Manutenção e reparos de bicicletas

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Os cuidados com a bicicleta, para cada tipo de avaria, existe uma técnica de reparo. Uma pequena trinca pode consumir até dez horas de trabalho...

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Manutenção e reparos de bicicletas

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  2. 2. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  3. 3. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
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  6. 6. GLHVHO TXHURVHQH yOHRV HWF
  7. 7. /DYH D ELNH VRPHQWH FRP VDEmR QHXWUR 3URWHMD R FKDLQ VWD GR ODGR GLUHLWR SDUD HYLWDU TXH DV FKLFRWDGDV GD FRUUHQWH DUUDQTXHP R YHUQL] TXH SURWHJH D SLQWXUD 6HP R YHUQL] D ILEUD GH FDUERQR ODVFD H R yOHR GD FRUUHQWH SHQHWUD SHODV PLFURILVVXUDV H FRP R SDVVDU GR WHPSR YDL GLVVROYHU D UHVLQD TXH DJOXWLQD D ILEUD $R QRWDU XPD iUHD GHVFDVFDGD RX XP ULVFR SURIXQGR QR TXDGUR SURWHMDRV LPHGLDWDPHQWH FRP HVPDOWH GH XQKD RX DWp PHVPR FRP XP GHFDOTXH DGHVLYR 8P GRV HUURV TXH PDLV GDQLILFDP TXDGURV GH FDUERQR p R H[FHVVR GH DSHUWR 7RPH FXLGDGR FRP WXGR R TXH WLYHU FRQWDWR FRP R TXDGUR FRPR JDQFKHLUDV EORFDJHQV GDV URGDV VXSRUWHV GH FDUDPDQKROD VXSRUWH GR FkPELR GLDQWHLUR EUDoDGHLUD GH FDQRWH DKHDGVHW PHVD JXLGmR H FDL[D GR PRYLPHQWR FHQWUDO XVDU WRUTXtPHWUR VHPSUH TXH SRVVtYHO
  8. 8. $ UHJUD JHUDO PDQGD DSHUWDU R SDUDIXVR DWp HQFRVWDU QR ILQDO GD URVFD H LU XP SRXTXLQKR PDLV $SHUWRV H[DJHUDGRV SURYRFDP WHQVmR QR TXDGUR 'HYHVH UHVSHLWDU D LQVHUomR PtQLPD GR FDQRWH QR TXDGUR 2 FDQRWH GH VHOLP GHYH HVWDU SHOR PHQRV PP GHQWUR GR TXDGUR RX SHOR PHQRV XPD SROHJDGD FP
  9. 9. DEDL[R GD LQWHUVHFomR GR WRS WXEH FRP R WXER GH VHOLP -DPDLV XWLOL]H XP FDQRWH GH VHOLP IRUD GR GLkPHWUR FRUUHWR 1mR XVH EXFKDV RX FDOoRV SDUD FRPSHQVDU D PHGLGD H WDPEpP QmR HVPDJXH R TXDGUR FRP DSHUWR H[FHVVLYR SDUD SUHQGHU R FDQRWH $PERV RV FDVRV FDXVDP WHQV}HV QR TXDGUR 2 FDQRWH QmR SRGH WHU ULVFRV HP HVSHFLDO QD KRUL]RQWDO SDUD QmR IUDJLOL]iOR H H[SRU R ELNHU D DFLGHQWHV 3RU PRWLYR GH VHJXUDQoD DOJXQV FRPSRQHQWHV GH FDUERQR WrP TXH VHU GR PDUFD FRQVDJUDGD e R FDVR GH PHVD JXLGmR H GR FDQRWH GH VHOLP 1mR XVH JUD[D j EDVH GH SHWUyOHR H GH VDEmR GH OtWLFR SRLV DWDFDP R YHUQL] 9HMD R LWHP DFLPD (P VXVSHQV}HV HTXLSDGDV FRP VWHHUHUV GH FDUERQR 1­2 VH GHYH XVDU DUDQKDV VSLGHUV
  10. 10. WUDGLFLRQDLV 6XVSHQV}HV FRP VWHHUHUV GH FDUERQR GHYHP VRPHQWH XWLOL]DU VSLGHUV HVSHFtILFRV SDUD HVVD ILQDOLGDGH $SHUWR H[DJHUDGR QD PHVD TXDQGR R VWHHUHU p GH FDUERQR WDPEpP YDL FDXVDU WHQVmR QR FRQMXQWR *DUIRV GH FDUERQR GH ELFLFOHWDV GH FLFOLVPR UHTXHUHP PXLWR FXLGDGR QR PRPHQWR GR DSHUWR GR DKHDGVHW 0XLWR FXLGDGR FRP D TXDQWLGDGH GH DUUXHODV HVSDoDGRUDV FDOoRV
  11. 11. GR DKHDGVHW DOoRV GHPDLV DOWHUDP D DOWXUD H FULDP SRQWRV GH WHQVmR QR FRQMXQWR VXVSHQVmRFDL[D GH GLUHomRTXDGUR 8WLOL]H VRPHQWH OXEULILFDQWHV UHFRPHQGDGRV SHORV IDEULFDQWHV RQVXOWH R PDQXDO GR SURSULHWiULR RX R VLWH GR IDEULFDQWH SDUD YHU VH R TXDGUR UHVLVWH D XP GHWHUPLQDGR DJHQWH TXtPLFR RPSRQHQWHV GH ILEUD GH FDUERQR FRPR JXLG}HV PHVDV H FDQRWHV WrP YLGD ~WLO UHODWLYDPHQWH FXUWD 9HULILTXH QR VLWH GR IDEULFDQWH TXDO D GXUDELOLGDGH GR VHX FRPSRQHQWH 1mR p UDUR RXYLUPRV GH JXLG}HV H PHVDV TXH TXHEUDUDP VHP SUpYLR DYLVR 2 352(662 '2 5(3$52 2 FRQVHUWR QXP TXDGUR GH FDUERQR WHP TXH VHU R PDLV HYDVLYR SRVVtYHO 2 LGHDO p FRQVHUWDU VHP LQWHUIHULU QD HVWUXWXUD GR TXH Mi H[LVWH HQVLQD 1LQR 3DUD FDGD WLSR GH DYDULD H[LVWH XPD RX PDLV GH XPD
  12. 12. WpFQLFD GH UHSDUR 8PD SHTXHQD WULQFD SRGH FRQVXPLU DWp GH] KRUDV GH WUDEDOKR ÈV YH]HV GHPRUD PDLV SDUD FKHJDU j FRQFOXVmR GH FRPR ID]HU GR TXH SURSULDPHQWH ID]HU R UHSDUR H[SOLFD 2 SULPHLUR SDVVR p DYDOLDU SRUTXH RFRUUHX R SUREOHPD 2 FRQVHUWR YDL REHGHFHU DR SURMHWR RULJLQDO GR TXDGUR H GD ELNH SDUD QmR FRPSURPHWHU D HVWUXWXUD RPR VRX ELNHU FRQKHoR DV IRUoDV HQYROYLGDV QD SHGDODGD 1RUPDOPHQWH R UHSDUR H[LJH D FRQVWUXomR GH PROGHV TXH VmR FRQVWUXtGRV HVSHFLDOPHQWH SDUD DTXHOH UHSDUR 1mR VH FRQVHJXH FRQVHUWDU R PHVPR SUREOHPD GR PHVPR MHLWR GXDV YH]HV
  13. 13. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  14. 14. $ OLPSH]D GR ORFDO D VHU ODPLQDGR p R SUy[LPR SDVVR 1XP DPELHQWH OLPSR H XVDQGR OXYDV FLU~UJLFDV p D YH] GD DSOLFDomR GH XPD QRYD ILEUD GH FDUERQR QR ORFDO DIHWDGR 8VR DWp RLWR SDUHV GH OXYD H FKHJR D GHVSHQGHU DWp GH] KRUDV GH WUDEDOKR QR SURFHVVR GH ODPLQDomR 2 SURFHVVR GH SUHSDUDomR GD UHVLQD p EDVWDQWH GHOLFDGR SRLV H[LJH FiOFXORV H XPD EDODQoD GH SUHFLVmR HP GpFLPRV GH JUDPDV SDUD D PLVWXUD 2 PDWHULDO p FDUR 3DUD FRQVHUWDU WUrV SHTXHQDV WULQFDV HX XVHL XP UROR GH [ PHWURV 2 SURFHVVR ILQDO GH ODPLQDomR YDL GHSHQGHU PXLWR GH FDGD FDVR 'HSHQGH RQGH IRL D TXHEUD RX D WULQFD QR TXDGUR 352'8726 35Ï %,.( 0DUFD ODQoD yOHR FRP 7HIORQŠ H PRVWUD QRYD OLQKD GH SURGXWRV (VWLPXODGD SHOR VXFHVVR H SHODV FUHVFHQWHV YHQGDV GR yOHR 3Uy %LNH D 0* 4XtPLFD GHVHQYROYHX QRYRV SURGXWRV SDUD R H[LJHQWH PHUFDGR FLFOtVWLFR H DVVLP QDVFHX D IDPtOLD 3Uy %LNH FRP LWHQV HVSHFLDOPHQWH FULDGRV SDUD FLFOLVWDV H[LJHQWHV 2 GHVWDTXH GD IDPtOLD p R QRYR OXEULILFDQWH SDUD FRUUHQWHV 3Uy %LNH IRWR DR ODGR
  15. 15. FRP 37)( SROLWHWUDIOXRUHWLOHQR FRQKHFLGR SRSXODUPHQWH FRPR 7HIORQŠ
  16. 16. 2 QRYR SURGXWR ± FRP WDPSLQKD YHUPHOKD ± WHP XP SRGHU GH OXEULILFDomR DLQGD PDLRU TXH R yOHR 3Uy %LNH WUDGLFLRQDO FRP VLOLFRQH SRLV R WHIORQ SURPRYH D UHGXomR GRV FRHILFLHQWHV GH DWULWR H GH DQWLDGHUrQFLD JDUDQWH JUDQGH FDSDFLGDGH GH GHVOL]DPHQWR H HOHYDGD UHVLVWrQFLD j DEUDVmR H DR GHVJDVWH 2 37)( FRQVLVWH HP QDQRPROpFXODV GH PtFURQ GH GLPHQVmR TXH SUHHQFKHP DV ILVVXUDV GDV SDUWHV PHWiOLFDV H IXQFLRQDP FRPR ³UROHWHV´ PLFURVFySLFRV TXH GLPLQXHP VXEVWDQFLDOPHQWH R DWULWR H FRQVHTHQWHPHQWH DXPHQWD D YLGD ~WLO GRV FRPSRQHQWHV GD WUDQVPLVVmR H HYLWD R HIHLWR FRQKHFLGR FRPR FKDLQ VXFN SRU H[HPSOR $OpP GR yOHR WHIORQDGR D HPSUHVD ODQoRX XP GHVHQJUD[DQWH H XP [DPSX QHXWUR HVSHFLDO SDUD ELFLFOHWDV 2 GHVHQJUD[DQWH 3Uy %LNH p ELRGHJUDGiYHO H LQGLFDGR SDUD OLPSH]D SHVDGD GH UHODo}HV SHGLYHODV FDVVHWHV H FRUUHQWHV 3RGH VHU XVDGR SXUR RX GLOXtGR HP iJXD 2 [DPSX 3Uy %LNH WDPEpP ELRGHJUDGiYHO p QHXWUR H QmR DJULGH D SLQWXUD 3RGH VHU XVDGR GLOXtGR QD SURSRUomR GH DWp .12: +2: $ 0* 4XtPLFD HPSUHVD IRL IXQGDGD HP SHOR HQJHQKHLUR SDXOLVWDQR -XOLR *HPLJQDQL )LOKR IRWR
  17. 17. JUDGXDGR HP HQJHQKDULD
  18. 18. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  19. 19. TXtPLFD SHOD )DFXOGDGH GH (QJHQKDULD 2VZDOGR UX] HP 6mR 3DXOR *HPLJQDQL GH DQRV DFXPXOD DQRV GH H[SHULrQFLD FRPR JHUHQWH UHJLRQDO GD iUHD GH SROtPHURV GD 5K{QH3RXODQF R JLJDQWH JUXSR IUDQFrV SURSULHWiULR GD 5KRGLD HQWUH RXWUDV HPSUHVDV GR VHWRU SHWURTXtPLFR )RL QD 5K{QH3RXOHQF TXH R HQJHQKHLUR *HPLJQDQL FRQKHFHX DV TXDOLGDGHV GR VLOLFRQH HP XPD pSRFD TXH R SURGXWR QmR KDYLD FKHJDGR DR %UDVLO 2 VLOLFRQH Vy FRPHoRX D VHU IDEULFDGR QR 3DtV QR ILQDO GD GpFDGD GH
  20. 20. RP R FRQKHFLPHQWR WHFQROyJLFR DGTXLULGR QD 5K{QH3RXODQF -XOLR *HPLJQDQL GHVHQYROYHX XP OXEULILFDQWH HVSHFLDO SDUD HVWHLUDV DSDUHOKRV GH JLQiVWLFD H ELFLFOHWDV HUJRPpWULFDV HP H GHVGH HQWmR D 0* 4XtPLFD p OtGHU QHVVH VHJPHQWR GH ILWQHVV (QWUH VHXV FOLHQWHV HVWmR HPSUHVDV GH JUDQGH SRUWH FRPR DORL 6XQGRZQ /LRQ 5LJKHWWR 0RYHPHQW $WKOHWLF :D 7RWDO +HDOWK R]GD 0XOWLIOH[ DSDUHOKRV GH JLQiVWLFD
  21. 21. DOpP GD FDGHLD IUDQFHVD GH ORMDV GH HTXLSDPHQWRV HVSRUWLYRV 'HFDWKORQ 7(12/2*,$ 20 48$/,'$'( 2 yOHR 3Uy %LNH p R SULPHLUR GR 3DtV D XWLOL]DU VLOLFRQH LPSRUWDGR HP VXD EDVH H R SULPHLUR WDPEpP D FRPELQDU XP OXEULILFDQWH FRP VLOLFRQH H 37)( QR PHVPR SURGXWR ³7RGD D PDWpULDSULPD TXH XWLOL]DPRV WHP RULJHP FHUWLILFDGD 6y XVDPRV RV PHOKRUHV SURGXWRV GR PHUFDGR´ JDUDQWH *HPLJQDQL ³1RVVR OXEULILFDQWH WHP D ILQDOLGDGH GH SURWHJHU H HVWHQGHU D YLGD ~WLO GDV UHODo}HV GDV ELFLFOHWDV TXH VmR EHP FDUDV GHSHQGHQGR GR PRGHOR´ FRPSOHWD $ TXDOLGDGH GR yOHR 3Uy %LNH p IiFLO GH VHU FRPSURYDGD %DVWD ROKDU D IRWR DR ODGR SDUD QRWDU TXH HP PO GR SURGXWR PO VmR FRPSRVWRV SRU VLOLFRQH 9HMD D SDUWH EUDQFD QR IXQGR GR YLGUR R UHVWDQWH p yOHR VLQWpWLFR GD EDVH
  22. 22. ( p SRU LVVR PHVPR TXH R yOHR 3Uy %LNH GHYH VHU EHP DJLWDGR DQWHV GH XVDU e MXVWDPHQWH R VLOLFRQH TXH JDUDQWH R DOWR SRGHU GH OXEULFLGDGH GR 3Uy %LNH 2 SURGXWR DOpP GH HOLPLQDU D XPLGDGH OXEULILFD PXLWR PDLV SRLV WHP FDGHLD SROLPpULFD ODUJD R TXH HTXLYDOH D GL]HU TXH WHP XP PDLRU Q~PHUR GH PROpFXODV TXH VLJQLILFD PDLV OXEULILFDomR $OpP GR VLOLFRQH D EDVH GH yOHR VLQWpWLFR UHFHEH DLQGD DGLWLYRV DQWLJRWHMDPHQWR DQWLR[LGDQWH H DQWLGHVJDVWDQWH 2 SURGXWR HVWi HP WHVWH QD )UDQoD ,WiOLD H (VSDQKD QD HTXLSH *DV *DV GH 0RWRFURVV 1R %UDVLO R SLORWR GH PRWR -XFD %DOD GLVSXWRX D ~OWLPD HGLomR GR 5DOL GRV 6HUW}HV FRP R yOHR 3Uy %LNH HP VXD PRWRFLFOHWD 2XWUD YDQWDJHP GRV OXEULILFDQWHV 3Uy %LNH p TXH HOHV QmR VmR LQIODPiYHLV H QHP H[SORVLYRV FRPR RV LPSRUWDGRV ³,VVR IDFLOLWD R GHVSDFKR SRU DYLmR $WHQGHPRV UDSLGDPHQWH QRVVRV FOLHQWHV SRU FRQWD GLVVR´ FRPSOHWD *HPLJQDQL 2 SUHoR WDPEpP p EDVWDQWH DWUDWLYR 2V OXEULILFDQWHV 3Uy %LNH FKHJDP D VHU PDLV EDUDWRV TXH VHXV FRQFRUUHQWHV H WrP GXUDomR SURORQJDGD GH OXEULILFDomR )$0Ë/,$ 203/(7$ 352'872 217(Ò'2 35(d2 68*(5,'2 ÏOHR 3Uy %LNH PO 5 ÏOHR 3Uy %LNH FRP 37)( PO 5 ÏOHR 3Uy %LNH PO 5 ÏOHR 3Uy %LNH FRP 37)( PO 5 ;DPSX QHXWUR PO 5
  23. 23. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  24. 24. 'HVHQJUD[DQWH PO 5 '( 2/+2 12 )87852 ( D HYROXomR QmR SiUD QD 0* 4XtPLFD $ HPSUHVD Mi HVWi HP IDVH ILQDO GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH QRYRV SURGXWRV XP OXEULILFDQWH HFROyJLFR H XP yOHR SDUD FRUUHQWHV GR WLSR GU WHFK ³(VVH PHUFDGR QmR SiUD $ HYROXomR WHFQROyJLFD p FRQWtQXD H SUH]DPRV HP HVWDU VHPSUH QD YDQJXDUGD GR TXH Ki GH PHOKRU HP OXEULILFDQWHV 3HQVDPRV HP GHVHQYROYHU SURGXWRV SDUD D SURWHomR GH ELFLFOHWDV H ELNHV GH VSLQLQJ´ 1R ILQDO GH QRYHPEUR D 0* 4XtPLFD DSUHVHQWD VXD IDPtOLD GH SURGXWRV QD IHLUD ([SR %LNH %UDVLO 9(-$ 0$7e5,$
  25. 25. 2 GHVHQJUD[DQWH H R [DPSX SRGHP VHU DGTXLULGRV HP HPEDODJHQV LQGXVWULDLV FRP H OLWURV LQGLFDGRV SDUD ELNH VKRSV RILFLQDV H PRQWDGRUDV GH ELFLFOHWDV 2V SURGXWRV HVWmR D YHQGD HP SRQWRV GH YHQGD 9HMD D OLVWD DEDL[R 21'( (12175$5 6­2 3$8/2 $UDoDWXED 5RGD /LYUH $UDUDTXDUD 'XFN %LNH DPSLQDV 3Uy 6SRUWV )UDQFD 3HGDO 3Uy ,WDSHWLQLQJD %LNH 6KRS ,WDSHWLQLQJD ,WDWLED LFOR 5DVPXVVHQ -DFDUHt $OO 7UDFN +DUG 7UDFN 0RE %LNH H 0RE LFOR -XQGLDt 0HJD %LNHUV 5LQFRV %LNH H :RUOG %LNH 0DLULSRUm %LNH 0DQLD 0DXi '.6 0RJL GDV UX]HV %LNH 7HFK 0RJL 0RJL0LULP H 0RJL*XDoX 0DOYH]]LV %LNH 5LEHLUmR 3UHWR 0XOWLELNH 5LR ODUR 6SRUW %LNH 6DQWR $QGUp *HQHUDO %LNHV H 5LGHUV %LNH 6KRS 6DQWRV 3DWHUOLQH %LNHV
  26. 26. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  27. 27. 6mR -RVp GRV DPSRV *DPDLD 6SRUWV 6mR 3DXOR DSLWDO $OO %LNHV %LNH 6SHUDQ]D %LNHUVSRLQW %LNH 7HFK 3LQKHLURV
  28. 28. %OXH %LNH LFOR $VVXQomR FORQH %LNHV (FR ELNH 3HGDO 3RZHU 3HGDO 8UEDQR 5LQFRV %LNH 626 %LNHV 6FDWW %LNHV 6SRUWV 6WDU 7RWDO %LNH 7UDLO %LNHV 7:: %LNHV H 9LVXDO %LNHV 6RURFDED =p %LNH LFOR pVDU 6$17$ $7$5,1$ %OXPHQDX 7ZLQV %LNH %UXVTXH $OL V %LNH H 'DU %LNH DPERUL~ %LFLFOHWDULD $TXDULXV ULFL~PD %LNH 3RLQW )ORULDQySROLV LFOHV +RIIPDQQ H %LNH 7HFK ,QGDLDO %LNH 6SHFN -RLQYLOOH 3HGDO 1D 7ULOKD H DVD 7XUQHV 7XEDUmR 6KRS %LNH 5,2 *5$1'( '2 68/ 3RUWR $OHJUH 5RGRFLFOR H 6FKHQDWR %LNHV 1RYR +DPEXUJR %HWRV %LNH DPSR %RP 6WXGLR %LNH D[LDV GR 6XO $OHQFDU -HUHPLDV H 9LD %LNH $-867( '2 $0257(('25 %5$,1 $SUHQGD D UHJXODU R DPRUWHFHGRU
  29. 29. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  30. 30. GD 6SHFLDOL]HG (SLF SDUD VHX SHVR 2 %UDLQ DPRUWHFHGRU WUDVHLUR GHVHQYROYLGR SHOD 6SHFLDOL]HG HP SDUFHULD FRP D )R[ p XP GRV PDLV DYDQoDGRV GD DWXDOLGDGH H RIHUHFH P~OWLSODV UHJXODJHQV TXH IDFLOLWDP D EDVWDQWH D YLGD GR SLORWR H DXPHQWDP R FRQIRUWR D SLORWDJHP H D VHJXUDQoD (QWUHWDQWR VHX XVR GHYH VHU SUHFHGLGR GH UHJXODJHQV HVSHFtILFDV SDUD FDGD FLFOLVWD SDUD TXH R IXQFLRQDPHQWR VHMD SHUIHLWR $-867( '$ 0(','$ '2 6$* 2 WHUPR 6$* HP LQJOrV VLJQLILFD DIXQGDU FHGHU GHVFHU 1D SUiWLFD R WHUPR 6$* p XVDGR SDUD GHVFUHYHU R TXDQWR D VXVSHQVmR DIXQGD TXDQGR R FLFOLVWD HVWi VREUH D ELFLFOHWD 9(-$ 3$662 $ 3$662 202 6( )$= 2 $-867( DOLEUH R DPRUWHFHGRU SHOD YiOYXOD GH DU GH DFRUGR FRP R SHVR GR FLFOLVWD $ WDEHOD DEDL[R WUD] XPD UHODomR HQWUH R SHVR GR FLFOLVWD H D SUHVVmR D VHU XWLOL]DGD QR DPRUWHFHGRU 'HVOL]H R DQHO ³2 5LQJ´ LQGLFDGRU GH FXUVR DQHO GH ERUUDFKD
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  32. 32. GD FkPDUD GH DU 2 FLFOLVWD GHYH HVWDU YHVWLGR FRP R VHX HTXLSDPHQWR FRPSOHWR LQFOXVLYH IHUUDPHQWDV QR EROVR H RXWUDV FRLVDV TXH FRVWXPD SHGDODU LQFOXVLYH FRP D PRFKLOD GH KLGUDWDomR DEDVWHFLGD VH IRUR FDVR RORTXH D ELNH SDUDOHOD D XPD SDUHGH GH PDQHLUD TXH YRFr SRVVD VHQWDU QR VHOLP H DSRLDU DV PmRV QR JXLGmR FRPR VH HVWLYHVVH SHGDODQGR 8VH R VHX MRHOKR SDUD DSRLDUVH QD SDUHGH H GHL[H VHX SHVR DJLU VREUH D ELNH SRU VHJXQGRV H GHVoD GD ELNH 0HoD D GLVWkQFLD GR GHVORFDPHQWR GR DQHO GH ERUUDFKD $ PHGLGD LQLFLDO UHFRPHQGDGD p GH PP $GLFLRQH RX UHWLUH SUHVVmR GH HP OLEUDV DWp FKHJDU QHVVD PHGLGD $-867( '2 5(72512 2 DMXVWH GR UHWRUQR GR DPRUWHFHGRU FRQWUROD D YHORFLGDGH GD H[WHQVmR GR DPRUWHFHGRU TXDQGR HOH VH HVWLFD QRYDPHQWH GHSRLV TXH IRL FRPSULPLGR SHORV REVWiFXORV GR WHUUHQR 2 ERWmR YHUPHOKR SUy[LPR j YiOYXOD GH DU TXDQGR JLUDGR QR VHQWLGR KRUiULR GLPLQXL D YHORFLGDGH GR UHWRUQR H QR VHQWLGR DQWLKRUiULR DXPHQWD (OH SHUPLWH XPD YDULDomR DPSOD GH DMXVWH FRQIRUPH D SUHVVmR XWLOL]DGD QR DPRUWHFHGRU H GH DFRUGR FRP R FRPSRUWDPHQWR GHVHMDGR QR WHUUHQR D VHU SHUFRUULGR 8P UHWRUQR PXLWR UiSLGR YDL ID]HU FRP TXH D VXVSHQVmR TXLTXH SDUD FLPD TXDQGR VH HVWHQGH DSyV WUDQVSRU XP REVWiFXOR H YDL SUHMXGLFDU R FRQWUROH GD ELNH -i XP UHWRUQR PXLWR OHQWR QmR GHL[DUi TXH D URGD DFRPSDQKH DV LUUHJXODULGDGHV GR WHUUHQR SRLV R DPRUWHFHGRU QmR FRQVHJXLUi HVWHQGHU D WHPSR SDUD WUDQVSRU XP REVWiFXOR DSyV VHU FRPSULPLGR ,VVR p HVSHFLDOPHQWH QRWDGR HP REVWiFXORV VXFHVVLYRV $ UHJXODJHP GR UHWRUQR *LUH R ERWmR YHUPHOKR QR VHQWLGR KRUiULR DWp R ILP 9RFr LUi VHQWLU FOLTXHV TXDQGR JLUDU R ERWmR 3DUD DMXVWDU FRQIRUPH LQGLFDGR QD WDEHOD JLUH R ERWmR QR VHQWLGR DQWLKRUiULR FRQWDQGR RV FOLTXHV FRQIRUPH D UHFRPHQGDomR
  33. 33. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  34. 34. $-867( '2 %5$,1 )$'( $OJXQV PRGHORV GH ELNHV SRVVXHP XP DMXVWH DGLFLRQDO FKDPDGR GH ,4 PRGHORV H
  35. 35. TXH p IHLWR SRU PHLR GH XPD DODYDQFD D]XO ORFDOL]DGD HPEDL[R GD YiOYXOD GR %UDLQ (VVH DMXVWH UHJXOD D VHQVLELOLGDGH GD YiOYXOD GH WUDYDPHQWR *LUDQGR D DODYDQFD QR VHQWLGR DQWLKRUiULR ILUPHU
  36. 36. @ D FDUJD QHFHVViULD SDUD GHVWUDYDU R DPRUWHFHGRU p PDLRU 1R VHQWLGR KRUiULR VRIWHU
  37. 37. @ R DPRUWHFHGRU GHVWUDYD FRP PDLV IDFLOLGDGH 2V PRGHORV (SLF SRVVXHP XP UHFXUVR VLPLODU PDV FRP XP UHVXOWDGR GR DMXVWH XP SRXFR GLIHUHQWH (QTXDQWR QRV PRGHORV H R DPRUWHFHGRU VHPSUH WUDYD WRWDOPHQWH LQGHSHQGHQWHPHQWH GR DMXVWH QRV PRGHORV (SLF D UHJXODJHP PDLV PDFLD QmR GHL[D R DPRUWHFHGRU WUDYDU (OH WRUQD D FRPSUHVVmR EDVWDQWH GXUD HP YH] GH WUDYDU H VROWD FRP PXLWR PDLV IDFLOLGDGH PHQRV VRODYDQFRV 9(5,),$d­2 '2 $-867( 1$ 3('$/$'$ 'XUDQWH RX GHSRLV GH XPD SHGDODGD PHoD R GHVORFDPHQWR GR DQHO GH ERUUDFKD (VVD GLVWkQFLD GHYH VHU GH PP TXH p R FXUVR WRWDO GR DPRUWHFHGRU (P WULOKDV R LGHDO p TXH R FLFOLVWD XWLOL]H WRGR R FXUVR GR DPRUWHFHGRU SDUD SRGHU GHVIUXWDU GH WRGR R SRWHQFLDO GD VXVSHQVmR 6H R DPRUWHFHGRU QmR FRPSULPLU DWp R ILQDO UHWLUH D SUHVVmR GH HP OLEUDV DWp TXH R DPRUWHFHGRU FRPSULPD DWp R ILP GH FXUVR 5HDMXVWH R UHWRUQR FRQIRUPH DV DOWHUDo}HV GH SUHVVmR 0HQRV SUHVVmR VLJQLILFD XP UHWRUQR PDLV UiSLGR DQWL KRUiULR
  38. 38. H PDLV SUHVVmR XP UHWRUQR PDLV OHQWR 9i GH XP HP XP FOLTXH DWp DFKDU R SRQWR FHUWR SDUD VXDV QHFHVVLGDGHV 63(,$/,=(' (3, )65 PRGHORV D 63(,$/,=(' (3, )65 PRGHOR ± %UDLQ )DGH 3HVR GR %LNHU .*
  39. 39. 3UHVVmR /EV
  40. 40. 1ž GH FOLTXHV
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  42. 42. 3UHVVmR /EV
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  47. 47. 5(9,6­2 3Ï6 (7$3$ RPR GHL[DU VXD ELNH SURQWD SDUD HQIUHQWDU D SURYD GR GLD VHJXLQWH 'LVSXWDU XPD SURYD SRU HWDSDV p R VRQKR GH WRGR FRPSHWLGRU GH PDUDWRQDV GH PRXQWDLQ ELNH RPSHWLo}HV FRPR D 9ROWD D 6DQWD DWDULQD HP 07% YHMD QRWtFLD
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  49. 49. FDERV GH IUHLR H FkPELR $ VXVSHQVmR WDPEpP GHYH UHFHEHU DWHQomR HVSHFLDO 2 LGHDO p LQLFLDU D UHYLVmR R PDLV EUHYH SRVVtYHO DSyV FDGD HWDSD SRLV R ELNHU WHUi PDLV WHPSR GH VROXFLRQDU HYHQWXDLV SUREOHPDV FRPR SQHXV IXUDGRV VXVSHQVmR WUDYDGD URGD HPSHQDGD VDSDWDV GH IUHLR JDVWDV UDLRV TXHEUDGRV HWF 2 PHFkQLFR -RmR 0DULD )272
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  53. 53. 3DQRV VHFRV H OLPSRV (VFRYD SDUD R FDVVHWH SRGH VHU HVFRYD GHQWDO
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  69. 69. RP DV PmRV HQFDL[H DV ERUGDV GR SQHX QR DUR YHMD PDFHWHV
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  73. 73. 2 SULPHLUR SDVVRX IRL GHVPRQWDU D URGD WUDVHLUD H VXEVWLWXLU D FkPDUD TXH ILFRX LQXWLOL]DGD 2 PDLRU SUREOHPD VHULD FRPR PRQWDU D QRYD FkPDUD QR SQHX UDVJDGR QD ODWHUDO 8P VLPSOHV PDQFKmR QmR GDULD FHUWR SRLV DOpP GH VHU JUDQGH FP
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  78. 78. IRL FDOLEUDGR FRP DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH OLEUDV R VXILFLHQWH SDUD SRGHU YROWDU SDUD FDVD $ LPSURYLVDomR RX ³JDPELDUUD´ VH SUHIHULU VH PRVWURX EDVWDQWH HILFD] H D SHGDODGD GH UHJUHVVR IRL GHYDJDU H FDXWHORVD PDV VHP WUDXPDV 'LFDV ([DPLQH FRP IUHTrQFLD R HVWDGR GRV SQHXV $OpP GD EDQGD GH URGDJHP YHULILTXH VHPSUH R WDOmR GR SQHX DTXHOD SDUWH FRP DUDPH TXH YDL MXQWR DR DUR
  79. 79. 1DV WULOKDV OHYH VHPSUH SHOR PHQRV GXDV FkPDUDV GH UHVHUYD ERPED H HVSiWXODV 5HPHQGRV OL[D H FROD WDPEpP VmR GHVHMiYHLV 9HULILTXH WDPEpP R HVWDGR GDV FkPDUDV UHVHUYDV H GD FROD (OHV SRGHP VH GDQLILFDU QR LQWHULRU GD EROVD GH VHOLP 7HQKD SHOR PHQRV XP FDQLYHWH FRP FKDYHV DOOHQ IHQGD H SKLOOLSV QR VHX NLW GH VREUHYLYrQFLD KDYH GH FRUUHQWH H FKDYH GH UDLRV FRPSOHWDP R DUVHQDO GH IHUUDPHQWDV %RD SDUWH GR WHUULWyULR QDFLRQDO Mi HVWi FREHUWR FRP VLQDO GH WHOHIRQLD FHOXODU /HYH R VHX WHOHIRQH DLQGD TXH GHVOLJDGR (OH SRGHUi VHU ~WLO QXPD HPHUJrQFLD 4XDQGR HQFRQWUDU RXWURV ELNHUV HP GLILFXOGDGH RIHUHoD DMXGD
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  81. 81. %,.(6 '( $/80Ë1,2 RQKHoD DV YiULDV OLJDV GHVVH PHWDO H VXDV DSOLFDo}HV QD LQG~VWULD FLFOtVWLFD 3RU :HVOH .HVWUHO LFOLVPR%U 1DV DWXDLV IDEULFDo}HV GH TXDGURV SDUD ELFLFOHWDV R DoR LQFOXLQGR R IDPRVR ³FURPR´
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  84. 84. PXGHP HP DOJXQV FDVRV GH PDQHLUD HVSHWDFXODU
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  89. 89. VmR D H[FHomR SRLV VXDV SURSULHGDGHV VmR VLJQLILFDQWHPHQWH PHOKRUHV 5HVXPLQGR e ERP VDEHU TXH QmR YDOH D SHQD HQFKHU D FDEHoD GH Q~PHURV SRUTXH SRGHP VH IDEULFDU TXDGURV GH ERD H SpVVLPD TXDOLGDGH FRP TXDOTXHU XPD GDV OLJDV GH DOXPtQLR KDELWXDLV SDUD ELFLFOHWD
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  93. 93. 8P PrV GHSRLV MXQWHL R GLQKHLUR H FRPSUHL XPD $OIDPHT GH XP DPLJR PHX /LQGD (UD D ELFLFOHWD GRV PHXV VRQKRV 3DVVHL WUrV GLDV ID]HQGR UHYLVmR SRLV VRX PXLWR SHUIHFFLRQLVWD )LFRX XP VKRZ 0DV HUD PXLWR ERP SUD VHU YHUGDGH 'XDV VHPDQDV GHSRLV HQWUDUDP HP PLQKD FDVD H D URXEDUDP (X TXHULD PRUUHU 1mR WLQKD FRPR DUUXPDU GLQKHLUR SUD FRPSUDU RXWUD VHPHOKDQWH 5HVROYL HQWmR TXH LULD UHIRUPDU D DORL 6y PH DUUHSHQGR GH QmR WHU WLUDGR IRWRV GR HVWDGR LQLFLDO (VWDYD UHDOPHQWH WHUUtYHO 6y DSURYHLWHL R TXDGUR R JDUIR H D FDUFDoD GRV FXERV 6XQVKLQH
  94. 94. TXH SRU VHUHP GH DOXPtQLR GHX SUD UHFXSHUDU 2 UHVWR IRL WXGR SUR OL[R RPHFHL UHVWDXUDQGR RV FXERV )RL Vy ODYDU FRP ERPEULO TXH ILFDUDP QRYRV H PH HPSROJRX EDVWDQWH RORTXHL HL[R IXUDGR FRP EORFDJHP QRV GRLV $t IXL DWUiV GDV SHoDV WRGDV
  95. 95. 3RU VRUWH VRX DPLJR GR GRQR GR 626 5RGDV DTXL GH 6mR DUORV H FRPR HOH p DXWRUL]DGR DORL WHP EDVWDQWH SHoDV HP HVWRTXH 4XDVH WXGR XVDGR PDV HP ERDV FRQGLo}HV 3DVVHL YiULDV WDUGHV IXoDQGR QD ORMD H VHSDUDQGR R TXH LQWHUHVVDYD RQVHJXL SUDWLFDPHQWH WRGDV DV SHoDV 1mR JDVWHL QHP 5 'HPRUHL FHUFD GH XP PrV SDUD ILQDOL]DU R VHUYLoR 2 FRQMXQWR GH IUHLR p LQWHLUR GD 'LD RPSH 2V PDQHWHV HX DFKHL QRYRV GHQWUR GD HPEDODJHP 2 FRQMXQWR GH FDPELR p LQWHLUR 6XQWRXU RQVHJXL XP FkPELR GLDQWHLUR LQWHLUR GH DOXPtQLR DOpP GH DEUDoDGHLUDV SDUD FDER GH DoR TXH GHUDP XP FKDUPH HVSHFLDO QD ELFLFOHWD 2 SHGLYHOD p 7UDFHU FRP FHQWUR TXDGUDGR 7RGDV DV SHoDV VmR GH DOXPtQLR H[FHWR R FkPELR WUDVHLUR SRU LVVR D ELNH ILFRX EHP OHYH 'HSRLV GH WXGR UHIRUPDGR PLQXFLRVDPHQWH OL[HL R TXDGUR DGDSWHL XPD DEUDoDGHLUD GR VHOLP GH $OIDPHT SRLV R JDQFKLQKR RULJLQDO HVWDYD PXLWR WRUWR H PRQWHL SDUD HYHQWXDLV DMXVWHV DQWHV GD SLQWXUD RPSUHL DURV GH DOXPtQLR QRYRV H UDLRV GH LQR[ 1D GLDQWHLUD IRL PRQWDGR FRP UDLRV PP VHP FUX]DU 2V SQHXV VmR ,5 +3 $SyV XPD VHPDQD URGDQGR QXPD GHVDWHQomR EDWL QXP FDUUR SDUDGR H HQWRUWRX R JDUIR RPSUHL XP HP DoR FURPDGR 'HVPRQWHL H SLQWHL R TXDGUR FRP VSUD XVR JHUDO RORUJLQ YHUPHOKR 8P VSUD GHX FHUWLQKR SDUD GHPmRV )L] XP WUDEDOKR PXLWR FDSULFKDGR )LFRX EHP OLVR H VHP HVFRUULGRV $SyV DOJXQV DMXVWHV ILFRX XP VKRZ 1mR VDLX EDUDWR *DVWHL XQV 5 PDV FRPSUDQGR WXGR 5HIRUPDU XPD ELNH LQWHLUD ILFD EHP PDLV EDUDWR 2 FkPELR 6XQWRXU GH YHORFLGDGHV (P DOXPtQLR R SHGLYHOD 7UDFHU 2 VHOLP IRL IL[DGR FRP XPD DEUDoDGHLUD $OIDPHT FRP TXLFN UHOHDVH
  96. 96. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  97. 97. /,03(=$ '$ 255(17( 9RFr VDEH PHVPR@ OLPSDU H OXEULILFDU D FRUUHQWH 3RU 0DUFRV $GDPL 0DQWHU D FRUUHQWH R FDVVHWH H DV FRURDV OLPSDV p XP SUpUHTXLVLWR HVVHQFLDO SDUD TXH WRGR R FRQMXQWR GH WUDQVPLVVmR IXQFLRQH EHP H PDLV TXH LVVR GXUH EHP PDLV 8PD WUDQVPLVVmR EHP OLPSD H OXEULILFDGD FKHJD D GXUDU DWp D PDLV /LPSH]D QHVVH FDVR p VLQ{QLPR GH HFRQRPLD 8PD FRUUHQWH OLPSD WDPEpP WUDEDOKD GH IRUPD PDLV VLOHQFLRVD H SUHFLVD 0DV YRFr VDEH PHVPR FRPR TXH VH OLPSD H OXEULILFD R VLVWHPD GH WUDQVPLVVmR FRUUHWDPHQWH $ FRUUHQWH H RV GHPDLV FRPSRQHQWHV GD WUDQVPLVVmR GHYHP ILFDU DEVROXWDPHQWH OLPSRV 92Ç 9$, 35(,6$5 '( 'HVHQJUD[DQWH SRGH VHU TXHURVHQH GLHVHO RX GHVHQJUD[DQWHV FtWULFRV
  98. 98. 3LQFHO HRX HVFRYD GH GHQWHV 6DEmR HP Sy /XEULILFDQWH SDUD FRUUHQWHV GH ERD TXDOLGDGH )LQLVK /LQH 3HGUR V RX VLPLODU LPSRUWDGR
  99. 99. ÈJXD OLPSD j YRQWDGH 3LQFHO DW{PLFR RSFLRQDO
  100. 100. $ /$9$*(0 2 SULPHLUR SDVVR p ODYDU EHP WRGR R VLVWHPD GH WUDQVPLVVmR TXH LQFOXL DOpP GD FRUUHQWH DV FRURDV R FDVVHWH DV FDWUDFDV
  101. 101. H RV GRLV FkPELRV $ OLPSH]D GHYH FRPHoDU FRP D DSOLFDomR GR GHVHQJUD[DQWH FRP XP SLQFHO SRU WRGR R VLVWHPD GH WUDQVPLVVmR (VIUHJXH EHP D FRUUHQWH FRP D HVFRYD GH GHQWHV HOR SRU HOR FXLGDGRVDPHQWH /LPSH WDPEpP R FDVVHWH DV
  102. 102. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  103. 103. FRURDV H DV UROGDQDV GR FkPELR WUDVHLUR (Q[iJH FRP EDVWDQWH iJXD FRUUHQWH H UHSLWD QRYDPHQWH D RSHUDomR 0HWLFXORVDPHQWH (Q[iJH WXGR GH QRYR H DJRUD SUHSDUH XPD VROXomR GH VDEmR HP Sy FRP iJXD HP XP EDOGH 8P SXQKDGR GH VDEmR FRP XQV GRLV OLWURV G iJXD p R EDVWDQWH $SOLTXH HVWD VROXomR FRP R SLQFHO SRU WRGR R VLVWHPD RP D HVFRYD GH GHQWHV HVIUHJXH HOR SRU HOR GD FRUUHQWH DSULFKH QR FDVVHWH H QDV UROGDQDV GR FkPELR WUDVHLUR (VSHUH R VDEmR DJLU SRU XQV PLQXWRV H HQ[iJH WXGR QRYDPHQWH 6HJXUH HP GRLV SRQWRV GD FRUUHQWH GLVWDQWH XQV FP XP GR RXWUR H WRUoDD OHYHPHQWH FRP RV GHGRV $ FRUUHQWH HVWDUi DEVROXWDPHQWH OLPSD TXDQGR YRFr QmR VHQWLU QHQKXP DWULWR GH VXMHLUD HQWUH DV SDUWHV GD FRUUHQWH $ VHQVDomR GHYH VHU D GH PHWDO HVIUHJDQGR FRQWUD PHWDO Vy DVVLP D FRUUHQWH HVWDUi EHP OLPSLQKD H SURQWD SDUD UHFHEHU D OXEULILFDomR ILQDO 'LFD H[LVWHP IHUUDPHQWDV HVSHFLDLV SDUD D OLPSH]D GH FRUUHQWH TXH HYLWDP VXMHLUD 2 PRGHOR ,FH 7RRO] IRWR
  104. 104. FXVWD SRXFR PDLV GH 5 H p EDVWDQWH SUiWLFR 'HL[H D ELNH VHFDU QDWXUDOPHQWH DR VRO FXLGDGR SDUD QmR GHL[DU PXLWR WHPSR H[SRVWD HVSHFLDOPHQWH VH R TXDGUR IRU GH ILEUD GH FDUERQR
  105. 105. RX XVH DU FRPSULPLGR GLUHWDPHQWH QD WUDQVPLVVmR SDUD DFHOHUDU D VHFDJHP 'HSRLV GH FRPSOHWDPHQWH VHFD p D KRUD GD OXEULILFDomR 4XH WDPEpP WHP VHXV VHJUHGLQKRV 8P FRUUHQWH p IRUPDGD SHOD SODFD H[WHULRU SODFD LQWHULRU UHELWH RX SLQR
  106. 106. H SHOD DQLOKD TXH p XP DQHO TXH WUDEDOKD VROWR HQYROYHQGR R SLQR 4XDQGR OXEULILFDPRV D FRUUHQWH TXHUHPRV QD UHDOLGDGH TXH D SHOtFXOD GH yOHR OXEULILTXH DV SDUWHV PHWiOLFDV TXH DWULWDP HQWUH VL $ DQLOKD DOpP GH DWULWDU HP VHX LQWHULRU FRP R SLQR DWULWD HP VXD SDUWH H[WHULRU R ODGR GH IRUD GD DQLOKD
  107. 107. FRP RV GHQWHV GDV HQJUHQDJHQV FRURDV H FDVVHWH
  108. 108. 2 VHJUHGR HVWi HP OXEULILFDUPRV GD IRUPD PDLV HILFLHQWH SRVVtYHO DV SDUWHV TXH HQWUDP HP FRQWDWR PHWDOPHWDO /8%5,),$d­2 e UHFRPHQGDGR R XVR GH yOHR HVSHFLDO SDUD FRUUHQWHV GH ELFLFOHWDV +i YiULDV PDUFDV LPSRUWDGDV QR PHUFDGR 3HGURV 5RFN 1 5ROO HWF
  109. 109. HQWUHWDQWR QR %UDVLO D PDUFD PDLV FRPXP p D QRUWHDPHULFDQD )LQLVK /LQH 1R GHVHQKR DR ODGR SODFD LQWHULRU SODFD H[WHULRU SLQR GD FRUUHQWH DQLOKD 2 SUREOHPD HP XVDU yOHR GR WLSR GRPpVWLFR 6LQJHU p TXH HOH QmR DGHUH EHP j FRUUHQWH H HVFRUUH QD SULPHLUD SHGDODGD 6y ILFD D VXMHLUD H TXH VXMHLUD $ YDQWDJHP GRV OXEULILFDQWHV HVSHFLDLV SDUD FRUUHQWHV GH ELFLFOHWD p D OLPSH]D D ERD DGHUrQFLD j FRUUHQWH H D YLVFRVLGDGH FRUUHWD SDUD HVWH XVR HVSHFtILFR 3$662 $ 3$662 '$ /8%5,),$d­2 RORTXH QD FRURD PHQRU RX FRURD GR PHLR QDV PRXQWDLQ ELNHV H HP DOJXPD PDUFKD LQWHUPHGLiULD QR FDVVHWH RP R SLQFHO DW{PLFR SLQWH D ODWHUDO GH XP GRV HORV GD FRUUHQWH SDUD VHUYLU GH PDUFDomR RPHFH D OXEULILFDomR SHOR HOR PDUFDGR ',$ RPHFH D OXEULILFDU SHOD SDUWH LQIHULRU GD FRUUHQWH D TXH HVWi PDLV SUy[LPD DR FKmR ,VWR p LPSRUWDQWH SDUD TXH D SHOtFXOD GH yOHR HVFRUUD SDUD GHQWUR GD FRUUHQWH 9i JLUDQGR R SHGDO H OXEULILFDQGR SDUWH SRU SDUWH GD FRUUHQWH
  110. 110. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  111. 111. 8PD PtQLPD TXDQWLGDGH GH yOHR GHYH VHU DSOLFDGR HOR SRU HOR 1D PHGLGD GR SRVVtYHO GHL[H FDLU DSHQDV GH XPD JRWD $ HPEDODJHP GRV OXEULILFDQWHV LPSRUWDGRV FRPR R )LQLVK /LQH IDFLOLWDP HVVD RSHUDomR ,VVR p LPSRUWDQWH SDUD PDQWHU D FRUUHQWH VHPSUH OLPSD 4XDQWR PDLV yOHR PDLV VXMHLUD VHUi DWUDtGD SDUD JUXGDU QD WUDQVPLVVmR $ DSOLFDomR GR yOHR GHYH VHU IHLWD QR VHQWLGR WUDQVYHUVDO j FRUUHQWH RX VHMD D SHOtFXOD GH yOHR GHYH VH LQVWDODU HQWUH DV SODFDV H[WHUQDV H LQWHUQDV H HVFRUUHU SDUD GHQWUR GD DQLOKD )DoD FRP TXH R yOHR HQWUH SHODV IUHVWDV PDUFDGDV QD IRWR DR ODGR ',$ $SyV OXEULILFDU FDGD VHWRU VHJXUH HP GRLV SRQWRV GD FRUUHQWH H WRUoDD OHYHPHQWH YiULDV YH]HV (VVH PRYLPHQWR YDL SHUPLWLU TXH R yOHR HVFRUUD SDUD GHQWUR GDV DQLOKDV 7HUPLQDGD D OXEULILFDomR GD FRUUHQWH GHLWH D ELNH H OXEULILTXH WDPEpP D SDUWH LQWHUQD GDV UROGDQDV GR FkPELR WUDVHLUR $SOLTXH R yOHR QDV IUHVWDV GR HL[R GDV UROGDQDV TXH HOH YDL HVFRUUHU SDUD GHQWUR H OXEULILFDU DV HVIHUDV /XEULILTXH WDPEpP WRGRV RV SRQWRV TXH WrP PRYLPHQWR QR FkPELR GLDQWHLUR H WUDVHLUR FRPR HL[RV H SLY{V 6H SUHIHULU XVH RXWUR yOHR PDLV EDUDWR $Wp PHVPR R 6LQJHU YDL EHP QHVVH FDVR 0$187(1d­2 3(5,Ï',$ RP D FRUUHQWH EHP OLPSD H OXEULILFDGD YRFr YDL QRWDU XPD SHOtFXOD ~PLGD GH yOHR VREUH D FRUUHQWH 4XDQGR HVVD SHOtFXOD GHU OXJDU D XP EULOKR PHWiOLFR p VLQDO TXH HVWi QD KRUD GH QRYD DSOLFDomR GH yOHR 6HPSUH TXH YROWDU GH XPD SHGDODGD H[DPLQH R HVWDGR GD FRUUHQWH 6H RV HORV VH DSUHVHQWDUHP VHFRV H FRP EULOKR PHWiOLFR p VLQDO TXH HOD SUHFLVD GH XPD QRYD DSOLFDomR GH OXEULILFDQWH /LPSH D FRUUHQWH FRP XP SDQR VHFR H DSOLTXH R OXEULILFDQWH FRPR GHVFULWR QRV SDVVRV D $V UROGDQDV H RV SLY{V GH FkPELR OHYDP PDLV WHPSR SDUD SHUGHU D OXEULILFDomR $ SHULRGLFLGDGH GD UHDSOLFDomR GR yOHR YDL GHSHQGHU PXLWR GDV FRQGLo}HV GR SLVR RQGH YRFr URGRX 8VH R ERP VHQVR H YHULILTXH GH SHUWR D FRQGLomR GD FRUUHQWH (VWUDGDV GH WHUUD FRP ODPD ODYDP D OXEULILFDomR ORJR QRV SULPHLUR PHWURV -i XPD ELNH GH FLFOLVPR TXH URGD HP XPD HVWUDGD GH DVIDOWR VHFD WHUi PDLRU GXUDELOLGDGH GD OXEULILFDomR 4XDQGR YRFr QRWDU TXH R SDQR VHFR QmR p R VXILFLHQWH SDUD UHPRYHU D VXMHLUD H GHL[DU D FRUUHQWH OLPSD p KRUD GH WURFDU R yOHR GD FRUUHQWH RX VHMD ID]HU WRGD D OLPSH]D FRPSOHWD GHVFULWD DFLPD FRP TXHURVHQH VDEmR HP Sy HWF 1RYDPHQWH p R HVWDGR GD FRUUHQWH TXH YDL GHWHUPLQDU R PRPHQWR H[DWR GH VH ID]HU D QRYD OLPSH]D FRPSOHWD 2 SHUtRGR YDL YDULDU 4XHP URGD HP DVIDOWR OLPSR p XPD FRLVD TXHP URGD QD ODPD FRP XPD PRXQWDLQ ELNH p RXWUD 8VH R ERP VHQVR ',$ (P SHGDODGDV ORQJDV NP GH HVWUDGD RX NP GH PRXQWDLQ ELNH
  112. 112. OHYH VHPSUH FRP YRFr XPD HPEDODJHP FRP yOHR 6H QRWDU TXH D FRUUHQWH FRPHoRX D ID]HU EDUXOKR H R EULOKR PHWiOLFR UHDSDUHFHX p VLQDO TXH p KRUD GH SDUDU H UHSOLFDU R OXEULILFDQWH 8PD HPEDODJHP SHTXHQD GH 1RYDOJLQD PO
  113. 113. p XPD H[FHOHQWH HPEDODJHP SDUD OHYDU R yOHR HP XPD SHGDODGD $OJXQV DWOHWDV GH PRXQWDLQ ELNH FRVWXPDP LPSURYLVDU XPD VHULQJD KLSRGpUPLFD FRPR DSOLFDGRU GH yOHR TXH SRGH VHU DFLRQDGD FRP D ELNH HP PRYLPHQWR SDUD GLVSXWDU SURYDV ORQJDV FRPR D 9ROWD D 6 HP 07% HUDSLy H RXWUDV /8%5,),$17(6 2 OXEULILFDQWH QDFLRQDO 3Uy %LNH QmR GHL[D QDGD D GHYHU HP UHODomR DRV LPSRUWDGRV FRP XP SUHoR GH DWp LQIHULRU HOH p R SULPHLUR OXEULILFDQWH GR 3DtV D XVDU VLOLFRQH LPSRUWDGR HP VXD IyUPXOD 6HXV DGLWLYRV JDUDQWHP H[FHOHQWH GXUDomR PDLRU TXH D GRV VLPLODUHV LPSRUWDGRV 6HUYH WDQWR SDUD FOLPD VHFR TXDQWR FKXYRVR $ )LQLVK /LQH IDEULFD WUrV GLIHUHQWHV WLSRV GH OXEULILFDQWHV TXH WrP DSOLFDo}HV GLVWLQWDV
  114. 114. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  115. 115. URVV RXQWU 0DLV XVDGR QR PRXQWDLQ ELNH (VWH yOHR VLQWpWLFR VXSRUWD EHP WHUUHQRV PROKDGRV H ODPD 7HP DGLWLYRV DQWLGHVJDVWH H DQWLIULFomR 'XUD PDLV QD FRUUHQWH SRU VHU PDLV YLVFRVR 7HIORQ 3OXV ¬ EDVH GH WHIORQ HOH p PDLV VHFR TXH R FURVV FRXQWU SRU LVVR p R SUHIHULGR SRU FLFOLVWDV GH VSHHG H PRXQWDLQ ELNHV TXH URGDP PDMRULWDULDPHQWH QR DVIDOWR e PDLV OLPSR TXH R URVV RXQWU .U 7HFK )HLWR j EDVH GH XP SURGXWR GD 'X 3RQW FKDPDGR .UWR[ TXH p XP ILOPH OXEULILFDQWH j EDVH GH SDUDILQD 0DQWpP D FRUUHQWH OLPSD SRU PDLV WHPSR H UHGX] RV UXtGRV PDV GXUD EHP PHQRV QD FRUUHQWH SRLV p PXLWR VHFR +,67Ï5,$ '2 3('$/ 'RV PRGHORV DQWLJRV DRV GH HQFDL[H D HYROXomR GR SHGDO 3RU 0DUFRV $GDPL 2 WHPSR SDVVRX H HYROXLX SDUD RV SHGDLV WDPEpP 'HVGH RV VLPSOHV SHGDLV SODWDIRUPDV DTXHOHV FRPXQV
  116. 116. DWp PRGHUQRV SHGDLV GH HQFDL[H TXH WHPRV KRMH 6mR YiULRV WLSRV GH SHGDLV SDUD GLYHUVDV ILQDOLGDGHV 9HMD RV SULQFLSDLV WLSRV H VXD DSOLFDomR 3/$7$)250$ 'HVGH TXH ELNH p ELNH HOHV H[LVWHP H VmR PDLV RX PHQRV LVVR Dt ([LVWHP PRGHORV OLVRV RXWURV WrP UDQKXUDV SDUD HYLWDU TXH RV SpV HVFRUUHJXHP 3RGHP VHU UHFREHUWRV FRP ERUUDFKD 2 PDWHULDO SRGH VHU DoR DOXPtQLR H DWpQKDDDF
  117. 117. SOiVWLFR $ PDLRULD SRVVXL UHIOHWRUHV QD GLDQWHLUD H WUDVHLUD '( *5$032 ( 255(,$6 e FRLVD DQWLJD 1DVFHX SDUD HTXLSDU DV ELNHV GH FRUULGD QR SULQFtSLR GR VpFXOR SDVVDGR RP RV SpV SUHVRV QRV SHGDLV R FLFOLVWD SURGX] PDLV HQHUJLD SRLV HOH WDPEpP SX[D R SHGDO SDUD FLPD GXUDQWH D SHGDODGD 2V SpV ILFDP SUHVRV QR JUDPSR H QDV FRUUHLDV $SUHVHQWD VpULRV ULVFRV SRLV HP FDVR GH TXHGDV VH R Sp QmR GHVHQFDL[DU QR DWR GD TXHGD D ELNH DUUDVWD H SRGH IHULU VHULDPHQWH R FLFOLVWD +RMH H[LVWHP DLQGD ELNHV TXH YrP HTXLSDGDV FRP HVVH WLSR GH SHGDO
  118. 118. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  119. 119. '( (1$,;( $ HYROXomR GR SHGDO 2 VLVWHPD FOLSOHVV VHP JUDPSR HP LQJOrV
  120. 120. WHYH VXD RULJHP QR HVTXL e VpULR 2V HVTXLDGRUHV GLVSXQKDP GH XP VLVWHPD GH HQFDL[H GH VHXV SpV VREUH R HVTXL 2V LWDOLDQRV GD LQHOOL IRUDP RV SULPHLURV D XVDUHP D FDEHoD H FRORFDUHP HQFDL[H QR SHGDO GH ELNH 2 SHGDO LQHOOL V 0 IRL R SULPHLUR SHGDO GH HQFDL[H D VHU FRQKHFLGR QR LQtFLR GD GpFDGD GH 2V SHGDLV GH HQFDL[H VmR PXLWR VHJXURV H VH GHVSUHQGHP UDSLGLQKR GRV SpV PHVPR HP FDVR GH TXHGDV UiSLGDV H LQHVSHUDGDV )XQFLRQDP FRP XPD SHoD TXH p SDUDIXVDGD j VDSDWLOKD RV WDTXLQKRV RX SDWLOKDV HP 3RUWXJDO
  121. 121. TXH VH HQFDL[DP DRV SHGDLV H Dt ILFDP SUHVRV FRP R DX[tOLR GH PRODV WHQVRUDV 6y VDHP TXDQGR R FLFOLVWD IL]HU PRYLPHQWR ODWHUDO SDUD GLUHLWD RX HVTXHUGD
  122. 122. 1R YiFXR GD LQHOOL D IUDQFHVD /RRN HP DEULO GH IH] VXFHVVR FRP XP QRYR PRGHOR GH SHGDO GH HQFDL[H H R WLSR /RRN GRPLQD R PHUFDGR DWp KRMH RQKHoD RV PRGHORV GH SHGDLV GH HQFDL[H H[LVWHQWHV KRMH QR PHUFDGR /22. 4XDVH GRV FLFOLVWDV EUDVLOHLURV XVDP HVVH VLVWHPD 2IHUHFH ERD EDVH SDUD RV SpV 2V PRGHORV PHOKRUHV VmR RV TXH SRVVXHP UHJXODJHP GH WHQVmR H GH PRYLPHQWR ODWHUDO GRV SpV $V PDUFDV PDLV FRPXQV VmR D SUySULD /RRN 7LPH H DPSDJQROR $ LQHOOL LQYHQWRX R FOLSOHVV H D /RRN IH] GHOH XP VXFHVVR FRPHUFLDO 63' 8WLOL]DGRV QR PRXQWDLQ ELNH 6mR SHTXHQRV H QRUPDOPHQWH WrP HQFDL[H GRV GRLV ODGRV GR SHGDO SDUD IDFLOLWDU R HQFDL[H GR Sp 2V PDLV FRPXQV VmR GD PDUFD 6KLPDQR :HOO *R 6FRWW H 6SHFLDOL]HG 63'5 e D YHUVmR 63' SDUD DV ELNHV GH VSHHG FRQFRUUHQWH GLUHWR GR /RRN 6H SXGHU HVFROKHU HVFROKD R /RRN TXH DOpP GH SURSRUFLRQDU XPD PHOKRU EDVH SDUD RV SpV QD VXELGD p TXH VH VHQWH LVVR
  123. 123. DLQGD p PDLV IiFLO DFKDU SHoDV GH UHSRVLomR H WDTXLQKRV 3RXFR XVDGRV QR %UDVLO 6KLPDQR p D PDUFD PDLV FRQKHFLGD GHVVH WLSR DOLiV p D LQYHQWRUD GHVVH WLSR GH SHGDO 7,0( $7$ RQFRUUHQWH GLUHWR GRV 63' 6mR IiFHLV GH HQFDL[DU H GHVHQFDL[DU PHVPR QR EDUUR GL] D IiEULFD 1D KRUD GD SUHVVD p LVVR TXH LPSRUWD 2 VLVWHPD GH UHJXODJHP GH WHQVmR p DXWRPiWLFR 1D IRWR XP PRGHOR HP FDUERQR FRP WLWkQLR %0; 6mR XP PLVWR GH SHGDO SODWDIRUPD FRP XP HQFDL[H WLSR 63' QR FHQWUR 6mR yWLPRV SDUD SUDWLFDU IUHHULGH SDVVHLR SRU WULOKDV H SHOR FDPSR
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  156. 156. LVRSRU ILFDYD VRE XPD FDPDGD GH DFDEDPHQWR GH SOiVWLFR • +RMH HOHV VmR EHP PDLV OHYHV SHVDP GH D JUDPDV HP PpGLD 7rP YiULDV DEHUWXUDV SDUD YHQWLODomR DOJXQV FKHJDP D WHU DEHUWXUDV WrP IRUPDWR DHURGLQkPLFR HQFDL[H SDUD YLVHLUDV H YLVRUHV DOpP GH VRILVWLFDGRV VLVWHPDV GH IHFKR • 5DURV QR SDVVDGR KRMH Ki GLYHUVRV PRGHORV HVSHFLDOPHQWH GHVHQYROYLGRV SDUD FULDQoDV • 3DUD ELNHUV PDLV UDGLFDLV SUDWLFDQWHV GH IUHHULGH H GRZQKLOO R LGHDO VmR RV FDSDFHWHV IHFKDGRV WDPEpP FRQKHFLGRV FRPR IXOO IDFH SRLV SURWHJHP PHOKRU R URVWR D ERFD H FRQVHTXHQWHPHQWH RV GHQWHV GR SLORWR 35(d26 • ([LVWHP FDSDFHWHV FRP SUHoRV TXH YDULDP HP PpGLD GH 5 D 5 7RGRV WrP D IXQomR GH SURWHJHU VXD FDEHoD QmR p QHFHVViULR JDVWDU XPD IRUWXQD SDUD LVVR • ¬V YH]HV YRFr SRGH ID]HU H[FHOHQWHV QHJyFLRV HP ORMDV FRP PRGHORV HP SURPRomR 6mR PRGHORV IRUD GH OLQKD QD (XURSD H (8$ FRPSUDGRV SRU ORWHV H TXH FKHJDP QR %UDVLO D SUHoRV EHP UD]RiYHLV RP VRUWH H SDFLrQFLD p SRVVtYHO HQFRQWUDU PRGHORV LPSRUWDGRV D SDUWLU GH 5 • 1R JHUDO FRQVLGHUH LVWR 4XDQWR PDLV PRGHUQR R PRGHOR PDLV OHYH H FRP PDLV DEHUWXUDV GH YHQWLODomR PDLV FDUR HOH VHUi • 2V SUHoRV YmR VXELQGR GH DFRUGR FRP D PRGD GD WHPSRUDGD 6LP H[LVWH WDPEpP D ELNH IDVKLRQ H RV (VWDGRV 8QLGRV H (XURSD GLWDP D PRGD 6H YRFr TXLVHU XP FDSDFHWH LJXDO DR ~OWLPR GR -XOLHQ $EVDORQ RX GR /DQFH $UPVWURQJ SUHSDUH R EROVR 202 (62/+(5 9i DWp XPD ERD ELNH VKRS FRP FHUWH]D YRFr HQFRQWUDUi YiULRV PRGHORV 9i DWp XPD H H[SHULPHQWH SURYH YiULRV PRGHORV $ SDUWH PDLV LPSRUWDQWH GD HVFROKD p R WDPDQKR FRUUHWR 2 FDSDFHWH GH WDPDQKR LGHDO QmR SRGH ILFDU PXLWR IROJDGR H FKDFRDOKDU HP VXD FDEHoD 7DPEpP QmR SRGH ILFDU DSHUWDGR H ID]HU SUHVVmR HP VXD WHVWD QXFD RX WrPSRUDV 2 $-867( 255(72 (OH GHYH WHU XP SRXTXLQKR GH IROJD R VXILFLHQWH SDUD VHU FRQIRUWiYHO H Vy $OJXQV PRGHORV YrP FRP WUrV PHGLGDV GH DOPRIDGDV SDUD TXH YRFr IDoD XP DMXVWH ILQR GHVWD IROJD 6H YRFr WHP FDEHORV FRPSULGRV FHUWLILTXHVH TXH Ki XPD DEHUWXUD QD SDUWH SRVWHULRU TXH SHUPLWD YRFr XVDU R FDEHOR SUHVR j UDERGHFDYDOR RPR XVDU R FDSDFHWH $QWHV GH WXGR p SUHFLVR DMXVWDU FRUUHWDPHQWH DV FRUUHLDV ,VVR YDULD GH PRGHOR SDUD PRGHOR OHLD R PDQXDO GH LQVWUXomR SHoD VH QHFHVViULR DMXGD DR YHQGHGRU GD ORMD )LQDOPHQWH DR FRORFDU R FDSDFHWH VREUH D FDEHoD GHL[HR QLYHODGR RPR UHJUD EiVLFD GHL[H R HVSDoR GD ODUJXUD GH XP GHGR HQWUH VXDV VREUDQFHOKDV H R FDSDFHWH -DPDLV XVH VHX FDSDFHWH LQFOLQDGR SDUD WUiV FRPR VH IRVVH XP ERQp 'HL[DQGR VXD WHVWD j PRVWUD HOD HVWDUi H[SRVWD D SDQFDGDV HP FDVR GH TXHGD
  157. 157. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP $SyV DTXHOH WUHLQR PDOXFR QXP GLD GH VRO FDSDFHWH QR YDUDO j VRPEUD SDUD VHFDU 1mR R JXDUGH XVR ¬V YH]HV p QHFHVViULR ODYDU FRP VDEmR QHXWUR DV HVS WLUDV SRGHP VHU OLPSDV FRP XP SDQR HPEHELGR HP VDEm LQWHUQD GR FDVFR WDPEpP SRGH VHU OLPSD FRP XP SDQR 3DUD GHL[DU VHX FDSDFHWH EULOKDQGR H FRQVHUYDU D SL YH]HV SRU DQR FRP FHUD SDUD DXWRPyYHLV GR WLSR *UD %LNHU FRQWD FRPR WUDQVIRUPRX VXD DORL QXPD VSHHG GH PDUFKDV 6RX XP DPDQWH GR PRXQWDLQ ELNH PDV FRPR PRUR ORQJH URGDU QR DVIDOWR VH TXLVHU SHGDODU (QWmR ILFD DTXH WULOKD H DVVLP SRU GLDQWH +i WHPSRV YLQKD SHQVDQGR QXPD VSHHG PDV DFDER JDVWDQGR WRGR VDLR GLVVR $Wp R GLD HP TXH DFKHL QD ZHE D JDOHUD QDV DORL 0DO FRPHFHL PLQKD EXVFD SHOD DORL H Mi DFKHL XP GHVWLQR HOD HVWDYD QR VDOmR GH IHVWDV GR SUpGLR GH QLQKD QRLYD (VWDYD Oi ODUJDGD WRGD RULJLQDO H FRPSOHWDPHQWH H 0LQKD VRJUD FRQYHUVRX FRP D SURSULHWiULD H SRU 5 HVWDYD HP PLQKDV PmRV KHJDQGR HP FDVD HX ROKHL SDUD HOD H HOD ROKRX SDU SHQVDPRV MXQWRV H DJRUD 3HVTXLVDV H PDLV SHVTXLVDV XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  158. 158. 216(59$d­2 ( /,03(=$ $SyV DTXHOH WUHLQR PDOXFR QXP GLD GH VRO VXRU GH FDYDOR TXH FDL SUD WRGR ODGRR FRUUHWR FDSDFHWH QR YDUDO j VRPEUD SDUD VHFDU 1mR R JXDUGH PROKDGR GH VXRU 6H SUHIHULU SDVVH XPD iJXD DSyV ¬V YH]HV p QHFHVViULR ODYDU FRP VDEmR QHXWUR DV HVSXPDV LQWHUQDV SDUD WLUDU R RGRU 2 FRUSR H[WHUQR H DV WLUDV SRGHP VHU OLPSDV FRP XP SDQR HPEHELGR HP VDEmR p FRPXP RFRUUHU GHSRVLWR GH VDO QDV WLUDV $ SDU LQWHUQD GR FDVFR WDPEpP SRGH VHU OLPSD FRP XP SDQR FRP iJXD H VDEmR 3DUD GHL[DU VHX FDSDFHWH EULOKDQGR H FRQVHUYDU D SLQWXUD FRPR QRYD EDVWD HQFHUDU R FDVFR XPD RX GXDV YH]HV SRU DQR FRP FHUD SDUD DXWRPyYHLV GR WLSR *UDQG 3UL[ GHL[DU VHFDU H SROLU FRP XPD IODQHOD VHFD 5()250$ $/2, %LNHU FRQWD FRPR WUDQVIRUPRX VXD DORL QXPD VSHHG GH PDUFKDV 6RX XP DPDQWH GR PRXQWDLQ ELNH PDV FRPR PRUR ORQJH GDV WULOKDV WULOKD Vy GH ILP GH VHPDQD
  159. 159. WHQKR TXH URGDU QR DVIDOWR VH TXLVHU SHGDODU (QWmR ILFD DTXHOH OHQJDOHQJD GH FRORFDU SQHX VOLFN SDUD DVIDOWR H FUDYR SD YLQKD SHQVDQGR QXPD VSHHG PDV DFDER JDVWDQGR WRGR R GLQKHLUR FRP D PRXQWDLQ ELNH H QXQFD VDLR GLVVR $Wp R GLD HP TXH DFKHL QD ZHE D JDOHUD PDQGDQGR YHU 0DO FRPHFHL PLQKD EXVFD SHOD DORL H Mi DFKHL XPD $UPDGLOKD GR D QR VDOmR GH IHVWDV GR SUpGLR GH QLQKD QRLYD (VWDYD Oi ODUJDGD WRGD RULJLQDO H FRPSOHWDPHQWH HQIHUUXMDGD 0LQKD VRJUD FRQYHUVRX FRP D SURSULHWiULD H SRU 5 D ELFLFOHWD KHJDQGR HP FDVD HX ROKHL SDUD HOD H HOD ROKRX SDUD PLP H SHQVDPRV MXQWRV H DJRUD 3HVTXLVDV H PDLV SHVTXLVDV QD ZHE H RFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV )RQH
  160. 160. VXRU GH FDYDOR TXH FDL SUD WRGR ODGRR FRUUHWR p FRORFDU VHX PROKDGR GH VXRU 6H SUHIHULU SDVVH XPD iJXD DSyV R GRU 2 FRUSR H[WHUQR H DV R p FRPXP RFRUUHU GHSRVLWR GH VDO QDV WLUDV $ SDUWH D FRPR QRYD EDVWD HQFHUDU R FDVFR XPD RX GXDV QG 3UL[ GHL[DU VHFDU H SROLU FRP XPD IODQHOD VHFD GDV WULOKDV WULOKD Vy GH ILP GH VHPDQD
  161. 161. WHQKR TXH OHQJD GH FRORFDU SQHX VOLFN SDUD DVIDOWR H FUDYR SDUD R GLQKHLUR FRP D PRXQWDLQ ELNH H QXQFD
  162. 162. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  163. 163. GHFLGL (VVD ELNH YDL URGDU H HX YRX ID]HU LVVR 'LD VHJXLQWH DSyV GHVPRQWiOD WRGLQKD H FRORFDU DV SHoDV GH PROKR QR yOHR GLHVHO IXL j ORMD GH WLQWDV H FRPSUHL UHPRYHGRU GH WLQWDV 5
  164. 164. H SDOKD GH DoR JURVVD 5
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  166. 166. MXQWR FRP DV SHoDV WDPEpP 3UDWLFDPHQWH D ELFLFOHWD WRGD GH PROKR ( FKHJRX D SDUWH PDLV FKDWD R OL[DPHQWR SRLV DLQGD WLQKD PXLWD IHUUXJHP 3DVVHL GRLV GLDV GH OL[DOL[D H ILQDOPHQWH HOD HVWDYD OLYUH GH FRUURV}HV /DYHLD FRP iJXD H VDEmR HQ[XJXHL EHP H GHL[HL WRPDQGR VRO SDUD FRPHoDU D SLQWDU 3LQWDU p GLYHULGR RPR QmR WHQKR FRPSUHVVRU H HX PHVPR TXHULD ID]HU WXGR WLYH TXH XVDU R QRVVR DPLJR VSUD RPSUHL R VSUD ³IXQGR SULPHU´ SRU 5 H HVFROKL FRPR FRU R SUHWR IRVFR GXDV ODWDV VDL SRU 5
  167. 167. GHL WUrV DSOLFDGDV GH SULPHU TXDGURJDUIRJXLGmRDURVFXERFkPELRVSDVVDGRUHV
  168. 168. H KRUDV GHSRLV SDVVHL XPD OL[D G iJXD Qž 5
  169. 169. SUD QLYHODU WXGR H ILFDU OLVLQKR $SyV WXGR OLPSR GHL[H QR VRO QRYDPHQWH KHJD KRUD GD SLQWXUD )RUDP DR WRGR FLQFR SDVVDGDV GH WLQWD HP WXGR )LFRX WXGR SUHWR IRVFR 'HSRLV GH KRUDV D ELFLFOHWD Mi HVWDYD SHGLQGR SDUD VHU PRQWDGD H Oi YDPRV QyV RPSUHL XPD ILWD GH JXLGmR YHUPHOKD FRP SUHWR 5
  170. 170. XP FDQRWH SUHWR IRVFR GH DOXPtQLR 5
  171. 171. XP VHOLP SUHWR H YHUPHOKR TXH HX Mi WLQKD GD PRXQWDLQ ELNH XP SDU GH IUHLRV GH DOXPLQLR GH VSHHG 5
  172. 172. H IXL YLVLWDU R $OEHUWR ZZZDOEHUWRELFLFOHWDVFRPEU
  173. 173. SDUD PRQWDUPRV D ELNH ( p PHVWUH HP PRQWDU HVVDV ELFLFOHWDV /i SUHFLVDPRV WURFDU R SHGLYHOD H RSWHL SRU XP 7UDFHU 'XUDEL GH WUrV FRURDV 5
  174. 174. H R FRQMXQWR GH FDERV FkPDUD GH DU PRYLPHQWR FHQWUDO EORFDJHQV UDLRV H DOLQKDPHQWR GH URGDV 5
  175. 175. $ FDL[D GH GLUHomR H RV FXERV HVWDYDP yWLPRV 2 FkPELR WDPEpP TXH DJRUD HUDP SUHWR IRVFR $ FDWUDFD QRYLQKD SHOR YLVWR HVVD FDORL WLQKD VLGR PXLWR SRXFR XVDGD $V SRXFDV SHoDV GH DOXPtQLR OLPSHL FRP SDOKD GH DoR ILQD H SDVWD SDUD GDU EULOKR H ILFDUDP QRYDV 2V SQHXV SHGDLV ILUPDSp FRUUHQWH H PmRGHREUD IRUDP SUHVHQWH GR $OEHUWR $JRUD Vy IDOWDYD R FKDUPH GRV DGHVLYRV GD DORL ,VVR IRL IiFLO JUDoDV DR KULV ZZZYHJDQSULGHFRP
  176. 176. TXH p FROHFLRQDGRU GH ELFLFOHWDV DQWLJDV (OH WLQKD XPD FDUWHOD GH DGHVLYRV GD DORL EUDQFRV ILFDUDP SHUIHLWRV 7HUPLQDGR R VHUYLoR TXH OHYRX XP PrV GHVGH TXH DFKHL HOD QR VDOmR GH IHVWDV (OD HVWi URGDQGR QR DVIDOWR PDFLD H FRQIRUWiYHO H QmR p PDLV XPD DORL H VLP XPD DORL ( QR ILQDO GDV FRQWDV DFDER SDVVDQGR PDLV WHPSR HP FLPD GD DORL YXOJR DORL GXUDQWH D VHPDQD GR TXH QD PLQKD PRXQWDLQ XPD *7 L'ULYH 4XDOTXHU VHPHOKDQoD FRP D /RRN .* QmR p PHUD FRLQFLGrQFLD
  177. 177. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  178. 178. ,/,602 (21Ð0,2 ,QWHUQDXWD HQVLQD RV VHJUHGRV SDUD XPD VSHHG SRSXODU (VWD ELNH IRL PRQWDGD D SDUWLU GD UHXQLmR GH SHoDV GH GLYHUVDV RULJHQV DOJXPDV LQFOXVLYH DGDSWDGDV GH RXWURV PRGHORV 2 TXDGUR XWLOL]DGR HVWDYD SDUDGR QR IXQGR GD RILFLQD GD 7RWDO %LNH 6XD JHRPHWULD p GH XP PRGHOR WXULVPR )HLWR HP FURPR FDFKLPEDGR FDFKLPERV VmR SHTXHQDV OXYDV TXH VHUYHP GH HQULMHFLPHQWR H MXQomR HQWUH RV GLYHUVRV WXERV GR TXDGUR
  179. 179. D SULPHLUD SUHRFXSDomR IRL UHPRYHU D WLQWD YHOKD H YHULILFDU DOJXP SRVVtYHO FRPSURPHWLPHQWR HP VXD HVWUXWXUD )HLWD D LQVSHomR IRL HQFDPLQKDGR SDUD R GHYLGR WUDWDPHQWR TXtPLFR H QRYD SLQWXUD 2 PDLRU SUREOHPD REVHUYDGR QR TXDGUR IRL D DXVrQFLD GH SDVVDGRUHV GRV FDERV GR FkPELR 'XDV VROXo}HV VH DSUHVHQWDUDP VROGDU RV SDVVDGRUHV H IXUDU R TXDGUR HPEDL[R GR PRYLPHQWR FHQWUDO SDUD D FRORFDomR GD JXLD GH QORQ RX XWLOL]DU WUrV EUDoDGHLUDV RULJLQDLV GD DORL 8WLOL]DU VROGD QXP TXDGUR p VHPSUH XP ULVFR SRLV R DTXHFLPHQWR DR TXDO HOH p VXEPHWLGR SRGH FDXVDU DOJXP SUREOHPD GH GHVDOLQKDPHQWR QRV WXERV 3RU HVWD UD]mR DGRWRXVH D VROXomR GDV EUDoDGHLUDV 2XWUR SUREOHPD IRL D DXVrQFLD GR JDUIR RULJLQDO 2SWRXVH SRU XP PRGHOR HP FURPR FRP DOWXUD GR SHVFRoR GH XQLmR FRP R TXDGUR GH PP RPR HOH p FURPDGR D DSDUrQFLD ILQDO GR FRQMXQWR OHPEURX RV TXDGURV IDEULFDGRV SRU (GG 0HUFN[ ZZZHGGPHUFN[FRP
  180. 180. $V URGDV XWLOL]DGDV SHOR TXDGUR VmR DV PP DWXDOPHQWH SDGUmR GH PHUFDGR QDV VSHHG DEH DTXL DOJXQV FRPHQWiULRV VREUH DV PHGLGDV GHVWD URGD 2V SQHXV XWLOL]DGRV IRUDP RV 0D[[LV [ PP *UDYDGR QR SQHX Ki XPD OLQKD TXH GHOLPLWD R ILP GD FLUFXQIHUrQFLD GR DUR H R LQtFLR GD SDUHGH GHVFREHUWD GD ERUUDFKD H XPD LQGLFDomR GR GLkPHWUR GHVWD OLQKD SRO RX PP
  181. 181. 2 SQHX PRQWDGR QR DUR H LQIODGR PHGH DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH PP GH GLkPHWUR 6H WRPDUPRV XPD OLQKD UHWD LPDJLQiULD TXH FRPHoD QR HL[R GR SDUDIXVR TXH SUHQGH R IUHLR GLDQWHLUR DR JDUIR RX R WUDVHLUR DR TXDGUR SDVVD SHOR FHQWUR GD URGD H WHUPLQD QD IDFH GR SQHX WHUHPRV XPD GLVWkQFLD GH PP YHU ILJXUD
  182. 182. *RVWDULD TXH DOJXQV GRV OHLWRUHV GHVWH WH[WR SXGHVVHP FRQILUPDU VH HVWD GLVWkQFLD p D TXH Gi RULJHP DRV PP JUDIDGR QR SQHX 2XWUR GHWDOKH FXULRVR IRL TXH DSHVDU GR SQHX GHFODUDU XP ODUJXUD GH PP HOH DSUHVHQWRX DSHQDV PP LQIODGR 2V DURV DGRWDGRV IRUDP RV 7HFQDOO GH SDUHGH GXSOD 3DUD HQWHQGHU PHOKRU R TXH VmR DURV GH SDUHGH VLPSOHV GXSOD QRUPDO RX DHUR Gr XPD ROKDGD HP ZZZFURQRPHWURFRP QR LWHP ZKHHOV 4XDQWR j WUDQVPLVVmR DGRWRXVH SHGLYHOD 7UDFHU GHQWHV
  183. 183. FDWUDFD 6KLPDQR GHQWHV
  184. 184. FkPELRV GD OLQKD 56; WDPEpP GD 6KLPDQR H FXERV GH URGD GH IODQJH DOWD RULJLQDLV GD DORL DVVLP FRPR R SDVVDGRU GH PDUFKDV QmR LQGH[DGR
  185. 185. DUORV $OEHUWR ± XUVRV H $SRVWLODV 'LJLWDLV KWWSZZZTXHEDUDWRFRPEULQIRORMDDQXQFLRV (PDLO FDUORVPNWQHW#KRWPDLOFRP )RQH
  186. 186. 1HVWH LWHP WUrV RSo}HV EiVLFDV VH DSUHVHQWDUDP XP JUXSR GH SHoDV WUDGLFLRQDO FRP SDVVDGRU GH PDUFKDV LQGH[DGR LQWHJUDGR j PDQRSOD GH IUHLRV RSomR QRUPDOPHQWH FDUD
  187. 187. IXUDU R TXDGUR QR WXER TXH YDL GR JDUIR j SHGLYHOD H DSDUDIXVDU XP SDVVDGRU GH PDUFKD LQGH[DGR VROXomR EDVWDQWH XWLOL]DGD SRUpP PXLWR GLVFXWtYHO SRLV SRGH KDYHU XP FRPSURPHWLPHQWR GD UHVLVWrQFLD GR TXDGUR MXVWDPHQWH QXPD UHJLmR DRQGH HOH p EDVWDQWH VROLFLWDGR
  188. 188. RX D VROXomR DGRWDGD XP SDVVDGRU GH DORL QmR LQGH[DGR H SUHVR DWUDYpV GH XPD DEUDoDGHLUD DR VXSRUWH GH JXLGmR WDPEpP GD DORL 'LDRPSH
  189. 189. $ YDQWDJHP GHVWD VROXomR IRL VHU UHYHUVtYHO SRLV DOpP GH QmR GDQLILFDU R TXDGUR SHUPLWH D WUDQVIRUPDomR SDUD D SULPHLUD RSomR IDFLOPHQWH 4XDQWR j FDWUDFD HVWXGRXVH GXDV VROXo}HV XP PRGHOR 5HJLQD GHQWHV
  190. 190. SUySULD SDUD URGDU HP HVWUDGDV RX R DGRWDGR PDLV GLUHFLRQDGR SDUD SDVVHLR 2V IUHLRV DGRWDGRV HP IXQomR GDV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV GR TXDGUR IRL R PRGHOR 5; GD 6KLPDQR 2 VHOLP GD 6HOOH 5RDO HP JHO 2 JXLGmR HP DOXPtQLR GD .DOOR QR WDPDQKR FP GLItFLO GH DFKDU XPD YH] TXH R LPSRUWDGRU HVWi WUD]HQGR DSHQDV R WDPDQKR FP LGHDO SDUD XPD DORL PDV XP SRXFR JUDQGH SDUD XPD VSHHG
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