂Gw√Ê¥∫∑d«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW «_ßUßOW∞KLNU§d¥s,Ë≠w«∞u«Æl¥πV√Ê¥ºFv°Bu¸…•∏O∏Wô•∑d«Â•Iu‚ §LOl«∞LNU§d¥sË•LU¥∑NUË¢Fe¥e≥U.∞c«¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞bˉ√Ê¢JHq°Qô¢CFn ßOUßU¢NU˱LU¸ßU¢NU°QÍ®Jq•Iu‚√ͱNU§d¥s,°Bd·«∞MEd´s´u«±q±∏q Ë{FNr√Ë©d¥IWßHd≥rËËÅu∞Nr≈∞v√¸«{w«∞bË∞W.Ë°AJqîU’,ô¥πu“ ∞NcÁ«∞ºOUßU‹Ë«∞LLU¸ßU‹√Ê¢ÔFdΩ÷«∞LNU§d¥s∞Le¥b±s±ªU©d«ô≤∑NUØU‹ ≠w√¥W±d•KW±s¸•KW≥πd¢Nr.Ë¢F∑Ib±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW√Ê√Í≤EUÂòùœ«¸… «∞Nπd…å,ßu«¡ØUÊË©MOUÎ√Ë£MUzOUÎ√Ë≈ÆKOLOUÎ√ËœË∞OUÎ,¥πV√Ê¥∑r≈´b«œÁ{Ls ≈©U¸∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. ¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞bˉ√Ê¢JHq°Qô¢ÔFdΩ÷ßOUßU¢NU˱LU¸ßU¢NU´KvÅFOb ≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…«∞LNU§d¥s∞ªDd«ô≤∑NUØU‹ ¥FMw•o«∞bˉ≠w≈œ«¸…«∞Nπd…√≤t¥∫o∞K∫Ju±W√Ê: >¢Fd·±s¥F∂d•bËœ≥U >¢Id¸°d«±ZËßOUßU‹«∞Nπd…«∞ªUÅW°NU >¢∑ªcîDu«‹∞K∑IKOq±s«∞Nπd…¨Od«∞LBdÕ°NU. Ë≠w«∞uÆX–«¢t,«∞∫Ju±W±Ke±W°‡: >«•∑d«Â±∂b√´b«ù´Uœ…«∞Iºd¥W«∞cÍ¥Mh´Kv√≤tô¥πu“≈´Uœ…√Í®ªh ´Kv√Í≤∫uØUÊ≈∞v°Kb¥∑Fd÷≠Ot∞ªDd«∞∑Fc¥V√˨OdÁ±s«ô≤∑NUØU‹ «∞ªDOd…∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ;Ë¥∑CLs≥c««∞L∂b√´b¸≠i√®ªU’´Kv«∞∫bËœ ¥DK∂uÊ«∞∫LU¥W«∞bË∞OW,°Ls≠ONr©U∞∂u«∞Kπu¡,Ë«∞ö§µuÊ. >{LUÊ¢LU®w«∞Iu«≤OsË«∞ºOUßU‹Ë«∞LLU¸ßU‹–«‹«∞BKW°bîu‰§LOl «∞LNU§d¥s≈∞v√¸«{ONUË≈ÆU±∑Nr≠ONUË´uœ¢Nr±l±∂Uœ∆«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞∫Iu‚ «ù≤ºUÊ(Ë«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞ö§µOsË«∞IU≤uÊ«ù≤ºU≤w«∞bË∞w°∫ºV«ô≤D∂U‚). 25 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 25
  30. 30. >{LUÊ¢MHOc≈§d«¡«‹«∞bîu‰Ë«ù°FUœ/«∞∑d•Oq(√ØU≤X¢Ad¥FOW√Â≈œ«¸¥W)°LU ¥∑LU®v±l±FU¥Od•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. >{LUÊ•LU¥W«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s«∞Lu§uœ¥s≠w√¸«{ONU√Ë «∞ªU{FOs∞ºODd¢NU«∞HFKOW,Ë°ªUÅW•o§LOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s,°Bd·«∞MEd ´sË{FNr,≠w√Ë{UŸ´Lq´Uœ∞W˱u«¢OW. 26«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 26
  31. 31. «∞HBq«∞∏U∞Y:•Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥s°Lu§V «∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w ¢∑IU©l¢πd°W«∞LNU§d±l´bœ±s±πUô‹«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w.Ë«∞LBUœ¸«_ßUßOW ∞KIU≤uÊ≥wÆU≤uÊ•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ(«∞cÍ¥ALq«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s),ËÆU≤uÊ«∞FLq (°LU≠Ot±FU¥Od±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW)ËÆU≤uÊ«∞ö§µOs(«∞cÍÆb¥MD∂o±∂U®d…√Ë ¥ºU´b,´Kvß∂Oq«∞IOU”,≠w≈¸®Uœ«∞HdËŸ«_îdÈ≠w¢HºOd«∞IU≤uÊ),52Ë«∞IU≤uÊ «ù≤ºU≤w«∞bË∞wË«∞IU≤uÊ«∞πMUzw«∞bË∞w. Ëô¢u§b±πLu´W±MHBKW∞KIU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞KNπd….˱l–∞p,≥MU„ò≤EUÂœË∞w ∞KNπd…å≠w©u¸«∞MAu¡¥∑Q∞n±s«∞LFU¥OdË«ü∞OU‹Ë«∞LRߺU‹«∞bË∞OW.Ë¥M∂Gw´Kv «∞b´U…Ë«∞LMU{KOs±s√§q«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s√Ê¥ºFu«≈∞v «∞∑QØb±s√Ê≤IDW«ô≤Dö‚«_ßUßOW∞KMEU«∞bË∞w∞KNπd…≥w•Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥sË∞Of±BU∞`«∞bˉ. Øc∞p¢Il±ºRË∞OW•LU¥W«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s´Kv´U¢o±πLu´W±s «∞NOµU‹,Ë°ªUÅW: >«∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ. >≥OµU‹±d«Æ∂W±FU≥b«‹«_±r«∞L∑∫b…,Ë°ªUÅW«∞KπMW«∞LFMOW°U∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥s. 27 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 27
  32. 32. >«ù§d«¡«‹«∞ªUÅW∞LRߺU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ≠w«_±r«∞L∑∫b…,Ë°ªUÅW«∞LId¸ «∞ªU’«∞LFMw°U∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s. >«∞LHu{OW«∞FKOU∞ö§µOs«∞∑U°FW∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…,•OY¢MD∂o«¢HUÆOW «∞ö§µOs,«∞∑w¢∑∫Lq±ºRË∞OW¢Fe¥e«ô¢HUÆOU‹«∞ªUÅW°U≤Fb«Â«∞πMºOW. >±MELW«∞FLq«∞bË∞OW•OY¢MD∂o«ô¢HUÆOU‹–«‹«∞BKW∞LMELW«∞FLq «∞bË∞OW. Ë´Kv«∞Lº∑uÈ«ùÆKOLw,≠SÊ«ô¢∫Uœ«_≠d¥IwË«ô¢∫Uœ«_˸˰w˱πKf√˸˰U ˱MELW«∞bˉ«_±d¥JOW¢∑∫Lq§LOFNU±ºRË∞OW´s«ù®d«·´Kv¢MHOc«∞BJu„ «ùÆKOLOW«∞L∑FKIW°∫LU¥W•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s. ±∂b√´b«∞∑LOOe ¥∑ºr±∂b√«∞∑LOOe°Q≥LOW±∫u¸¥W∞K∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¥dœ≥c« «∞L∂b√≠w§LOl«∞BJu„«∞bË∞OW«∞LNLW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ.62 Ë¥º∑DOl«∞LNU§dËÊ√Ê¥RØbË«•INr≠w´b«∞∑Fd÷∞K∑LOOe_ß∂U»±ª∑KHW °Lu§V: >«∞LUœ…2(1)±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW«∞∑w ¢JHq«∞∫Iu‚«∞LF∑d·°NU≠w«∞FNb°bËÊ¢LOOe√¥UÎØUÊ≤u´t,±∏q «∞Fd‚√Ë«∞KuÊ√Ë«∞πMf√Ë«∞KGW√Ë«∞b¥s√Ë«∞d√Í«∞ºOUßw√Ë√͸√Í ¬îd√Ë«_Åq«∞Iu±w√Ë«ô§∑LU´w√Ë«∞∏dË…√Ë«∞MºV√Ë√ÍË{l ¬îd;Ë«∞LUœ…62«∞∑w¢JHq«∞∫LU¥W«∞L∑ºUË¥W√±U«∞IU≤uÊ°bËÊ√Í ¢LOOe; >«∞LUœ…2(3)±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OW Ë«∞∏IU≠OW,«∞∑w¢JHq«∞∫Iu‚«∞u«¸œ…≠w«∞FNb°bËÊ¢LOOe√¥UÎØUÊ≤u´t; >«∞LUœ…2(1)±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq«∞∑w¢JHq«∞∫Iu‚«∞u«¸œ…≠w«ô¢HUÆOW °bËÊ¢LOOe±s√Í≤uŸØUÊ; >«∞LUœ…1(1)±s«ô¢HUÆOW«∞bË∞OW∞KICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ «∞∑w¢∫Ed«∞∑LOOe´Kv√ßU”«∞Fd‚√Ë«∞KuÊ√Ë«∞MºV√Ë«_Åq«∞Iu±w√Ë «ù£Mw; >«∞LUœ…1±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…«∞∑w ¢∫Ed«∞∑LOOe´Kv√ßU”«∞πMf; 28«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:46 pm Page 28
  33. 33. >«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s«∞∑w¢ußl«_ß∂U»«∞L∫Eu¸…∞K∑LOOe≠OLU¥∑FKo°∫Iu‚ «∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s∞∑ALq«∞IMU´WË«∞Iu±OWË«∞ºsË«∞u{l«ôÆ∑BUœÍË«∞u{l «ô§∑LU´w. Ëô¥FMw±∂b√´b«∞∑LOOe√Ê∞KLNU§d¥s «∞∫Iu‚–«¢NU°U∞C∂j«∞∑w¥∑L∑l°NU «∞Lu«©MuÊ.≠L∏öÎ≠w°Fi«∞uô¥U‹«∞ICUzOW ∞Kbˉ,ô¥∫o∞KLNU§d¥s«∞∫Bu‰´Kv±e«¥U «∞CLUÊ«ô§∑LU´w´Kv«_ßf–«¢NU«∞∑w¥∫o ∞KLu«©MOs«∞∑L∑l°NU.°Ob√ʱ∂b√´b«∞∑LOOe ¥FMw√Ê√¥W«î∑ö≠U‹≠w±FU±KW«∞LNU§d¥s ¥πV√Ê¢∑IOb°U∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w-Ëô¥πu“√Ê ¢M∑Np«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s«∞LF∑d· °NUœË∞OUÎ.Ë¢ºL`«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl ¥ø∑øªøU©øV√≠ød«œ«∞øFøUzøö‹´ø∂ød«∞øºøOøUë∞ø∫øb˜ͫ∞øcÍ ¥HBq«∞LJºOp´sØU∞OHu¸≤OU.Ë≠w«∞∑ºFOMOU‹,√ÆOLX «_ßOπW∞LMl«∞LNU§d¥s±s«∞øFø∂øu¸±øs«∞øLøJøºøOøp≈∞øv «∞øuô¥øU‹«∞øLø∑ø∫øb…«_±ød¥øJøOøW´øøKøøøv©øøøu‰«∞øøø∫øøøbËœ±øøøl ØU∞OHu¸≤OUË¢JºU”.Ë≠w√¸¥eË≤U«∞∫bËœ∞OøºøX±øFøKøLøW «∞KøNør≈ô°øAød¥øj®øUzøp,_Ê≥øMøU„®øFøu¸«Î°øQÊ«∞øπø∂øU‰ «∞FøU∞øOøWË05±øOøöδøs«∞øBø∫ød«¡¥øAøJøöÊØøLøU¥ÔHø∑ød÷ ¸«œ´OsØU≠øOøOøs.Ë≠øw«∞ø∫øIøOøIøW¥ø∫øUˉ±øµøU‹«üô·±øs «_®øªøU’«∞øFø∂øu¸Øøq´øUÂ,•øOøY¥øKøIøv«∞øLøµøU‹±øMøNøøør ±Bd´Nr√£MU¡±∫UË∞W«∞F∂u¸. © Gerd Ludwig /Panos 29 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 29
  34. 34. √®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ∞K∫Ju±U‹¢∫b¥b«Î°LLU¸ßWò«∞∑LU¥e√Ë«ôß∑∏MU¡«‹√Ë«∞IOuœ √Ë«_≠CKOU‹ò°Os«∞Lu«©MOs˨Od«∞Lu«©MOs(«∞LUœ…1(2).Ë¢Cl«∞LUœ…2(3)±s «ô¢HUÆOW®d©UδKv«∞L∂b√«∞FU«∞IU{w°U≤D∂U‚«∞FNb°U∞∑ºUËÍ´Kv«∞Lu«©MOs˨Od «∞Lu«©MOs°LM`«∞bˉ«∞MU±OWßKDW¢∫b¥bò≈∞v√ͱbÈ¢JHq«∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W «∞LF∑d·°NU≠w«∞FNb∞GOd«∞Lu«©MOså.72Ë¢πOe«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s±LU¸ßW °Fi√®JU‰«∞∑LU¥e°Os«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¥∫LKuÊË£UzoË√Ë∞µp«∞c¥sô¥∫LKuÊ Ë£Uzo.82 Ë≠w±Fd÷¢IOOr±U≈–«ØUÊ≈§d«¡îU’¥∑ªc≠OLU¥∑FKo°LπLu´W±s «∞LNU§d¥s¥ÔAJq¢LOOe«Î±IU¸≤W°U∞∑LU¥e«∞LAdËŸ,√¥s¥πV√Ê≤dßr«∞∫b«∞HUÅq? Ë¥M∂Gw√Ê¢ªb«∞∑LU¥e«‹«ôß∑∏MUzOW≥b≠UαAdË´UÎË√Ê¢Juʱ∑MUß∂W±l¢∫IOo –∞p«∞Nb·.92˱s«_≥LOW°LJUÊ√ô¢∑bîq≠w•o«∞Hdœ,°Bd·«∞MEd´sË{Ft, ≠w«•∑d«Â•IuÆt«ù≤ºU≤OW«_ßUßOW.03 «∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW«_îdÈ∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ ò≈Ê≥OJq«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊÆb°Mw´Kv≠d{OW√ʧLOl «_®ªU’,«ß∑MUœ«Î≈∞v≈≤ºU≤O∑Nr«_ßUßOW,¥M∂Gw√Ê¥∑L∑Fu«°πLOl •Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ..å. œ¥HObË¥º∂dËœ‹,«∞LId¸«∞ªU’∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…«∞LFMw°GOd «∞Lu«©MOs,«∞∑Id¥d«∞MNUzw•u‰•Iu‚¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs(3002)13 ≈Ê√≠Cq©d¥IW∞∫LU¥W•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s≥w«ôß∑HUœ…±s±ª∑Kn¢Hd´U‹ «∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ.ËØLU–ÔØd√´öÁ,¥LJs√•OU≤UαLU¸ßW¢LU¥e±AdËŸ°Os «∞Lu«©MOs˨Od«∞Lu«©MOsË°Os±πLu´U‹«∞LNU§d¥s.°Ob√≤t¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞bˉ Ëßu«≥U±s«∞πNU‹«∞HU´KW≠w±FU±K∑NU∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s√ô¢MNp«∞L∂b√«_ßUßw ∞Fb«∞∑LOOe. Ë¥LJsô≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ√Ê¢JuÊß∂∂UÎË≤∑OπW∞∫dØU‹«∞Nπd….≠U∞HId «∞LbÆlÆb¥b≠l«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞v±GUœ¸…Ë©MNr«_´Kv√±q±LU¸ßW•IuÆNr «ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OW.˱l–∞p,≠Hw«∞∂Kb«∞LIBuœ,Æb¥u«§t«∞LNU§dËÊ Ë´Uzö¢Nr«∞∑uÆOnË«ô´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHwË«∞∫d±Uʱs•Iu‚«∞FLqË«∞LLU¸ßU‹ 30«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 30
  35. 35. «∞IUÅd…√Ë«∞LºOµW≠w«∞FLqË«∞∫d±Uʱs«∞∫Bu‰«∞L∑JU≠T´Kv«∞∑FKOrË«∞ªb±U‹ «∞B∫OW.ËÆb¥∫d±uʱs•o«∞∫LU¥W«∞L∑ºUË¥W«∞∑w¢u≠d≥U«∞L∫UØr,ËÆb¥∑Fd{uÊ ∞KDdœ«∞∑FºHw. Ë¥FMw«´∑LUœ•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ°FCNU´Kv«∞∂Fi«üîdË´bÂÆU°KO∑NU∞K∑πezW√Ê •d±UÊ«∞LNU§d¥s±s√•b«∞∫Iu‚¨U∞∂UαU¥LJs√Ê¥RœÍ≈∞v«≤∑NUØU‹√îdÈ ∞∫IuÆNr√Ë¥B∫∂NU.∞c«±∏öÎ,≠SÊ√Ë{UŸ«ô´∑IU‰«∞IUÅd…Ë«∞LºOµWÆb¢CFn °AJqîDOd•o«∞LNU§d≠w«∞B∫W;Ë«∞Ddœ±s«∞LºJsÆb¥ÔFdΩ÷«∞LNU§d ∞öß∑Gö‰Ë«_–È≠w«∞Au«¸Ÿ√Ë∞ö´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHw.Ë´öË…´Kv–∞p,≠SÊ•d±UÊ «∞LNU§d±s•Iu‚«∞FLq,±∏q«∞∫o≠wßU´U‹´Lq±M∑ELWË≠w¸«•W√ß∂u´OW, ¨U∞∂UαU¢B∫∂tÆOuœ®b¥b…´Kv•It≠w«∞∫d¥WË«_±s´Kv®ªBt. ¢MFJf«∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW°AJq´UÂ≠w«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥s.Ë´öË…´Kv–∞p,≠S≤t•∑v≠w«∞bˉ«∞∑w∞r¢Bb‚´Kv«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰ «∞LNU§d¥s,≠SÊ«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW ¥∫Lw«∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW∞πLOl«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥sË´Uzö¢Nr ∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥sœËÊ«ß∑∏MU¡√¥UÎØUÊ≤u´t«∞∫o≠w: >«∞∫OU…(«∞LUœ…6±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…9 ±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). >´b«∞∑Fd÷∞K∑Fc¥V˨OdÁ±s{dË»«∞LFU±KW√Ë«∞FIu°W«∞IUßOW√Ë «∞ö≈≤ºU≤OW√Ë«∞LNOMW(«∞LUœ…7±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OW Ë«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…01±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s) >´b«∞∑Fd÷∞KF∂uœ¥WË«∞d‚(«∞LUœ…8(1)Ë(2)±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’ °U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…11(1)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). >´b«∞∑Fd÷∞Kºπs°º∂V´b«∞Ib¸…´Kv«∞u≠U¡°u«§V¢FUÆbÍ («∞LUœ…11±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…02(1) ±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). >«ô´∑d«·°tØAªh√±U«∞IU≤uÊ(«∞LUœ…61±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’ °U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…42±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). >•d¥W«∞HJdË«∞u§b«ÊË«∞b¥s(«∞LUœ…81±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚ «∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;«∞LUœ…21(1)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). 31 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 31
  36. 36. (°Ls≠ONr√Ë∞µp«∞c¥s∞b¥NrË{l¨Od≤EU±w).23ËÆb«´∑d≠X«∞KπMW«∞LFMOW °U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW ∞KLNU§d¥s≠w¢uÅOU¢NU«∞FU±W•u‰«∞∫Iu‚≠w«∞∑FKOrË«∞B∫WË«∞LU¡.Ë≠w¢FKOINU «∞FU¸Ær03¢∫Y«∞KπMW«∞LFMOW°U∞ICU¡´Kv«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ«∞bˉ´Kvò¢c∞Oq «∞FI∂U‹«∞∑w¢∫u‰œËÊ¢L∑l¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OW Ë«∞∏IU≠OW;ôßOLU≠w±πUô‹«∞∑FKOrË«∞ºJsË«∞FLqË«∞B∫Wå.33 Ë≠w™dË·«ß∑∏MUzOW±∏q«∞∫d»√Ë•U∞W«∞Du«¸∆«∞FU±W«∞∑w¢∑Nbœ•OU…«_±W, ¥πOe«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w∞Kbˉ√Ê¢IOb°Bu¸…±RÆ∑W≤DU‚¢D∂Oo•Iu‚≈≤ºU≤OW±∫bœ…: Ë¢Fd·≥cÁ«∞FLKOW°Uô≤∑IU’.43Ë°AJqîU’´IV≥πLU‹11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002 ∞πLOl«∞LNU§d¥s°Bd·«∞MEd´sË{FNr«∞∫o≠w: >«∞B∫W(«∞LUœ…21±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OW Ë«∞∏IU≠OW;«∞LUœ…5(≥‡)(4)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe «∞FMBdÍ;«∞LUœ¢UÊ21Ë41(»)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe {b«∞Ld√…;Ë«∞LUœ¢UÊ42Ë52±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq;«∞LUœ…82±s«¢HUÆOW «∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s) >«∞∑FKOr(«∞LUœ¢UÊ31Ë41±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W Ë«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW;Ë«∞LUœ¢UÊ82Ë92±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq;Ë«∞LUœ… 5(≥‡)(5)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ;Ë«∞LUœ…03 ±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s). >«∞ºJs«∞JU≠w(«∞LUœ…11±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W Ë«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW;«∞LUœ…41(2)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰ «∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…;«∞LUœ¢UÊ61(1)Ë72(3)±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq;Ë«∞LUœ… 5(≥‡)(3)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ) >±U¥JHw±s«∞DFUÂË«∞LU¡(«∞LUœ…11±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚ «ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW;«∞LUœ…42(2)(Ã)±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq; «∞LUœ…41(œ)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…) >«∞FLqË«∞∫Iu‚√£MU¡«∞FLq(«∞Lu«œ6-8±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚ «ôÆ∑BUœ¥WË«ô§∑LU´OWË«∞∏IU≠OW;«∞LUœ…5(≥‡)(◊)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv §LOl√®JU‰«∞∑LOOe«∞FMBdÍ;«∞LUœ¢UÊ11Ë41±s«¢HUÆOW«∞ICU¡´Kv§LOl √®JU‰«∞∑LOOe{b«∞Ld√…;«∞LUœ¢UÊ52Ë62±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s) 32«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 32
  37. 37. «∞∑wËÆFX≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…«_±d¥JOWË≠w≈©U¸ò«∞∫d»´Kv«ù¸≥U»å,ßFX «∞∫Ju±U‹≈∞v«∞∑MBq,≈±U±sîö‰´LKOW«≤∑IU’¸ßLOW√Ë°Jq°ºU©W´s©d¥o ±∫UË∞W«ô∞∑HU·´Kv«∞IU≤uÊ,±s°Fi«∞u«§∂U‹¢πUÁ•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ≠OLU¥∑FKo °LFU±K∑NU∞KLNU§d¥s.53ËÆb°b√‹«∞∫Ju±U‹«∞FLq°Uô´∑IU‰¨Od«∞L∫bœ∞GOd «∞Lu«©MOs°bËÊ¢NLW√˱∫UØLW,Ë√£U¸‹≈±JU≤OW«∞I∂u‰°Qœ∞W¢ÔM∑‡eŸ¢∫XË©Q… «∞∑Fc¥V≠w≈§d«¡«‹ÆCUzOW¢Ô∑ªc{b¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs,Ë√´Uœ‹¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs≈∞v √Ë{UŸ¢Ôd¢JV≠ONU«≤∑NUØU‹îDOd…∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUʱsîö‰«∞I∂u‰°∑QØOb«‹ œ°Ku±UßOW.63 Ë∞Js±s•OY«∞L∂b√,ô¥πu“√Ê¥∫Bq«ô≤∑IU’±sË«§∂U‹±∫bœ…¢πUÁ•Iu‚ «ù≤ºUÊ≈ô≠w™dË·±∫bœ…°AJqÅU¸Â,√Í: >≠w•U∞W«∞Du«¸∆«∞FU±W«∞∑w¢∑Nbœ•OU…«_±W; >Ë«ù´öÊ«∞dßLw´s˧uœ≥U; >Ë≠Ij°U∞Ib¸«∞cÍ¢ICOt¢LU±UÎ{d˸«‹«∞LuÆn; Ë®d¥DW√Ê≥cÁ«∞∑b«°Od: >ô¢∑FU¸÷±l«∞u«§∂U‹«_îdÈ°Lu§V«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w; >Ëô¢MDuÍ´Kv¢LOOe¥IuÂ≠Ij´Kv√ßU”«∞Fd‚√Ë«∞KuÊ√Ë«∞πMf√Ë«∞KGW√Ë «∞b¥s√Ë«∞u{l«ô§∑LU´w.73 33 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 33
  38. 38. «∞HBq«∞d«°l:ØOn ¢M∑Np•Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥s? ¢Mπr√•OU≤UΫ≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«∞LNU§d¥s±s«∞∑b«°Od«∞∑IOOb¥W∞Ld«Æ∂W«∞Nπd…√˱s «∞∫d±Uʱs•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«_ßUßOW≠w«∞bË∞W«∞LIBuœ….Ë√•OU≤U΢Ôd¢JV«≤∑NUØU‹ •Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ≠wßOU‚≈°FUœ«∞LNU§d±s«∞bË∞W«∞LCOHW.Ë¥AJq«∞∑LOOeË«∞FMBd¥W ËØd«≥OW«_§U≤VË«ô´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHwËßu¡«∞LFU±KWË«ôß∑Gö‰ØKNU°u«´Y«∞IKo «_Ø∏d®Ou´UÎË≈∞∫U•UδKvÅFOb•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«∞∑w¢R£d´Kv«∞LNU§d¥s. ±d«Æ∂Wœîu‰∞LNU§d¥sË´uœ¢Nr •o«∞LGUœ¸…Ë«∞Fuœ…≈∞v«∞u©s«_ ¥∑L∑l§LOl«∞LNU§d¥s°∫o±GUœ¸…√¥WœË∞W°LU≠ONUœË∞∑NrË«∞Fuœ…≈∞vË©MNr«_Â. ˱s≤U•OW√îdÈ,∞Of≥MU„•o±IU°q∞Kbîu‰≈∞vœË∞W√îdÈ.°Ob√Ê•o«∞bîu‰ ≈∞v√¸«÷Ì≥d°Uαs«ô{DNUœ¥dœ{LMUÎ≠w«¢HUÆOW«∞ö§µOs∞KFUÂ1591.83 Ë¢AOd«∞LUœ…31(2)±s«ù´öÊ«∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ≈∞v√≤tò¥∫o∞Jq≠dœ√Ê ¥GUœ¸√¥W°öœ°LU≠w–∞p°KbÁ,ØLU¥∫o∞t«∞Fuœ…≈∞Otå.Ë¥MFJf≥c««∞∫o≠w «∞LUœ¢Os21(2)Ë(4)±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOWË«∞LUœ¢Os 34«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 34
  39. 39. 8(1)Ë(2)±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥sË«∞LUœ…01(2)±s«¢HUÆOW•Iu‚«∞DHq. Ë°Lu§V«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s,¥∑L∑l«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§dËÊ°∫d¥W±GUœ¸…√¥WœË∞W±l ±d«´U…ÆOuœ±FOMW¥Mh´KONU«∞IU≤uÊ.93Ëò«∞bîu‰å≈∞v°Kb≥r«_ÅKwËò«∞∂IU¡≠Otå («∞LUœ…8).Ëô¥πu“∞KGOU»«∞LRÆX√Ê¥R£d´Kv«∞ºLUÕ∞Nr°U∞∂IU¡Ë«∞FLq≠w«∞bË∞W «∞LIBuœ…(«∞LUœ…83). Ë¥πV√Ê¥ALq•o«∞Fuœ…≈∞v°Kb«∞Ld¡•o«∞Fuœ…≈∞v«∞∂Kb«_Â√Ë°Kb «∞πMºOW√Ë°Kb«ùÆU±W«∞LF∑Uœ…. Ë´Uœ…¥∑Fc¸«∞ºHd«∞bË∞w°bËʧu«“ßHd√Ë®Jq±AU°tù£∂U‹«∞AªBOW.ËÆb √Øb‹«∞KπMW«∞LFMOW°∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ√≤tò°LU√Ê«∞ºHd«∞bË∞w¥∫∑UôUœ…≈∞vË£Uzo ±MUß∂W,Ë°ªUÅW§u«“ßHd,≠SÊ•o±GUœ¸…œË∞W±U¥πV√Ê¥ALq•o«∞∫Bu‰´Kv Ë£Uzo«∞ºHd«∞Cd˸¥W.å04 Ë≥c«¥J∑ºw√≥LOWîUÅW∞KLNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¢IDFX°Nr«∞º∂q≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤‡e¥X √Ë«∞u§NW«∞LIBuœ….Ë≤Ed«Î∞∫d±U≤Nr±s•o«∞bîu‰≈∞v≥cÁ«∞bˉ˫∞∂IU¡≠ONU °Bu¸…ÆU≤u≤OW,¨U∞∂UαU¥Fπe«∞Fb¥b±MNr´LKOUδs«∞Fuœ…≈∞v°Kb«≤Nr«_ÅKOW_≤Nr ¥H∑IdËÊ≈∞v«∞u£Uzo«∞Cd˸¥W∞KFuœ….ËÆb¥B∂∫uÊ≠FKOUδb¥Lw§MºOW.Ë¥M∑Nw «∞LDU·°U∞Fb¥b±sò«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¢IDFX°Nr«∞º∂qå≈∞v«ô´∑IU‰«∞LDu‰√Ë •∑v¨Od«∞L∫bœ≤∑OπW∞c∞p.Ë°Fi«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥sô¥∑LJMuʱs«∞Fuœ…≈∞v°Kb≥r «_ÅKw¥∂FbËʱs°Kb≈∞v¬îd§OµWË–≥U°U´Kv±bÈ≠∑d…©u¥KW±s«∞e±s,Ë¥∫d±uÊ ±s•o«∞∂IU¡Ë°bËÊ√Ê¥∑LJMu«±s¢B∫O`Ë{FNr≠w√¥WœË∞W.ËÆb«´∑d≠X«∞KπMW «∞LFMOW°∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ°∫o«_§M∂w«∞LDdËœ≠w«î∑OU¸œË∞W«∞u§NW«∞LIBuœ…,±l ±d«´U…±u«≠IW¢Kp«∞bË∞W. Ëô¢∑L∑l«∞bˉ°∫o¨Od±AdË◊∞d≠i«∞bîu‰≈∞v√¸«{ONU,Ë°ªUÅW•OY ¥RœÍ–∞p≈∞v«ùîö‰°∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«_îdÈ.14˱l–∞p≤Uœ¸«Î±U¢∑∫Lq«∞bˉ ±ºRË∞OW´s«≤FJUßU‹¢b«°OdÆOuœ≥U«∞∫bËœ¥W´Kv•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ,ßu«¡ØU≤X¸≠i «∞bîu‰´Mb«∞∫bËœ«∞∂d¥W√Ë«∞∂∫d¥W√Ë≠w±DU¸√§M∂w. Ë¥LJs∞d≠i«∞bîu‰√Ê¥RœÍ≈∞v«≤∑NU„±∂b√´b«ù´Uœ…«∞Iºd¥W;Ë¥LJs√Ê ¥∑d„«_®ªU’´U∞IOs≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤‡e¥X•OY¥∑Fd{uÊô≤∑NUØU‹•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ; Ë¥LJs√Ê¥ÔFdΩ÷«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs∞ö≤∑NU„Ë«ôß∑Gö‰«∞πMºOOs,Ë¥LJs√Ê ¥uÅKNr≈∞v©d¥o±ºbËœ. 35 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 35
  40. 40. ®U•MW±∫LKW°U∞LNU§d¥s¢GUœ¸√¨Uœ¥e≠w«∞MOπd≠w©d¥INU ≈∞v∞O∂OU√Ë«∞πe«zd.Ë¥F∂d®∂UʱsØU≠W√≤∫U¡¨d»√≠d¥øIøOøU «∞øBø∫ød«¡«∞øJø∂ødÈ≈∞øvßøU•øq®øLøU‰√≠ød¥øIøOøU.˱øøøs≥øøøMøøøU„ ¥∫UË∞uÊ«∞IOU°U∞d•KW«∞L∫Hu≠W°U∞LªøU©ød¨øU∞ø∂øUÎ≈∞øv√˸˰øU ù¥πUœ´Lq˧Mw«∞∏dË«‹«ôÆ∑BUœ¥W«∞∑w¢b¨b⁄±ªOK∑Nr. ©SvenTorfinn/AP Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 36
  41. 41. Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 37
  42. 42. «∞∫o≠w•d¥W«∞∫dØW˱JUÊ«ùÆU±W •U∞LU¥B∂`«∞LNU§d±u§uœ«Î°Bu¸…ÆU≤u≤OW24œ«îq«∞bË∞W,¥∑L∑l°U∞∫o≠w•d¥W «∞∑MIqœ«îq¢Kp«∞bË∞W,ËØc∞p°U∞∫o≠w«î∑OU¸±JUÊ≈ÆU±∑t(«∞LUœ…31±s«ù´öÊ «∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ,«∞LUœ…21±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OW Ë«∞ºOUßOW,«∞LUœ…93±s«¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s).ËÆbÅd•X«∞KπMW«∞LFMOW °∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ°QÊ√Í≠d‚≠w«∞LFU±KW°Os«∞Lu«©MOs˨Od«∞Lu«©MOs≠OLU¥∑FKo °U∞IOuœ«∞LHdË{W´Kv«∞∫dØW¥πV¢∂d¥d≥UË√Ê¢∑IOb°L∂b√«∞∑MUßV.34 «∞∫o≠w«∞∫OU…Ë≠w«∞ºö±W«∞πºb¥WË«∞FIKOW ¢∑CLsßOUßU‹«∞Nπd…˱d«Æ∂W«∞∫bËœ±πLu´W±s«∞∑b«°Od«∞NUœ≠W≈∞v±d«Æ∂W•dØW «∞MU”≈∞v«∞bË∞W˱Ml«∞LNU§d¥s±s±∑U°FWßHd≥r˱∫UË∞W«∞bîu‰≈∞v√¸«{w«∞bË∞W. Ë¢LMl°FißOUßU‹±d«Æ∂W«∞∫bËœ,°LU≠ONU«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq≠w±DU¸«‹îU¸§OW√Ë≠w √´U∞w«∞∂∫U¸√Ë«∞IOuœ«∞LHdË{W´Kv¢Q®Od«‹«∞bîu‰√Ë«∞FIu°U‹«∞∑w¢ÔHd÷´Kv ®dØU‹«∞MIq√Ë«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W,¢LMl«∞LNU§d¥s±s«∞bîu‰≈∞v œË‰«∞u§NW«∞LIBuœ…´∂d«∞IMu«‹«∞MEU±OW.Ë´Mb≥U¥KπQ«∞Fb¥b±s«∞LNU§d¥s≈∞v îb±U‹«∞LNd°Os±s√§q«∞bîu‰≈∞v«∞bË∞W.Ë¥∑Fd÷´bœØ∂Od∞KIu…«∞LHd©W√Ë «ô´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHw√Ë√®JU‰ßu¡«∞LFU±KW≠wœË‰«∞∑d«≤e¥X√Ë´Mb«∞uÅu‰.Ë¥Lu‹ Ø∏OdËÊ.ËØq´UÂ¥Gd‚«üô·≠w«∞∂∫d√Ë´Mb´∂u¸«_≤Nd;Ë¥∑πLb¬îdËÊ√Ë¥ª∑MIuÊ√Ë ¥Lu¢uʱs«∞πuŸË≥r±ª∑∂µOs´Kv±∑s«∞ºHs√Ë«∞AU•MU‹√Ë´MU°d«∞A∫s≠w «∞DUzd«‹.Ë¥Lu‹¬îdËʱs®b…«∞∫d«¸…√Ë«∞FDg°OMLU¥∫UË∞uÊ´∂u¸±ºU•U‹®UßFW ±s«∞B∫U¸È±∏q«∞B∫d«¡«_≠d¥IOW√ËÅ∫d«¡ßu≤u¸««∞u«ÆFW°Os«∞LJºOpË√¸¥eË≤U. §Ot.°w.,¸§q≠w«∞FIb«∞∏U∞Y±s´LdÁ,≠d±s«∞HId«∞LbÆl≠w«∞JU±OdËÊ...ËËÅq≈∞v «∞LGd»´s©d¥o≤OπOd¥UË«∞MOπdË«∞πe«zd˱MNU≈∞v«∞πOV«_ß∂U≤w≠w±KOKW«∞u«Æl´Kv «∞ºU•q«∞LGd°w.Ë≠w«∞Ld…«_Ë∞v«∞∑wœîq≠ONU≈∞v±KOKWËÅq≈∞v«∞LHu{OW«∞∑w¥LJs ≠ONU∞ö§µOs√Ê¥ºπKu«√ßLU¡≥rË¥∫BKu«´Kv±ºU´b…ÆU≤u≤OW.°Ob√≤t©Ôdœ´Kv«∞Hu¸ ≈∞v«∞LGd».Ë≠w«∞Ld…«∞∏U≤OW«∞∑w√≠K`≠ONU≠w«∞bîu‰≈∞v±KOKW,«´∑b‹´KOt«∞Ad©W «_ß∂U≤OW°U∞Cd»Ë√©KIX´KOt¸ÅUÅU‹±DU©OW±s±ºU≠W¢∂Km•u«∞w«∞L∑d¥sÆ∂q√Ê ¢FObÁ´Kv√´IU°t.Ë≠w«∞Ld…«∞∏U∞∏WØUÊ{Ls±πLu´W±s«∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s«Æ∑∫Lu«ßOUà «∞πOV,∞JMt©Ôdœ±πbœ«Î≈∞v«∞LGd»•OY√°Fb¢t«∞ºKDU‹«∞LGd°OW≈∞v±MDIW¢Il´Kv «∞∫bËœ°Os«∞LGd»Ë«∞πe«zd°U∞Id»±s°Kb…˧b….Ë√£MU¡Ë§uœ≥r≠w±MU©o•bËœ¥W≤UzOW, ¨U∞∂UαU¥∑Fd÷«∞LNU§dËÊ∞KCd»Ë«∞ºdÆW±s§U≤V«∞Iu«‹«∞LºU´b…«∞LGd°OW. √ß∂U≤OU/«∞LGd»:¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞ºKDU‹√Ê¢ªCl∞KLºU¡∞W´Kv«≤∑NU„•Iu‚ «∞LNU§d¥s(¸Ær«∞u£OIW:5002/610/14RUE).44 38«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 38
  43. 43. «´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq ´Uœ…¥πdÍ«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq≠w´d÷«∞∂∫d,•OY¥F∑d÷ßöÕ«∞∂∫d¥W√Ë•d” «∞∫bËœ«∞eË«¸‚Ë¥LMFu≤NU±s±∑U°FWßOd≥U≈∞v«∞bË∞W«∞∑w¢IBb≥U.°Ob√Ê«´∑d«÷ «∞º∂Oq¥∑ªc√®JUôÎ√ÆqË{u•UÎ√¥CUÎ,°LU≠w–∞p´Mb±U¥LMl±u™Hu«∞Nπd… Ë®dØU‹«∞DOd«Ê≠w«∞LDU¸«‹«_®ªU’±s¸Øu»«∞DUzd«‹Ë±∑U°FW«∞ºHd≈∞v ˧N∑Nr«∞LIBuœ….Ë¢º∑Nb·¢b«°Od«ô´∑d«·«_®ªU’«∞c¥sô¥∫LKuÊ«∞u£Uzo «∞ö“±W√Ë≈–Ê«∞bîu‰«∞B∫O`≈∞v«∞bË∞W.54ØLU√Ê«´∑d«÷«∞º∂OqÆb¥Mπr´s «∞AJu„«∞∑w¢∫u•u‰œË«≠l«∞Aªh∞KºHd.ËÆKLU¢∫ºV≥cÁ«∞∑b«°Od√Í•ºU» ∞KFu«ÆV«∞L∑d¢∂W´Kv•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ,Ë°ªUÅW•OY¥JuÊ√Ë∞µp«∞c¥s¥∑r«´∑d«÷ ß∂OKNr,√®ªUÅUÎ¥πdÍ«ô¢πU¸°Nr√˱NU§d¥s¥πdÍ¢Nd¥∂Nr√Ë©U∞∂w∞πu¡.˨U∞∂UÎ ±U¥Ô∑d„«∞MU”´U∞IOs˱HKºOsË°ö±JUÊ¥KπµuÊ≈∞Ot. Ë¢∂d¸°Fi«∞bˉ¢b«°Od«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq°U∞e´r√≤NU¢Nb·≈∞v•LU¥W√¸Ë«Õ §LNu¸«∞LºU≠d¥sË√±MNr,≠CöδsË{l•b∞∑πU¸…¢Nd¥V«∞MU”.°Ob√Ê≥cÁ «∞∑b«°Od¥LJs√Ê¢M∑Np•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ°LU≠w–∞p±∂b√´b«ù´Uœ…«∞Iºd¥W«∞u«¸œ ≠w«∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w«∞Fd≠w.Ë«∞bË∞W«∞∑w¢F∑d÷ß∂Oq«∞LNU§d¥s¢ªCl∞KLºU¡∞W´Kv ≥cÁ«ô≤∑NUØU‹. Ë•OY¢LU¸”«∞bˉ«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq,ô¢Il«∞LºRË∞OW´s«∞M∑UzZ«∞L∑d¢∂W ´Kv•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ´Kv´U¢o«∞bË∞W«∞∑w§d‹´LKOW«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq≠w √¸«{ONUË•ºV,°q√¥CUδKv«∞bˉ«∞∑w¢DKV«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq√Ë¢Lu∞t√Ë √¸œÈ•U¸”•b˜ͰU∞dÅU’≠u∞MOX°O∑Oºw,Ë≥u®U»´LdÁ81´U±UαsÆd¥W±u„- ≥U”≠w±IU©FW≥U”°Q∞∂U≤OU,±ºU¡32ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰3002.ËØUÊ¥F∂d«∞∫bËœßd«Î≈∞v «∞Ou≤UʱlîLºW√∞∂Uʬîd¥s°∫∏Uδs´Lq.ËË≠IUÎ∞K∑IU¸¥d«∞dßLOWØUÊ£ö£W√≠d«œ±s •d”«∞∫bËœ¥d«Æ∂uÊ«∞LπLu´WËœ´u≥r≈∞v«∞∑uÆn.Ë«±∑∏q√¸°FW√´CU¡≠w«∞LπLu´W Ë√Ô∞Iw«∞I∂i´KONr,°OMLUô–≠u∞MOX°O∑Oºw˸§q¬îd°U∞Hd«¸.Ë√©Ko√•b«∞∫d«”«∞MU¸ ´KONLU,≠QÅU»≠u∞MOX°O∑Oºw°πdËÕÆU¢KW.Ë°F∏X±MELW«∞FHu«∞bË∞OW°dßU∞W≈∞v «∞ºKDU‹«∞Ou≤U≤OW¢Fd»≠ONU´sÆKINU±s√Ê•d”«∞∫bËœ¥º∑ªb±uÊ«_ßK∫W«∞MU¸¥W ∞Bb«_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∫UË∞uÊ«∞bîu‰≈∞v«∞Ou≤UÊßd«Î,•∑v≠w«∞EdË·«∞∑w∞r¥AJKu« ≠ONUîDd«ÎË®OJUΰU∞Lu‹√Ë«ùÅU°W«∞ªDOd…. «∞Ou≤UÊ:°FOb«Î´sœ«zd…«∞Cu¡-•Iu‚«_§U≤VË«_ÆKOU‹¢Eq±MDIW¸±Uœ¥W (¸Ær«∞u£OIW:5002/610/52RUE). 39 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 39
  44. 44. ¢ºL`°∫bË£t´Kv≤∫u¬îd.Ë¢∑FU¸÷¢b«°Od«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq«∞∑w¢∑bîq≠w «∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥sËØd«±∑Nr√Ë¢CFHNU´Kv√Í≤∫u¬îd±l«∞IU≤uÊ «∞bË∞w.Ëô¥πu“√Ê¥Juʱs√£d«´∑d«÷«∞º∂Oq≠d÷´Iu°U‹´Kv «∞LNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¢r¢Nd¥∂Nr√Ë«ô¢πU¸°Nr´Kv≤∫u¥ªq°U∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w√Ë ¥∑dØNr≠w•U∞W≤ºOUÊÆU≤u≤w.Ë¥M∂Gw´Kv«∞bˉ√Ê¢∫∑dÂ≠wØU≠W«_ËÆU‹ «∞u«§∂U‹«∞bË∞OW«∞L∑FKIW°U∞∂∫YË«ù≤IU–´Mb±U¢Iu°FLKOU‹«´∑d«÷ °∫d¥W. «∞∫o≠w«∞∫OU…«∞ªUÅWË«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∂OU≤U‹ «ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W ≈Ê«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W(±∏öΫ∞∂BLU‹Ë«∞∑Fd·´KvÆe•OW «∞FOs)Ø∑b°Od∞Ld«Æ∂W«∞∫bËœ¥M∂l±s«´∑∂U¸«‹«_±s«∞Iu±wË«∞d¨∂W≠w±Ml «∞Nπd…¨Od«∞LBdÕ°NU√˨Od«∞MEU±OW.ËÆb«“œ«œ«ô≥∑LU°Uß∑ªb«Â «∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W“¥Uœ…≥UzKW±Mc≥πLU‹11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002 «∞∑wËÆFX≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…«_±d¥JOW.ËØLU≥u«∞∫U‰±l«_®JU‰«_îdÈ ∞KIOuœ«∞∫bËœ¥W,≠SÊ«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W¨U∞∂UαU¥b≠l ßKDU‹«∞Nπd…≈∞v«¢ªU–Æd«¸«‹±∑ºd´W•u‰Ë{l«∞AªhË«∞Hd{OU‹ «∞L∑FKIW°bË«≠Ft∞KºHd.˱lØuÊ«∞LNU§d¥s√≥b«≠UθzOºOW∞NcÁ«∞∑b«°Od,¥∑r ≈¥πUœÅKW,ßu«¡´sË´w√ËœËÊË´w,°Os«∞Nπd…Ë«ù¸≥U».Ë≥MU„ÆKo±s √≤t¥LJs¢D∂Oo«_ßU∞OV«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W°Dd¥IWÆUzLW´Kv«∞∑LOOe´Kv ±πLu´U‹±FOMW±s«∞LNU§d¥s«ß∑MUœ«Î≈∞v´u«±q±∏q«∞Fd‚√Ë«ù£MOW√Ë «_Åq«∞Iu±w.˱l«´∑OUœ°Fi«∞bˉ´Kv±IU¸≤Wßπö‹«∞LNU§d¥s «ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W°U∞ºπö‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W∞KLπd±Os,¥Ôb≠l«∞LºRË∞uÊ Ë«∞πLNu¸«∞FU´Kv•bßu«¡∞öß∑M∑UðQÊ≥MU„©∂OFW≈§d«±OW±ö“±W ∞KNπd….Ë¥∑r≈∞BU‚ËÅLW°U∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs°Bu¸…îUÅW,°d¨r ´b¢u«≠d«_œ∞W•∑v¢U¸¥ªt´Kv√Ê¢IU≤W«ù•BUzOU‹«∞∫Ou¥W√ßNLX≠w ¢ªHOi«∞Nπd…¨Od«∞MEU±OW. ≈Ê«ß∑ªb«Â√ßU∞OV«∞Ld«Æ∂W«∞∫bËœ¥W«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥WÆb¥∏Od°u«´Y ÆKo´KvÅFOb•Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ.Ë¥LJs√Ê¥MEd≈∞Ot´Kv√≤t¢bîq≠w«∞∫o≠w «∞ªBuÅOU‹.Ë≥c««∞∫o¢JHKt«∞LUœ…21±s«ù´öÊ«∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ Ë«∞LUœ…71±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’°U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOWË«∞LUœ…41±s «¢HUÆOW«∞FLU‰«∞LNU§d¥s.Ë¥∑πUË“«ôß∑ªb«ÂË«ßl«∞MDU‚Ë°ö¢LOOe ∞∂BLU‹«_ÅU°l˨Od≥U±s√®JU‰«∞LFDOU‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W•bËœ 40«∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 40
  45. 45. «∞∑MUßV,≤Ed«Î∞∑u«≠d¢b«°Od√Æq¢DHöÎ∞KLd«Æ∂W«∞∫bËœ¥W.ËÆb•b£X•Uô‹ «¸¢JV≠ONU√®ªU’√≠FU‰≈¥c«¡«∞c«‹Ë®u≥u«√ÅU°l√¥b¥Nr∞πFq°BLU¢NU ¨OdË«{∫W. ˸¨r«∞CLU≤U‹«∞∑Ad¥FOW,≠SÊ«∞∂OU≤U‹«ù•BUzOW«∞∫Ou¥W´d{W√¥CUÎ •U∞OUÎ∞Nu«±g±∑HUË¢W±s«∞ªDQË∞KLªU©d«∞Ab¥b…∞öß∑ªb«Â¨Od«∞LBdÕ°t ˨Od«∞LAdËŸ.Øc∞p¢∑Q£d≥cÁ«∞LFDOU‹°LLU¸ßU‹«∞∑ªe¥s¨Od«∞B∫O∫W Ë√ßU∞OV•LU¥W«∞LFDOU‹«∞∑wô¢∑IOb°U∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫LU¥W«∞LFDOU‹. «ô´∑IU‰ ¢F∑IqœË‰´b¥b…«∞LNU§d¥s,Ë°ªUÅW«∞LNU§d¥s¨Od«∞MEU±OOs,±F∑∂d…Î «ô´∑IU‰¸«œ´UÎ{b«∞Nπd…¨Od«∞LºLuÕ°NU.Ë≠w°Fi«∞bˉ,¥JuÊ«ô´∑IU‰ ≠w±∏q≥cÁ«_Ë{UŸ≈∞e«±OUÎ,Ë¥LJs¢Lb¥bÁ∞H∑d«‹¨Od±∫bœ….˨U∞∂UαU¥Fπe «∞LNU§dËÊ´s«∞DFs≠wÆU≤u≤OW«´∑IU∞Nr. ¥πV¢∂d¥d«´∑IU‰«∞LNU§d¥s≠wØq•U∞W≠dœ¥W°U´∑∂U¸Á¢b°Od«Î {d˸¥UÎ˱∑MUß∂UÎ¥∑IOb°U∞IU≤uÊ«∞bË∞w,Ë¥πV√Ê¥ªCl∞Ld«Æ∂W ÆCUzOWœË¸¥W. Ë¥∑bîq«ôß∑ªb«Â¨Od«∞B∫O`∞ö´∑IU‰°∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ«_ßUßOW «∞Cd˸¥W§b«Î∞∫LU¥W«∞Jd«±W«_ÅOKW∞KLNU§d¥s«∞c¥s¥LKJuÊ«∞∫o≠w «∞∫d¥WË´b«∞∑Fd÷∞ö´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHw(«∞LUœ…9±s«∞FNb«∞bË∞w«∞ªU’ °U∞∫Iu‚«∞Lb≤OWË«∞ºOUßOW;Ë«∞LUœ¢UÊ3Ë9±s«ù´öÊ«∞FU∞Lw∞∫Iu‚ «ù≤ºUÊ,Ë«∞LUœ…61±s«¢HUÆOW«∞LNU§d¥s).Ë≥c«¥FMw√Ê«ô´∑IU‰¥πV√Ê ¥ªCl∞IOuœ,°OMNU®d◊¢LU®w«ô´∑IU‰±l«∞IU≤uÊË¢∂d¥dÁ≠w«∞∫U∞W «∞Hdœ¥W°Q≤t¢b°Od{d˸Í˱∑MUßVË¥ªCl∞KLd«§FW«∞ICUzOW.ËÆb «´∑Lb‹±πLu´W«∞FLq«∞∑U°FW∞ú±r«∞L∑∫b…«∞LFMOW°Uô´∑IU‰«∞∑FºHw «∞Lb«Ë∞W¸Ær5«∞∑w¢∑FKo°u{l«∞LNU§d¥sË©U∞∂w«∞Kπu¡.Ë≥w¢∫bœ«∞L∂Uœ∆ «∞L∑FKIW°U_®ªU’«∞L∫∑πe¥sË´bœ«Î±s«∞CLU≤U‹«∞∑w¢MEr«ô´∑IU‰. Ë≥cÁ¢ALq•o«∞LF∑IKOs≠w≈°ö¨Nr°Qß∂U»«•∑πU“≥rË«ô¢BU‰°U∞FU∞r «∞ªU¸§w,Ë¢uØOq±º∑AU¸ÆU≤u≤wË«ô¢BU‰°U∞ºKDU‹«∞IMBKOWË«∞L∏u‰œËÊ ≈°DU¡√±UÂßKDWÆCUzOW√ËßKDW√îdÈ.ØLU¢uÅw°QÊ¥∫bœ«∞IU≤uÊ«∞H∑d… «∞IBuÈ∞ö´∑IU‰Ë°Q≤tô¥πu“ò≠w√¥W•U∞Wå¢Lb¥b«∞∫πe√Ë«ß∑Ld«¸Á≈∞v √§q¨Od±ºLv.64 41 «∞FOg≠w«∞Eq:Ë£OIW¢LNOb¥W°AQÊ«∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºU≤OW∞KLNU§d¥s Migrants2-ar 11/1/07 1:47 pm Page 41
  46. 46. ¨U∞∂UαU¥JuÊ_Ë{UŸ«ô´∑IU‰«∞ºOµW¢Q£Od®b¥b´Kv«∞B∫W«∞πºb¥WË«∞FIKOW ∞KLF∑IqËÆb¢Bq≈∞v•bßu¡«∞LFU±KW.Ë¥πV√Ê¢∑LU®v√Ë{UŸ«ô´∑IU‰±l «∞Iu«´b«∞MLu–§OW«∞b≤OU∞LFU±KW«∞ºπMU¡74˱πLu´W«∞L∂Uœ∆«∞L∑FKIW°∫LU¥W§LOl «_®ªU’«∞c¥s¥∑Fd{uÊ_Í®Jq±s√®JU‰«ô•∑πU“√Ë«∞ºπs.84 «∞∑d•OqË«∞Ddœ ±Mc«∞NπLU‹«∞∑wËÆFX≠w«∞uô¥U‹«∞L∑∫b…«_±d¥JOW≠w11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰1002, «“œ«œ«ß∑ªb«Â«∞∑d•OqË«∞Ddœ{b¨Od«∞Lu«©MOs.°Ob√≤t±s≤u«ÕÌ´b¥b…Æb±X ≥πLU‹11ß∂∑L∂d/√¥Ku‰√´c«¸«Î§b¥b…∞ºOUßU‹Æb¥LW°OMLUÆKKX±s«•∑LUô‹ «∞∑Mb¥b«∞FU°NU. ËÆb¥∑Fd÷«∞LNU§dËÊ«∞c¥s∞r¥Fb∞b¥Nr√ßU”ÆU≤u≤w∞K∂IU¡≠wœË‰ ±COHWù§d«¡«‹«∞∑d•Oq.°Ob√Ê¢Kp«ù§d«¡«‹¥πV√Ê¢∑CLs{LU≤U‹ ±MUß∂WË¢∑IOb°U∞LFU¥Od«∞bË∞OW∞∫Iu‚«ù≤ºUÊ.˨U∞∂UαU¢JuʱLU¸ßU‹ «∞∑d•OqË≈§d«¡«¢NU≠w´bœ±s«∞bˉÆUßOW,´KvÅFOb«ù§d«¡«‹ËØc∞p≠w «ß∑ªb«Â«∞Iu…«∞LHd©WË«∞IOuœ«∞JOLUË¥W. Ë¥πV√Ê¢∑IOb≈§d«¡«‹«∞∑d•Oq°Uù§d«¡«‹«∞IU≤u≤OW«∞L∀

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