Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaProfessor Dr. Angela RobertiProfessor Esp. Tania Amaro 1
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: História2012: Brazil celebrates twocenturies of Chineseimmigration to the country.The greatest influx ofChinese immigration occuredin 1950’s, when China wasexperiencing many internalupheavals.Today, it is estimated there are between 200,000 to 250,000Chinese nationals or those of Chinese descent in Brazil, ofwhich 150,000 reside in the State of São Paulo.Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba cities that have also beenabsorbing Chinese immigrants. 2
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaBrazil’s Chinese immigrants mostly came from southern coastalprovinces, particularly Guangdong (Canton) and Fujian,probably due to its proximity to Macau, the former Portuguesecolony.Guangdong Fujian 3
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaPast and PresentIn 1812, the first group of Chinese immigrants arrived in Brazil, soon afterthe Portuguese Royal family moved to the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1808.These first Chinese immigrants came to Brazil to cultivate tea, abeverage much appreciated by the Portuguese and the English, both ofwhom moved to Brazil between 1808 and 1820.Since the 19th century, Chinese immigrants have been coming to Rio deJaneiro.The purpose of the tea plantations was to supply the European market,especially the English.Men, along with tea cuttings, were brought over from China; the menworking in Rio’s Botanical Garden, later being moved to Rio’s Santa Cruzneighborhood, where they cultivated the tea. 4
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaIn his first trip to Brazil, between 1821 and 1825, theGerman painter, Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-1858),documented a Chinese tea plantation in the Rio deJaneiro’s Botanical Garden, publishing a picture in hisbook, A Picturesque Trip through Brazil, whose textreferences a community of 300 Chinese in the city plantingsprouts in the Botanical Garden. 5
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaYears later, in 1844, there was another influx of Chinese immigrant to Rio de Janeiro;this time to plant rice. However, the plantation was a failure.This Chinese labor force was then redirected to the construction of a road connectingthe Botanical Garden to another section of the city, Alto da Boa Vista; thus, theChinese began to occupy “Tijuca’s fraldas” This experience might explain the construction, in 1903, during the administration of Rio Mayor Pereira Passos, of the “Vista Chinesa” (or Chinese View), which borders that historic road. 6
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaThe Chinese who were able to extricate themselves fromagricultural activities moved to other parts of Rio, where theystarted woking as vendors or cooks.Sometime later, the tea farmers (plantadores de chá) becamestreet vendors, selling fish and pastries.The 20th century witnessed the beginning of trade in typicalChinese products, such as porcelain, handicrafts, and silkhandkerchiefs.In time, after a period of hard work and deprivations, thestreet vendors became shop owners. 7
Escola de Ciências, Educação, Letras, Artes e Humanidades Curso: HistóriaChinese contributionsto everyday Brazilianculture includeChinese cuisine,herbs, methods oftraditional Chinesemedicine (e.g.Acupuncture), martialarts, fireworks, andthe Chinesehoroscope. 8
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