U 1DSROHRQ 6YHVFX     (GLWXUD ,17$7    %XFXUH—WL5RPDQLD
$X IRVW ?QWRWGHDXQD L VXQW ?QFC L DVWC]L WHULELOL VSHFLDOLWLLID@C GH FHL FH ?QGUC]QHVF VC HPLWC LSRWH]HFDUH ]GUXQFLQC YDOR...
CUPRINS                                          SoQ ORF GH ·89c17 ,175287,9§                                             ...
·XLXO GDFLF§ VDX ·XLXO OXL 3HSHOHD§                                                                                   5
,,    (323(($ 323258/8, $53$72$18%,$1                                                    2ULJLQL L OHJHQGH                ...
,,, $/(68/ =(,/25                                                                           $OH[DQGURV L 0DFHGRQLD        ...
LQ FXFHUL@Lž FXFHULWRUL                                                                                                   ...
CUPRINS                                          SoQ ORF GH ·89c17 ,175287,9§                                             ...
·XLXO GDFLF§ VDX ·XLXO OXL 3HSHOHD§                                                                                   5
,,    (323(($ 323258/8, $53$72$18%,$1                                                    2ULJLQL L OHJHQGH                ...
,,, $/(68/ =(,/25                                                                           $OH[DQGURV L 0DFHGRQLD        ...
LQ FXFHUL@Lž FXFHULWRUL                                                                                                   ...
oQ ORF GH FXYaQW LQWURGXFWLY*HOOX RULDQ                       LQH VXQW GDFLL                                              ...
$X QCYCOLW EDUEDULL SHVWH GDFL/HDX DUV FHWC@LOH L JUaXODU QDX SXWXW DVFXQGH YRUEHOH ?Q VDFL3H FDUH VCL ?QJKLWCQ PRDUWH UaX...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei                       NCEPUTURI$         FXP  GH DQL FaQG VD IRUPDW 3CPaQWXO         DWPRVIHUD...
)LJ ¨2PXO FDUH VWULJC¨ HVWH XQ YDV GH OXW DSDU@LQkQG FXOWXULL 9LQFHD D FCUXL JXUC D IRVW FRQVLGHUDW FCDUDWC FD XQ FDS GH R...
HVFRSHULW OD 3DUWD 0X]HXO GH LVWRULH DO 5RPaQLHL LQY  25DGX (5HVFK *HUPDQQ 3ODVWLFD DQWURSRPRUIC L ]RRPRUIC GH FXOWXUC 7XU...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei1LFROCHVFX3ORSRU ?QWUH  L UHOXDWH ?Q  DXGHVFRSHULW DLFL FHO PDL ERJDW L PDL YDULDW GHSR]LW GH U...
GLQ FDUH IDF SDUWH3$/(2/,7,8/ 0(=2/,7,8/ L 1(2/,7,8/      6C YHGHP FH VXUSUL]H DX DGXV ILHFDUH GLQ HOH SH VFDUDGH]YROWCULL...
vPSCU@LW vQ ,1)(5,25  SHULRDGD vQ FDUH DSDU XQHOWHOH GH SLDWUC GDWHD]C GH  DFXP  GH DQL SaQC vQ  ?G+ 0,-/2,8  SHULRDGD vQ ...
DSDUH  RPXO GH 520$*121 +202 6$3,(16
GH OD FDUH QHDX  UCPDV SLFWXULOH UXSHVWUH GH OD CFLXOD@L 3HVFDUL SHWHUD *XUD  KLQGLHL
DVHPCQCWRDUH FX FHOH GLQ 6SDQLD L )UDQ@D ILLQG  SULPHOH LQGLFD@LL DUKHRORJLFH SULYLQG XQLYHUVXO UHOLJLRV DO  YaQCWRUXOXL S...
SHULRDGD vQ FDUHYUHPHD VD vQFDO]LW JKH@DULL VDX WRSLW DSCUaQG DVWIHO SRYHVWLULOH                      11
GHVSUH ·SRWRS¨ L VXSUDYLH@XLWRULL OXL FHD PDL YHFKH LVWRULH GH DFHVWIHO DSDU@LQaQG FXOWXULL 9HGLFH
0DUHD %ULWDQLH GHYLQH LQVXOC LDU0DUHD 1HDJUC FDSCWC FRQWXUXO HL DFWXDO      ¿Q ]RQD 3RU@LORU GH )LHU VDX JCVLW XUPH DOH FX...
QH ODVC SULPXO VDQFWXDUFUHDW GLQ OXW LDU FXOWXUD +DPDQJLD SULPD VWDWXHWC OXFUDWC vQPDUPXUC GLQ LVWRULD OXPLL FaW L VWDWXHW...
QLWH WCEOL@H GH OXW GDWDWH    ?G+ LFRQVLGHUDWH GH DFHHDL *LPEXWDV FD ILLQG SULPXO PHVDM VFULV GLQLVWRULD RPHQLULL FX PXOW ...
¿Q FXOWXUD HUQDYRGC ,    ?G+
WULEXULOH GHSCVWRUL IRORVHVF FDLL L DUPH SHUIHF@LRQDWH SXUWCWRULL DFHVWHL FXOWXULYRU FRERUv VSUH VXG VSUH $QDWROLD SXQWHD ...
8UPHOH FXOWXULL QRDVWUH FDUSDWRGXQCUHQH VH PDL SCVWUHD]C LDVWC]L SH XQHOH GLQ DFHVWH LQVXOH IRVWH SLVFXUL PXQWRDVH
·XLPLQG¨
FHUFHWCWRULL FDUH QXL SRW vQFKLSXL FXP FXOWXUL FDFHOH PLFHQLHQH DX SXWXW DSDUH SH QLWH LQVXOH L]RODWH HL ·QHYC]aQGSCGXUHD ...
1,                                                                                                       67               ...
SUH]HQW vQ VSD@LX VIaQW YHGLF
LQYC@DVH VCGHIULH]H SCGXULOH L VC GHV@HOHQHDVFC SCPaQWXO ORFXLQG vQ JHQHUDO GHD OXQJXO UH@HOHORUKLGURJUDILFH H[WLQ]aQGXVH ...
H                       DU                     QL                 L OL              LFL             P           UD        ...
1,                                                                                                                        ...
)LJ  35,08/ 0(6$- 65,6 ,1 ,6725,$ 20(1,5,, 7CEOL@HOH GH OD 7CUWCULD FFD  vG+
D FCURU GHVFRSHULUH vQ DQXO  GH FCWUH1LFRODH 9ODVD D UHYROX@LRQDW FRQFHS@LD SULYLQG DSDUL@LD VFULVXOXL ILLQG FRQVLGHUDWH S...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei)LJ  5R@LOH FDUH DX IDFXW (XURSD VC VH H[WLQGC3ULPD URDWC FDUH D ICFXW VSHFLD XPDQC VC VH SRDWC...
)LJ  3ULPXO FCUX@ ICFXW GLQ OXW DUV JCVLW vQ (XURSD SH WHULWRULXO 8QJDULHL GH D]L SX@LQPDL OD QRUG GH %XGDSHVWD GDWDW  vG+...
0DUJLQLOHvQDOWH DOH FCUX@XOXL VXJHUHD]C IDSWXO FC HOH HUDX IRORVLWH VC WUDQVSRUWH SURGXVH DJULFROH(DUO (XURSH 0LVWHU LQ VW...
19     )LJ  $FHVWH ILJXULQH JCVLWH OD 7aUJRYLWH %XOJDULD vQ  SUREDELO FC DX IRORVLW FD PRGHO GH DOWDU SHQWUX DJULFXOWR    ...
YHVWLFC GHD OXQJXO FRDVWHL 0CULL 0HGLWHUDQH DDQXPLWD     ·DUGLDOZDUH 3RWWHU¨ L DOWD FDUH VH YD UCVSaQGL VSUH FHQWUXO (XURS...
)LJ  3LFLRU GH IUXFWLHUC GHVFRSHULW OD +RWCUDQL 0X]HXO 2OWHQLHL UDLRYD
IDFH SDUWH GLQFXOWXUD 9CGDVWUD FDUH RFXSC R DULH UHVWUkQVC SH FXUVXO LQIHULRU DO 2OWXOXL SUHFXP L vQGUHDSWD XQCULL vQ ]RQD...
vQ ·+LVWRULFD¨ ,,  S                                              20
)LJ  =HL@D GH OD 1DLHQL /D DSXV GH 3LHWURDVD MXG %X]CX ORFDOLWDWH FHOHEUCSULQ GHVFRSHULUHD WH]DXUXOXL YH]L EOHVWHPXO SCVCU...
FHL SRDUWC QXPHOH VH DIOC VDWXO 1DHQLXQGH SULQ DQLL  GXSC FXP QH VSXQH 7RFLOHVFXQLWH FRSLL DX JCVLW MXFaQGX¥VH JUXSXO GH E...
9O XPLWUHVFX $UWD SUHLVWRULFC vQ 5RPkQLD %XFXUHWL  ILJ                                                    21
$FHDVWD FXOWXUD HUQDYRGC , D GDW QDWHUH OD 7URLD , $FHLFDUSDWRGXQCUHQL ·$5,(1,¨ FXP vL PDL QXPHVF DO@LL
DX GDWQDWHUH OD FXOWXUD OXPLL UCVSaQGLQGXVH QX QXPDL SHVWH vQWUHDJD(XURSC L VSUH QRUGXO (JLSWXOXL L 0HVRSRWDPLHL FL SaQC v...
FXOWXULOH OXPLL  FDOGHHQLL HJLSWHQLL HWF +LQGXLVPXOL FUHWLQLVPXO QX DX ICFXW DOWFHYD GHFaW VR FRSLH]H DGDSWaQGR ODFRQGL@LL...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei   NOI NU SUNTEM URMA[II ROMEI      ¿ QDLQWH GH WRDWH YUHDX VC ILX RQHVW GHFODUaQGXYC FC RFHUWL...
)LJ  ([SDQVLXQHD JHWLFC vQ (XURSD FHQWUDOC VL VXGYHVWLFC vQ DQXO  vG+8LWkQGXQH SH KDUWD OXL 9DVLOH 3kUYDQ (G 0HULGLDQH  GL...
DU vQ DFHWL  GH DQL FDUH QH GHVSDUWGH HO FHUFHWCULOH URPaQLORU GHVSUH DO ORU WUHFXW vQ ORF VC HYROXH]H DX LQYROXDWWUDQVIRU...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiFXYLQWH URPaQRIUDQFH]H L QLFL XQXO URPaQRUXV *KLQLRQXO·JaQGLWRULORU¨ GH DWXQFL HUDX L FaQWHFHOH...
·H OLPEC YRUEHDX GDFLL D]L QLPHQHD QX WLH      CFL SH DWXQFL VCUDFLL QDYHDX FUHLRQ KaUWLH     ,DU YRUEHOH QHVFULVH SUHFXP ...
,DU UCVSXQVXULOH QX SRW IL GHFaW GRXCGLQWUH FDUH DYHP GH DOHV XQXO YRUEHDX R OLPEC GLIHULWC GH FHD DFXFHULWRULORU L vQ FRQ...
H  GH DQLGH FaQGXQ RDUHFDUH : -RQHV
D LQWXLW L DILUPDW SURYHQLHQ@DVDQVFULWHL HOLQHL L ODWLQHL GLQWUR ·OLPEC PDPC¨ QXPHURDVH PLQ@L·VWUCOXFLWH¨ DX vQFHUFDW VC U...
HUFHWCWRDUHD DPHULFDQC 0DULMD *LPEXWDV SURIHVRU OD8QLYHUVLWDWHD GLQ /RV $QJHOHV DOLIRUQLD VSXQH ·5RPaQLD HVWHYDWUC D FHHD ...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiFXSULQVC vQWUH  ?G+ D[DWC SH R VRFLHWDWH PDWULDUKDOCWHRFUDWLFC SDQLFC LXELWRDUH L FUHDWRDUH GH ...
FHWDWHD DUSDWLFC IDFHSDUWH GLQ ·KDELWDWXO SULPLWLY DO DULHQLORU¨      H OD WHRULD GH]YROWDWC GH HQJOH]L VC QH vQWRDUFHP OD...
D UCPDV                      27
JUDYLGC ·GLQ VHQLQ¨ FX ]HXO 0DUWH L D QCVFXW GRL JHPHQL LDUXQFKLXO HL $PXOLXV FDUH SDUH D QX IL FUH]XW PLQXQHD FX ]HXO
GCRUGLQ VHUYLWRULORU VCL DUXQFH SH EDVWDU]L vQ DSD 7LEUXOXL RXO FXFRSLLL HVWH JCVLW GH R /XSRDLFC WHUPHQ IRORVLW SH DWXQFL...
L SHQWUX R SHULRDGC LVWRULFC IRDUWH VFXUWC GH H[DFW GH DQL   G+
/D HL DFDVC vQ 3HQLQVXOD ,WDOLFC DYHPL DVWC]L GLDOHFWH FD FHO 7RVFDQ /RPEDUG DODEULDQ RUL 6DUGLQLDQFDUHL IDF VC QX VH vQ@H...
GRYHGHVFFC 3HQLQVXOD ,WDOLFC QX D IRVW ·URPDQL]DWC¨ DFDVC OD HD $VWIHO FXPVH H[SOLFC ·URPDQL]DUHD¨ QRDVWUC GH FCWUH FXFHUL...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiODWLQC FXQRVFXWC SH FDUH ODWLQLL vQLL QX DX IRVW vQ VWDUH VRUHDOL]H]H QLFL PCFDU OD HL DFDVC vQ...
1X DP GUHSWDWH VC PC UHYROW vPSRWULYD SURIHVRULORU FDUH VHPXO@XPHVF VC VH UH]XPH OD FHHD FH DX vQYC@DW VDX QDX vQYC@DW vQW...
$SDUL@LD L H[LVWHQ@D 8QJDULHL VD GDWRUDW FRQYLH@XLULL KXQLORUFX SRSXOD@LD SULPLWRDUH JHWRGDFC L FDUH LD vQYC@DW DJULFXOWXU...
7UCLD XQ SRSRU KDUQLF SH SODLXUL DUSDWLQH     H FXOWLYD SCPaQWXO YaQD FUHWHD DOELQH     ‰L GXSC ]RQDQ FDUH DFHL RDPHQL WUC...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei     $X vQ@HOHVR DFLL L QX OHUD VWUCLQC     HFL QX FX 5RPDªQFHSH DO QRVWªERJDW WUHFXW     L PXO...
GH FH vQ FDGUXO ·5RPDQLWC@LL 2ULHQWDOH¨ QXVD DMXQV OD IRUPDUHD XQRU OLPEL QRL FL QXPDL VWDGLXO GH GLDOHFWHLVWURURPaQ SH WH...
PHJOHQRURPaQ SHWHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH EXOJDUL
DURPaQ SH WHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH JUHFL
GDFRURPaQ 5RPaQLD GH DVWC]L SOXV WHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH UXLXFUDLQHQL FaW L SH FHO RFXSDW GH LXJRVODYL  DDQXPLWXO %DQDW6aUEHVF
8QLWDWHD OLQJYLVWLFC D DFHVWRU GLDOHFWH QX SRDWH DYHD GHFaW RH[SOLFD@LH FXFHULWRULL URPDQL DX vQWaOQLW R SRSXOD@LH GH DFHH...
DFC FLQHYD DU FCXWD vQ DUKLYHOH URPDQH RUL FHOH GH OD 9DWLFDQDU JCVL SRDWH PDQXVFULVXO GRFWRUXOXL OXL 7UDLDQ ULWRQ FDUH QH...
URPDQL¨ L GHDWXQFL DP SULPLW QXPHOH GH ·URPaQL¨ DU VLJXU YRP IL FXQRVFX@LVXE QXPHOH GH URPaQL GXSC DQXO  G+ FaQG VXQWHP SD...
D VFULV LSRHPH vQ OLPED ORFDOQLFLORU JHWRGDFL OLPED WUDFLORU GDU vQ DOIDEHWODWLQ OLPED SH FDUH D SXWXW VC R vQYH@H FX XXUL...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei    R`SPANDIREA PELASGILOR           (A TRACO-GETO-DACILOR)+            HURGRW DUCWD FC ·GXSC L...
LOLULL ]RQD $OEDQLHL GH DVWC]L
UDPDQLL EHVVLL HWF 1H UCVSaQGLP WUHSWDW vQ WRDWC (XURSD L vQWRDWC 3HQLQVXOD %DOFDQLFC SH FDUH R VWCSaQLP SHQWUX VXWH L VXW...
D LQVXOHORU HL FXP HVWHUHWD L D $VLHL 0LQRU 7XUFLD GH DVWC]L
DSDU FXOWXUL FD FHOHPLQRPLFHQLHQH *UHFLL ·SULHWHQLL QRWUL KHOHQL¨ GH PDLWaU]LXFXP OH SODFH VCL VSXQC VRVHVF vQ (XURSD GLQ ...
+RPHU XUPD@L  GHDQL PDL WaU]LX GH RULHQL FDUHL VXEMXJC SH SULPLL LDU DSRLWULEXULOH $HROLHQH L ,RQLFH 7R@L DFHWLD vL JCVHVF...
9ROJD                                              0$5($                  0$5($                                           ...
GH]YROW³QGXVH ¿Q GLUHFÎLL RULJLQDOH ¿Q FHOH WUHL DULL         3(/$6*,$ ( 9(67 3(/$6*,$ ( (1758 3(/$6*,$         2/ (8523($...
ŒL 3(/$6*,$ ( (67         V´JHÎLOH LQGLF´ SULPD ŒL XOWLPD PDUH PLJUDÎLH GLQ         (XURSD ¿Q YUHPHD FDWDFOLVPXOXL JHRFOLP...
XQLWDWH FH D DQWUHQDW SULQ PLOHQLL L 2     /,0%n 2081n SHODVJLFDž GLYHUVLILFaQGXVH JHRJUDILF  OLQJYLVWLF GH OD XQ PLOHQLX ...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeivPSUXPXWDWR GDU L VFULHUHD DOIDEHWXO GDFC ·/LQHDU 6FULSW $¨LQFRPSOHW GHVFLIUDW vQFC PDL SCVWUHD...
SULQ DULD LXJRVODYRFURDWC PHJOHQRURPaQLL VXE EXOJDUL L DURPaQLL vQFC vQ QXPCUPDUH
VXE JUHFL XSC vQFHUFCUL QHUHXLWH GH DVLPLODUH IRU@DWC LDVWC]L GXSC DSURDSH  GH DQL GH RFXSD@LH PDFHGRQHQLL QXLDX VFKLPEDW ...
QX HUD JUHF L FC OXL $OH[DQGUX 0DFHGRQ OD YaUVWD GH  DQLSCULQ@LL LDX DGXV FD SURIHVRU SH $ULVWRWHO FDUH HUD JUHF GXSC WDWC...
FD VCO vQYH@H OLPED FLYLOL]D@LHL GHDWXQFL HOHQD FXP SXWHP FUHGH FC $OH[DQGUX 0DFHGRQ FCUXLDPDL WaU]LX L VD VFKLPEDW QXPHOH...
DFHVWD ILLQG DGMXGHFDW GHFCWUH EXOJDUL JUHFL L VaUEL %RQQHU VSXQHD GHVSUH $OH[DQGUX0DFHGRQ FC RULFH DU IL IRVW QXPDL JUHF ...
D IRVW SHUVHFXWDWC FKLQXLWC FKLDU RPRUaWC XQLL UHXLQG VCVFDSH IXJLQG vQ 5RPaQLD DO@LL FKLDU vQ $PHULFD XQGHL SRYHVWHVFL DV...
0$5($ 1258/8,                    2($18/ $7/$17,                                                                           ...
, $5,$ $5+$,• $ /,0%,, 3(/$6*(3(/$6*,(  %$=• $ /,0%,/25 520$1,(                                63$1,$ (/ $67,//2 29$/$1$6...
62+22/ 3(6$5,                                                                                   0$5628/$6 )217(*$80( HWF  ...
D H[LVWDW R LPSUHVLRQDQWC DULH FXOWXUDOC R VXEOLPC XQL     WDWH GH PDQLIHVWDUH VSLULWXDOCOLQJYLVWLFC GH OD ·DQVXO¨ EL]RQLO...
VDX     GH OD )URQWGH *DXPH )UDQ@D
OD )HOLQD GH ILOGH GH OD 3DYORY HKLD
OD 3DQWHUD FDL L ·DYDOHU XFLV¨ GLQ VDQFWXD     UXOSHWHUC GH OD XFLXODW  vHQ GLQ 5RPaQLD
RUL OD *DLHQ DWDF GLQ VDQFWXDUXO SHWHULL *DXUD KLQGLHL      vHQ5RPaQLD
¨ DD QH VSXQH vQ ·DLHWHOH DFR5RPaQLHL¨ ,RQ 3DFKLD 7DWRPLUHVFX     DLHWHOH DFR5RPaQLHL $QXO ,,,QU GHF  PDUWLH  (GLWXUD $HWK...
3RFX@LD L 8QJDULD GLQ WRDWC 0DFHGRQLD SHQWUX D QH SURWHMDGUHSWXULOH  1XPDL XPQH]HX WLH     6C YHGHP FXP DUDWC OLPED PDFHGR...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei                       BUREBISTA            XSC FH YDP SXUWDW FX LPDJLQD@LD SHVWH (8523$       ...
YRL vQFHSH VC YLL GHVFULX SH XQLL GLQDFHLD FDUH DX DYXW DWXQFL XQ LPSDFW vQ YLLWRUXO QRVWUX GH D]L YRLvQFHSH FX %85(%,67$ ...
SaQCOD %XJ L GLQ DUSD@LL 1RUGLFL SaQC OD VXG GH %DOFLF LRQVRSROLV
1XPHOH DGHYDUDW DO OXL %XUHELVWD VD SLHUGXW XQGHYD SULQ YHDFXUL GDULQWHOLJHQ@D SXWHUHD L YLWHMLD OXL vQ OXSWC DYHDX VCL DG...
vQVHDPQC·1HPDLSRPHQLWXO¨ ·XP QX D PDL IRVW L QX PDL HVWH¨      0RQHGH GHVFRSHULWH GLQ YUHPHD OXL vQ 7UDQVLOYDQLD QLOvQIC@L...
)LJ 6DQFWXDU GUHSWXQJKLXODU GH  [  WDPEXUXUL GH JUDQLW DQGH]LW
GH OD 6DUPLVHJHWXVD        (XPC JUCEHVFVC FXUJ  VDQVNULWC
H IDSW OD 6DUPLVHJHWXVD VDX GHVFRSHULW SDWUX VDQFWXDUH GUHSWXQJKLXODUH OD QLYHOXO LQIHULRU XQ VDQFWXDU GH  [  WDPEXUXUL DY...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiOXL FX vQ@HOHVXO GH VWCSaQ DEVROXW DO WUDFLORU ·3$9(/7(5¨6ICWXLWRUXO OXL 0DUHOH 3UHRW HFHQHX LD...
VDX ·¨ JUHFHVF
RUL ·9,9,9,¨ ODWLQ
‰L QX SRW VC QX DPLQWHVF L UXJCFLXQHD XQHL IHPHL JHWH=DOPR[LHQH JCVLWC SH R SODFC GH PDUPXUC OD 7RPLV FRQ@LQaQG LXQ  $5267...
$5(/,$                              , 675n/8,72$5(      %(1(5,$                              , 85$7n      60 )252         ...
HVWHORFDOL]DWC SH XQGHYD SH OD RVWHWL GHDOXULOH 2UCWLHL
3ULQFLSDOXODMXWRU DO UHJHOXL WUDF GH DWXQFL HUD ((1(8 PDUHOH SUHRW FDUHGXSC FH D IRVW SHQWUX R SHULRDGC GH WLPS vQ (JLSW L...
GHYHQLQG HIXO VXSUHP DOVSLULWXDOLWC@LL WUDFLFH UHXLQG vPSUHXQC FX %XUHELVWD VCL XQHDVFC SHWUDFL DWaW PLOLWDU FaW L VSLULWX...
42     )LJ 9HGHUH GH DQVDPEOX D VDQFWXDUHORUFDOHQGDU UHFRQVWLWXLUH SH PDFKHWC OD VFDUC
6XE DVSHFW FRQVWUXFWLY VH SRW YHGHD 0DUHOH L PLFXO VDQFWXDU FLUFXODU GLVFXO VRODU FkW L FHOH SDWUX VDQFWXDUH     GUHSWXQJK...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiXQGHYD SH HDOXO *UCGLWHL P DOWLWXGLQH
vQ 0DVLYXO 685$18/8, OD 6$50,6(*(786$ 5(*,$ *UCGLWHD 0XQFHOXOXL
DIOaQGXVH L XQXO GLQ VDQFWXDUHOH SDWUXODWHUH 6C ILH RDUH DFHVWDOCFDXO XQGH SUHR@LL OXL =$/02;,6 =HXO VXESCPaQWHDQ RIHUHDXF...
FaQWDX ·6IaQW H RPQXO 1RS@LL¨     /D VXGXO XQCULL SURFRQVXOXO SURYLQFLHL 0DFKHGRQLD JHQHUDOXO9DUUR /XFXOOXV vQ FDGUXO FHOX...
RFXSD RUDHOH JUHFHWL YHVWSRQWLFH GH OD $SROORQLDSaQC OD HOWD XQCULL vQFKHLQG XQ WUDWDW vQWUH URPDQL L DOWH FHWC@LYHFLQH FX...
DODWLV0DQJDOLD
LRQVRSROLV %DOFLF
L $SROORQLD 3H FDOHD UC]ERLXOXLVXQW LQWHJUDWH FHWC@LOH $OLREUL[ DUWDO VXGXO %DVDUDELHL RFXSDW D]LGH UXL VXE QXPHOH GH 2UOR...
7UDV 7LUDVSROXO GH D]L RFXSDW WRWGH UXL XQGH ,OLH ,ODFX XQ DGHYDUDW HURX QD@LRQDO HVWH @LQXWSUL]RQLHU
2GHVVDV 2GHVD D]L RUD XFUDLQHDQ FH DUH vQ FHQWUXO OXLFHO PDL URPDQWLF FDUWLHU FDUWLHUXO ·0ROGRYHDQFD¨
%XUHELVWD vL vQFHSH RUJDQL]DUHD SXWHULL PRQDUKLFH FXFDUDFWHU PLOLWDU SULQ DFWLYLWC@L DGPLQLVWUDWLYH FXP DU IL UHFUXWDUHDGH...
,QFLQWD PLOLWDUC GLQ FHQWUXO UHOLJLRV DUH R VXSUDID@C GH  KHFWDUH FX]LGXUL GH SLDWUC HFDULVDWC EORFXUL GH FDOFDU IDVRQDWH
FDUH IDF GLQ6DUPLVHJHWXVD GDFLFC XQ XQLFDW vQ (XURSD YH]L )LJ
=LGXODFLF 0XUXV DFLFXV
HVWH IRUPDW GLQ FHWC@L FRQVWUXLWH GLQEORFXUL GH FDOFDU D FRQVWUXLW L FHWC@L GH SLDWUC QHIDVRQDWH OHJDWHFX OXW FD FHOH GH O...
HWC@HQL -XG$UJH
RYDVQD 9DOHD =aQHORU VDX6LJKLRDUD $UPDWD /XL QXPCUC OD YUHPH GH UC]ERL PDL PXOW GH GH RDPHQL ICFaQGXO GH WHPXW %XUHELVWD G...
)LJ  LVFXO VRODU DO OXL $SOR vQFRQMXUDW GH FHL  XFHQLFL DL VCL
)LJ  $FHODL GLVF GH DQGH]LW GH OD 6$50,6(*(786$                ?Q VDQVFULWC ¥ (X PC JUCEHVF VC FXUJ
44
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei    SROLWLFC H[WHUQC DFWLYC LQWHUYHQLQG FKLDU L vQ FDGUXO FRQIOLFWXOXL    GHVFKLV GLQWUH FHL GR...
vQ    DQXO  ?G+ ¿Q OHJCWXUC FX DFHDVWD R LQVFULS@LH UHFHQW GHVFRSHULWC    OD %DOFLF DQWLFXO RQLVRSROLV
FLWHD]C QXPHOH OXL $FURQLRQ XQ    PHVDJHU SHUVRQDO WULPLV GH %XUHELVWD OD JHQHUDOXO 3RPSHL SHQWUX    DL VXJHUD LSRWH]D XQH...
0DUHOH SUHRW ((1(8 D IRVW XOWHULRU QXPLW VXFFHVRU DO UHJHOXLGHIXQFW $]L H GLILFLO VC DSUHFLHP vQ vQWUHJLPH FXQRWLQ@HOH VDO...
SR]L@LD VRDUHOXL OD HFKLQRF@LL L VROVWL@LL SR]L@LD/XQLL OD FHOH SDWUX ID]H DOH VDOH L FDOHQGDUXO GDFLF XQGH XQ DQ GH GH ]L...
)LJ
8OWLPXO HVWHFRQILUPDW GH VFHQD SLFWDWC SH R FXSC GH IUXFWH GHVFRSHULWC OD %aWFDRDPQHL FD L SH R ODPSC GH OXW DUV JCVLWC SH...
FRQILUPC vQ@HOHJHUHDGH FCWUH 0DUHOH 3UHRW D FHORU  DQRWLPSXUL L  VHPQH ]RGLDFDOH vQWURPDQLHUC FH DPLQWHWH GH ]RGLDFHOH YHF...
FDXWC VC QH vQYH@H XP HVWH SRVLELO FD vQ WLPS FH GRDU GLQ WHULWRULXO GDFLF ILLQG FXFHULW L RFXSDW GH QHVCWXOXO ,PSHULX 5RP...
DFHWLD VC QH vQYH@H SHQRL R OLPEC SH FDUH HL vQLL QX R YRUEHDX FXP WUHEXLH 2ULFXP VHDUJXPHQWHD]C FC HL QHDX vQYC@DW ODWLQD...
GRPLQDWH GH RSUHVRUL KRWCUa@LVC vQYH@H R OLPEC PDL OD PRGC ¿QVXL JaQGXO HVWH DEVXUG ROHJLLGXPQHDYRDVWUC GH SHVWH 3UXW QX P...
SURSRYCGXLHVF ICUC vQFHWDUHPDMRULWC@LL URPaQH GLQ %DVDUDELD GHVSUH OLPED ·ORU¨ FD ILLQG QXPLWC·PROGRYHQHDVFC¨ FX UCGCFLQL ...
Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei    PODUL DE PIATR` DE PESTE             DUN`RE3            RGXO GH SLDWUC GH SHVWH XQCUH D IRV...
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei

1.280 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung, Unterhaltung & Humor, Technologie
0 Kommentare
0 Gefällt mir
Statistik
Notizen
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

  • Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

Keine Downloads
Aufrufe
Aufrufe insgesamt
1.280
Auf SlideShare
0
Aus Einbettungen
0
Anzahl an Einbettungen
6
Aktionen
Geteilt
0
Downloads
6
Kommentare
0
Gefällt mir
0
Einbettungen 0
Keine Einbettungen

Keine Notizen für die Folie

Noi nu-suntem-urmasii-romei

  1. 1. U 1DSROHRQ 6YHVFX (GLWXUD ,17$7 %XFXUH—WL5RPDQLD
  2. 2. $X IRVW ?QWRWGHDXQD L VXQW ?QFC L DVWC]L WHULELOL VSHFLDOLWLLID@C GH FHL FH ?QGUC]QHVF VC HPLWC LSRWH]HFDUH ]GUXQFLQC YDORDUHD RSHUHORU ORUH VHQWLPHQW GH FUX@DUH SRDWH DYHD XQ ?QYC@DWID@C GH FHO FDUH HPLWH R LSRWH]C FDUH GDFC VDU DGHYHULDU ?QVHPQD DUXQFDUHD OD FR D WRW FH D VFULV HOSH ED]D XQHL LSRWH]H FRQWUDULL(UD FX DWaW PDL XRU VSHFLDOLWLORU LVWRULFL VC UHGXFC OD QHDQW YDORDUHDRSHUHL OXL 1 HQVXLDQX FX FaW LSRWH]D OXLFDUH DGXFHD R FOCWLQDUH FUHGLQ@HL REWHWL FCQRL VXQWHP XUPDLL 5RPHLDSCUHD WXWXURU FD XQ DFW GH LPSLHWDWHR PLFRUDUH D YDORULL WLWOXOXL GH QREOH@Hž1D SLHULW QLFL R OLPEC D DFLORUSHQWUX FC HL QDX DYXW R DOWC OLPEC SURSULHFDUH VC ILH ?QORFXLWC SULQ OLPED 5RPDQLORU L QDX DYXWR DVWIHO GH OLPEC SHQWUX VLPSOXO PRWLY FC DFLL YRUEHDX ODWLQHWH/LPED DFLORU QD SLHULW(D D GHYHQLW ?Q ,WDOLD ?QWaL OLPED 5RPDQLORUFDUH HUD R IRUPC OLWHUDUC D OLPELL DFLHL LDU PDL WaU]LX OLPED LWDOLDQCDFHHDL OLPEC D DFLORU GXVC ?Q )UDQ@D D DMXQV ?QWaLOLPED *DOLORU LDU FX WLPSXO OLPED IUDQFH]C?Q 6SDQLD HD D GHYHQLW ?QWaL OLPED ,EHULORU LDU FX WLPSXO OLPEDVSDQLROC LDU DLFL D GHYHQLW FX YUHPHD OLPED QRDVWUC URPaQHDVFC , $O %UCWHVFX9RLQHWL
  3. 3. CUPRINS SoQ ORF GH ·89c17 ,175287,9§ , 12, 18 6817(0 850$‰,, 520(, oQFHSXWXUL ,VWRULD QHWLXWC D URPaQLORU ¥ 1RL QX VXQWHP XUPDLL 5RPHL 5CVSaQGLUHD SHODVJLORU D WUDFRJHWRGDFLORU %XUHELVWD 3RGXO GH SLDWUC GH SHVWH XQCUH HFHEDO 5HHGLQ@D OXL HFHEDO LQH D IRVW 7UDLDQ HO PDL PDUH LPSHULX GDFLF DO HUHL QRDVWUH (L WUDFLL DX IRVW GDFL 0LWRORJLD OD URPaQL ¥ ’DUD ]HXOXL ‰DXH ¥ $OHLL OXPLL ¥ LYLQLWC@LOH GH PDL WaU]LX 0DUHOH =HX *HEHOHL]LV L 0DUHD =HL@C %HQGLV ¥ =DOPR[LV ¥ 8Q =HX 3URIHW VDX XQ 3URIHW GLYLQL]DW ¥ /CFDXUL GH FXOW 6WUCPRLL DULHQL ¥ UHGLQ@D 6LPEROLVWLFD OD SHODVJL 6LPEROLVWLFD OD SHODVJLLDULHQL %OHVWHPXO ·3CVCULL 3KRHQL[§ 7H]DXUXO GH OD 3LHWURDVD
  4. 4. ·XLXO GDFLF§ VDX ·XLXO OXL 3HSHOHD§ 5
  5. 5. ,, (323(($ 323258/8, $53$72$18%,$1 2ULJLQL L OHJHQGH 2ULJLQHD URPaQLORU XFHULUHD QRUGYHVWXOXL (XURSHL XFHULUHD ,QGLHL HVSUH WUDFXO (QHD 6WUCOXFLWRUXO L (QHLGD XFHULUHD 3HQLQVXOHL ,WDOLFH ¥ 2OWLQD$OWLQD/DWLQD/DWLXP XFHULUHD $QDWROLHL *D5DPDQLL FDUSDWRGXQCUHQL FXFHULWRUL DL $IULFLL GH 1RUG XFHULUHD -DSRQLHL XFHULUHD 6XPHUXOXL ,UDNXOXL
  6. 6. ,,, $/(68/ =(,/25 $OH[DQGURV L 0DFHGRQLD 2ULJLQHD PDFHGRQHQLORU $ GRXD UHYROWC D JUHFLORU GLQ WLPSXO MXJXOXL PDFHGRQHDQ XFHULUHD OXPLL DQWLFH ¥ XFHULUHD WHULWRULLORU 6LULHL /LEDQXOXL ,VUDHOXOXL L (JLSWXOXL GH D]L ¥ XFHULUHD ]RQHL ,UDNXOXL L ,UDQXOXL ¥ XFHULUHD ]RQHL 3DNLVWDQXOXL L ,QGLHL ?G+ oQWRDUFHUHD DFDVC ?G+
  7. 7. LQ FXFHUL@Lž FXFHULWRUL 6
  8. 8. CUPRINS SoQ ORF GH ·89c17 ,175287,9§ , 12, 18 6817(0 850$‰,, 520(, oQFHSXWXUL ,VWRULD QHWLXWC D URPaQLORU ¥ 1RL QX VXQWHP XUPDLL 5RPHL 5CVSaQGLUHD SHODVJLORU D WUDFRJHWRGDFLORU %XUHELVWD 3RGXO GH SLDWUC GH SHVWH XQCUH HFHEDO 5HHGLQ@D OXL HFHEDO LQH D IRVW 7UDLDQ HO PDL PDUH LPSHULX GDFLF DO HUHL QRDVWUH (L WUDFLL DX IRVW GDFL 0LWRORJLD OD URPaQL ¥ ’DUD ]HXOXL ‰DXH ¥ $OHLL OXPLL ¥ LYLQLWC@LOH GH PDL WaU]LX 0DUHOH =HX *HEHOHL]LV L 0DUHD =HL@C %HQGLV ¥ =DOPR[LV ¥ 8Q =HX 3URIHW VDX XQ 3URIHW GLYLQL]DW ¥ /CFDXUL GH FXOW 6WUCPRLL DULHQL ¥ UHGLQ@D 6LPEROLVWLFD OD SHODVJL 6LPEROLVWLFD OD SHODVJLLDULHQL %OHVWHPXO ·3CVCULL 3KRHQL[§ 7H]DXUXO GH OD 3LHWURDVD
  9. 9. ·XLXO GDFLF§ VDX ·XLXO OXL 3HSHOHD§ 5
  10. 10. ,, (323(($ 323258/8, $53$72$18%,$1 2ULJLQL L OHJHQGH 2ULJLQHD URPaQLORU XFHULUHD QRUGYHVWXOXL (XURSHL XFHULUHD ,QGLHL HVSUH WUDFXO (QHD 6WUCOXFLWRUXO L (QHLGD XFHULUHD 3HQLQVXOHL ,WDOLFH ¥ 2OWLQD$OWLQD/DWLQD/DWLXP XFHULUHD $QDWROLHL *D5DPDQLL FDUSDWRGXQCUHQL FXFHULWRUL DL $IULFLL GH 1RUG XFHULUHD -DSRQLHL XFHULUHD 6XPHUXOXL ,UDNXOXL
  11. 11. ,,, $/(68/ =(,/25 $OH[DQGURV L 0DFHGRQLD 2ULJLQHD PDFHGRQHQLORU $ GRXD UHYROWC D JUHFLORU GLQ WLPSXO MXJXOXL PDFHGRQHDQ XFHULUHD OXPLL DQWLFH ¥ XFHULUHD WHULWRULLORU 6LULHL /LEDQXOXL ,VUDHOXOXL L (JLSWXOXL GH D]L ¥ XFHULUHD ]RQHL ,UDNXOXL L ,UDQXOXL ¥ XFHULUHD ]RQHL 3DNLVWDQXOXL L ,QGLHL ?G+ oQWRDUFHUHD DFDVC ?G+
  12. 12. LQ FXFHUL@Lž FXFHULWRUL 6
  13. 13. oQ ORF GH FXYaQW LQWURGXFWLY*HOOX RULDQ LQH VXQW GDFLL RPQXOXL 1DSROHRQ 6CYHVFX aQG +HURGRW D VFULV FLQH VXQW GDFLL DFLL WUCLDX GH PXOW SHDFHVW SCPaQW (UDX FHL PDL YLWHML GLQWUH WR@L WUDFLL 9RUEHDX R OLPEC FODUC ?Q FXYaQW /D ?QFHSXW D IRVW FXYaQWXO GDF HD SXV SHFHWH SHVWH @DUDQ FDUH HL FH VH QCWHDX FD IUXQ]D SH FRSDF 6HQ@HOHJHDX ?Q OLPED YRUELWRDUH 6HQ@HOHJHDX FD DSD FX @CUaQD aQG SXL VCPaQ@D VC VH IDFC URG D EH]QD FaQG ?Q HD FDWC OXPLQD $UF SHVWH VWHOH SHVWH WLPS XQ SRG 3HVWH SHWUHFHUHD GH WLPS L OXPH 6XE FHUXO VSULMLQLW GH VWaOSL FHUHWL DFLL DYHDX GH OD oQDOW XQ QXPH ‰LR OLPECQ FDUH L DFXP YRUEHWL 3H .RJDLRQ ?Q QRS@LOH FX VWHOH DFLL VHQ@HOHJHDX FX XPQH]HX oQ JUDLXO OXL YRUEHDX EXQH L UHOH XP SH SCPaQW H ELQH VDX H JUHX H PLL L PLL GH DQL QLPHQL QX WLH H FaQG VXQW GDFLL ?Q FaPSLL L PXQ@L XYLQWHOH ?Q FDUH LDFXP VH VFULH (UDX LDWXQFL YRUELWH GH SCULQ@L 7
  14. 14. $X QCYCOLW EDUEDULL SHVWH GDFL/HDX DUV FHWC@LOH L JUaXODU QDX SXWXW DVFXQGH YRUEHOH ?Q VDFL3H FDUH VCL ?QJKLWCQ PRDUWH UaXO $X UHQYLDW PHUHX GXSC IXUWXQC D SLHWUHOH VXE DSC DX UCPDV 3HFHWOXL@L GH YRUED FHD PDL EXQC ‰RSWLWC VDX FaQWDWC ?QWUXQ JODV5C]ERDLHOHDX WUHFXW ICUC VC VFKLPEH9UHXQ VHPQ ?Q FXUJHUHD XQXL FXYaQW ¥/HJLOH GDFLORU QX HUDX VWUaPEHD VC OH VFKLPEH FLQHYD SHDFHVW SCPaQW LQ FHUQHUHD SH FDUH WLPSXO R DGXQC 6XE OXFUXO RPXOXL WUHFXW SULQ YUHPL 1HDX PDL UCPDV FXYLQWH FH UCVXQC ‰L D]L ?Q JUDLXQ FDUH YUHL VC FKHPL6C WHQ@HOHJL FX FHO SOHFDW GHSDUWH‰L UHYHQLW DLFL FDQWUXQ GHVFaQW/D PDWFD YLH@LL OXL ICUC GH PRDUWH3UHFXP ?Q FHU DD L SUH SCPaQW $ GD GUHSWDWH FHORU FDUH $X VSXV FC GDFLL DX PXULW GH PXOW ,DU QRL VXQWHP UCWCFLWRUL ?Q ]DUH ( R PLQFLXQCQ FDUH DX FUH]XWRDU FHL FHDX YUXW VC QH DVFXQGCQ YUHPH8LWD@L GH FHL FH YLQ GLQ QHDP ?Q QHDPLQ D]L ?Q PaLQH SHVWH WLPS VC FKHPH1XPHOHQ FDUH VLQJXUL QH DYHDP 0DL SXUL GHFaW URPDQLL UR[DODQLL 0DL ?Q@HOHS@L GHFaW HOLQLL OD XQ ORF HPQL FD ?Q .RVRYR GDUGDQLL 6WDX FD ?QDOWXO FHUXOXL GH IRF 3HDFHVW SCPaQW HL GDFLL 8
  15. 15. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei NCEPUTURI$ FXP GH DQL FaQG VD IRUPDW 3CPaQWXO DWPRVIHUD FRQ@LQHD JD]H YXOFDQLFH FX IRDUWH SX@LQ R[LJHQ ILLQG DVWIHO RVWLOC RULFCUHL IRUPH GH YLD@C X GH DQL ?Q XUPC QLYHOXO GH R[LJHQ ?QFHSH VCFUHDVFC JUDGDW GDWRULWC HOHPHQWHORU FKLPLFH FDUH VH FRPELQC LUHSOLFC FRQWLQXX FUHaQG DVWIHO FRQGL@LL IDYRUDELOH YLH@LL oQ DFHDVWCSHULRDGC SUHGRPLQC RUJDQLVPH VLPSOH DVHPCQCWRDUH DOJHORU $FXP GH DQL DSDU SULPHOH YHUWHEUDWH LDU DFXP GH DQL DSDU GLQR]DXULL FDUH ?QVC YRU GLVSDUH EUXVFDFXP GH DQL ([LVWC R WHRULH FDUH VXJHUHD]C DSDUL@LDXQXL JLJDQWLF PHWHRU FH D ORYLW 3CPaQWXO SUREDELO ?Q ]RQD *ROIXOXL0H[LF GH DVWC]L $FHVW PHWHRU OD FRQWDFWXO FX 7HUUD D SURGXV ?QDHU R SaFOC GH SUDI GH QHUHVSLUDW FDUH DU IL FDX]DW PRDUWHD DFHVWRUFUHDWXUL GLQR]DXULL FDUH GDFC DU IL FRQWLQXDW VC H[LVWH DU IL ICFXWSRDWH LPSRVLELOC DSDUL@LD L XOWHULRU GH]YROWDUHD UDVHL XPDQH 7RW FX GH DQL ?Q XUPC VH WHUPLQC IRUPDUHD0XQ@LORU DUSD@L L D %D]LQXOXL 7UDQVLOYCQHDQ $FXP GH DQL DSDUH R PDUH YDULHWDWH GH PDPLIHUHLQFOX]aQG VWUCPRL DL XQRU DQLPDOH PRGHUQH FXP DU ILPDLPX@HOH HOHIDQ@LL IHOLQHOH FDLL $FXP GH DQL 0DUHD 1HDJUC VH GHVSDUWH GH 0DUHDDVSLFC L GH /DFXO $UDO $FXP GH DQL ?Q SCGXULOH GLQ HVWXO $IULFLL DSDUH·SURFRQVXOXO¨ R IRUPC WLPSXULH GH PDLPX@C $FXP GH DQL OHJCWXUD GLQWUH KXPDQRL]L L PDLPX@HVH UXSH $FXP GH DQL vQ 7(5’,$5 JCVLP R IDXQC ERJDWCFD vQ ]RQD %XJLXOHWL 6CSCWXULOH DUKHRORJLFH ?QWUHSULQVH ?Q SXQFWXO·9DOHD OXL *UDXFHDQX§ VXE FRQGXFHUHD UHJUHWDWXOXL 6 9
  16. 16. )LJ ¨2PXO FDUH VWULJC¨ HVWH XQ YDV GH OXW DSDU@LQkQG FXOWXULL 9LQFHD D FCUXL JXUC D IRVW FRQVLGHUDW FCDUDWC FD XQ FDS GH RP VSULMLQLW vQ SDOPH 7RWXO DU IL UCPDV QHVFKLPEDW GDFC HX QX PD IL MXFDW FX DFHDVWCSR]C SH FRPSXWHU vQFHUFkQG VR SULYHVF L GLQ DOWH XQJKLXUL 5CVWXUQDW OD GH JUDGH XOFLRUXO FDUH RULFXP QX DYHD XQ IXQG SODW GHYLQH XQ FDS GH VFKHOHW FX R DQDWRPLH SUHJQDQWC XOWXUD 9LQFHD HVWH DFHHDLFDUH D GDW QDWHUH WCEOL@HORU GH OD 7CUWCULD SULPD IRUPC GH H[SULPDUH VFULVC GLQ LVWRULD OXPLL FX GHDQL vQDLQWHD FHOHL 6XPHULHQH
  17. 17. HVFRSHULW OD 3DUWD 0X]HXO GH LVWRULH DO 5RPaQLHL LQY 25DGX (5HVFK *HUPDQQ 3ODVWLFD DQWURSRPRUIC L ]RRPRUIC GH FXOWXUC 7XUGD9LQFHD GH OD 3DUWD ?Q ·7LELVFXV¨ S 10
  18. 18. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei1LFROCHVFX3ORSRU ?QWUH L UHOXDWH ?Q DXGHVFRSHULW DLFL FHO PDL ERJDW L PDL YDULDW GHSR]LW GH UHVWXUL IRVLOH6DX JCVLW XQ PDUH QXPCU GH JLUDIH ULQRFHUL FD L VLQJXUXOJKLERVFLGLDQ LQGLFaQG L XQ PHGLX GHVFKLV ERJDW ?Q LHUEXULQXPHURDVH UHVWXUL GH SULPDWH FHUFRSLWKDFH 3UH]HQ@D FDVWRULORUVXJHUHD]C FC ]RQD QX HUD OLSVLWC GH DUEXWL L FKLDU DUERULDUQLYRUHOH FD XUVXO HUHFWXV HUDX L HOH SUH]HQWH DOCWXUL GH DOWHVSHFLL GH PDPLIHUH oQ SOXV VD JCVLW L UHVWXO XQHL PDLPX@HFDWDUUWKLOLHQHWHVWUH DUGX 1LFXOHVFX 3ORSRU D GHVFRSHULW L RGLDIL]C IHPXUDOC L R WLELH FDUDFWHULVWLFH KRPLQL]LORU GH WLS$XVWUDORSLWKHFXV HVFRSHULULOH GH OD %XJLXOHWL DX SXV SHQWUXSULPD GDWC SUREOHPD H[LVWHQ@HL XQRU KRPLQL]L SULPLL VWUCPRL?QGHSCUWD@L DL RPXOXL ?Q DFHDVWC ]RQC $FXP GH DQL JCVLP vQ $IULFD +202 (5(786 DOFCUXL FUHLHU HVWH L PDL PDUH IDSW GDWRUDW SUREDELO L DOLPHQWD@LHLPDL ERJDWH vQ SURWHLQH FUXFLDO ILLQG IDSWXO FC HUD FDUQLYRU )RVLOHGH +RPR (UHFWXV DX IRVW GHVFRSHULWH L vQ -DYD OD 0RMRNHUWRDFHDVWD ILLQG R GRYDGC D H[SDQVLXQLL KXPDQRL]LORU $FXP GH DQL D vQFHSXW SHULRDGD 48$7(51$5nSHULRDGD vQ FDUH QH DIOCP L DVWC]L
  19. 19. GLQ FDUH IDF SDUWH3$/(2/,7,8/ 0(=2/,7,8/ L 1(2/,7,8/ 6C YHGHP FH VXUSUL]H DX DGXV ILHFDUH GLQ HOH SH VFDUDGH]YROWCULL 3$/(2/,7,8/ SHULRDGD SLHWUHL FLRSOLWH
  20. 20. vPSCU@LW vQ ,1)(5,25 SHULRDGD vQ FDUH DSDU XQHOWHOH GH SLDWUC GDWHD]C GH DFXP GH DQL SaQC vQ ?G+ 0,-/2,8 SHULRDGD vQ FDUH DSDUH RPXO GH 1($1(57+$/ vQ VSD@LXO DUSDWRXQCUHDQ H FXSULQVC vQWUH L ?G+ 683(5,25 vQ DFHDVWC SHULRDGC ?G+
  21. 21. DSDUH RPXO GH 520$*121 +202 6$3,(16
  22. 22. GH OD FDUH QHDX UCPDV SLFWXULOH UXSHVWUH GH OD CFLXOD@L 3HVFDUL SHWHUD *XUD KLQGLHL
  23. 23. DVHPCQCWRDUH FX FHOH GLQ 6SDQLD L )UDQ@D ILLQG SULPHOH LQGLFD@LL DUKHRORJLFH SULYLQG XQLYHUVXO UHOLJLRV DO YaQCWRUXOXL SDOHROLWLF 0(=2/,7,8/ ?G+
  24. 24. SHULRDGD vQ FDUHYUHPHD VD vQFDO]LW JKH@DULL VDX WRSLW DSCUaQG DVWIHO SRYHVWLULOH 11
  25. 25. GHVSUH ·SRWRS¨ L VXSUDYLH@XLWRULL OXL FHD PDL YHFKH LVWRULH GH DFHVWIHO DSDU@LQaQG FXOWXULL 9HGLFH
  26. 26. 0DUHD %ULWDQLH GHYLQH LQVXOC LDU0DUHD 1HDJUC FDSCWC FRQWXUXO HL DFWXDO ¿Q ]RQD 3RU@LORU GH )LHU VDX JCVLW XUPH DOH FXOWXULL ·6FKHODODGRYHL¨ FXSWRUXO GH SLDWUC YDVXO FX SLFLRU FX GHFRU SLFWDW HWF ¿Q FXOWXUD ·DUFHD¨ vL IDFH DSDUL@LD SH R FXSC GH FHUDPLFC·VSLUDOD¨ FDUSDWRGXQCUHQLORU GH FXORDUH DOEC SH XQ IRQG URX 1(2/,7,8/ DFHDVWC SHULRDGC vQFHSH FX GH DQL ?G+ 3H WHULWRULXO 5RPaQLHL VDX GHVFRSHULW XUPHOH D QXPHURDVHFLYLOL]D@LL vQWUH ?G+ XOWXUD 3UHXFXWHQL HVWH FRQVLGHUDWC GH VSHFLDOLVWDDPHULFDQC 0DULMD *LPEXWDV FD ILLQG FHD PDL YHFKH FXOWXUCHXURSHDQC FX SRSXOD@LD SUHLQGRHXURSHDQC FDUH FXQRDWHDSRJHXO GH]YROWCULL vQWUH ?G+ XOWXUD %RLDQ vG+
  27. 27. QH ODVC SULPXO VDQFWXDUFUHDW GLQ OXW LDU FXOWXUD +DPDQJLD SULPD VWDWXHWC OXFUDWC vQPDUPXUC GLQ LVWRULD OXPLL FaW L VWDWXHWHOH GH OXW DQWURSRPRUIH·*aQGLWRUXO L IHPHLD VD¨ XOWXUD 9CGHDVD FRQ@LQH FHUDPLFC GHFRUDWC FX IRUPHDQWURSRPRUIH FH SUHFHGH SH FHD 7URLDQC LQ FDGUXO FXOWXULL9LQFHD 1LFRODH 9ODVD GHVFRSHUC vQ OD 7CUWCULD SH 0XUH7UDQVLOYDQLD
  28. 28. QLWH WCEOL@H GH OXW GDWDWH ?G+ LFRQVLGHUDWH GH DFHHDL *LPEXWDV FD ILLQG SULPXO PHVDM VFULV GLQLVWRULD RPHQLULL FX PXOW vQDLQWHD WCEOL@HORU VXPHULHQH SURYHQLQGL HOH SRVLELO WRW GH OD XQCUH
  29. 29. ¿Q FXOWXUD HUQDYRGC , ?G+
  30. 30. WULEXULOH GHSCVWRUL IRORVHVF FDLL L DUPH SHUIHF@LRQDWH SXUWCWRULL DFHVWHL FXOWXULYRU FRERUv VSUH VXG VSUH $QDWROLD SXQWHD GH SCPaQW FH OHJDSHQLQVXOD %DOFDQLFC GH $VLD 0LFC L FDUH vQ ?G+ VH YDVFXIXQGD vQ 0DUHD 0HGLWHUDQC OCVaQG vQ ORFXO HL R SX]GHULH GHLQVXOH L R QRXC PDUH 0DUHD 7UDFLFC (JHH
  31. 31. 8UPHOH FXOWXULL QRDVWUH FDUSDWRGXQCUHQH VH PDL SCVWUHD]C LDVWC]L SH XQHOH GLQ DFHVWH LQVXOH IRVWH SLVFXUL PXQWRDVH
  32. 32. ·XLPLQG¨
  33. 33. FHUFHWCWRULL FDUH QXL SRW vQFKLSXL FXP FXOWXUL FDFHOH PLFHQLHQH DX SXWXW DSDUH SH QLWH LQVXOH L]RODWH HL ·QHYC]aQGSCGXUHD GLQ FDX]D XQXL FRSDF¨ 12
  34. 34. 1, 67 620( 58 ƒ +RPRURGX GH6XV 6, 5( 35 7 87 5,ƒ *XUD%DFLXOXL 9DOHD/XSXOXL 085(ƒ 3HULHQL UL“ 2/7 /H× XLQD 7XUFXOXL 6FKHOD ODGRYHL $5 ,FRDQD *( ƒ »UFHD 81 œ5($)LJ +DUWD QHROLWLFXOXL WLPSXULX GH SH WHULWRULXO 5RPaQLHL¿Q DFHDVWC SHULRDGC vG+ SRSRUXO DUSDWRDQXELDQ ]HL@D DQX OD YHFKLLYHGLFL HUD PDPD SORLL L D SDMLWLORU ERJDWH
  35. 35. SUH]HQW vQ VSD@LX VIaQW YHGLF
  36. 36. LQYC@DVH VCGHIULH]H SCGXULOH L VC GHV@HOHQHDVFC SCPaQWXO ORFXLQG vQ JHQHUDO GHD OXQJXO UH@HOHORUKLGURJUDILFH H[WLQ]aQGXVH WUHSWDW vQ WRDWH ]RQHOH ORFXLELOH GaQG DVWIHO QDWHUH SRSRUXOXLSURWRHXURSHDQ $FHDVWC SRSXOD@LH DULDQC HXURLQGLDQC SHODVJLFC FDUSDWRGDQXELDQC RULFXP YUH@L VC R QXPL@L DH]DWC SH DFHVWH ERJDWH PHOHDJXUL FRQVWLWXLH ·9HFKHD (XURSC¨HUFHWCWRDUHD DPHULFDQC 0DULMD *LPEXWDV FRQVLGHUC FC DSDUL@LD DFHVWHL FXOWXUL DSDU@LQaQGQHROLWLFXOXL IRUPHD]C YHFKHD FXOWXUC HXURSHDQC SH FDUH R VLWXHD]C vQWUH vG+ FX R SRSXOD@LH ·SUHLQGRHXURSHDQC¨ L FDUH FXQRDWH DSRJHXO GH]YROWCULL VDOH vQWUH vG+ 13
  37. 37. H DU QL L OL LFL P UD FH UD OWX X L FX×HQ 3UHFX HDPXUOLD %HLGDXG HUQDYRG¼ /LPDQX GH -RV 58 +DPDQJLD 67 %RLDQ 1, XGH“WL 87 35 5DGRYDQX (7 3RGHL7J 2FQD 6,5 7UDLDQ 9LGUD *LXOH“WL 7ÇUSH“WL /H× ,]YRDUH 3 5DUH“ ƒ 5 *( H“WL XG $ LD Q D V WU GD %R 9¼ )¼UFD“HOH 2 /7 9¼GDVWUD /HX ,FORG D“ 7¼UW¼ULD UG 7X D 9LQF 7XUGD“ ƒ 0( HYD 62 LXPH“WL =RUOHQ×X 0DUH )LJ +DUWD QHROLWLFXOXL WaU]LX SH WHULWRULXO 5RPaQLHL ($ 1œ5 $SDU R VHULH GH VFKLPECUL ORFDOH 8 L JHQHUDOH DOH DFHVWHL VRFLHWC@L FDUSDWR 085(ƒ 6$ GDQXELHQH HVFRSHULP FXOWXUL FD 3DU×D 5,ƒ 7, 6WCQFX@D *XPHOQL@D XFXWHQL 3HWUHWL +RGRQL 7LVD3ROJDU%RGURJNHUHV]WXU 9XFHGRO HUQDYRGC FX VFKLPECUL PDQLIHVWDWH GH R LHUDUKLH PDL ELQH SXVC OD SXQFW FkW L FX QRL PDQLIHVWCUL VSLULWXDOH )LJ GLQ ·3UHLVWRULD DFLHL¨ ,RQ 0LFOHD 9LQFD)LJ 7LVD 5DGX )ORUHVFX (G0HULGLDQH S 14
  38. 38. 1, 67 58 U¼JX“HQL 62 0( 7UX“H“WL ƒ 6$ 7, LXPH“WL 35 XFXWHQL 87 D OQL× )HGHOH“HQL PH *X +¼E¼“H“WL QL )UXPX“LFD OH 5,ƒ FX 7UDLDQ X ,]YRDUH 9DOHD /XSXOXL 6,5( 7 085(ƒ 3RGHL7J2FQD %HUH“WL 3HWUH“WL JDU 3LDQX GH -RV 7LVD3RO 6WRLFDQL15 +RGRQL =RUOHQ×X 0DUH 3HWUH “WL $OGHQL ×D %U¼LOL×D %¼LOH OFX +HUFXODQH 6¼ *HDQJRH“WL +ÇU“RYD 7HLX 2/7 $5 *( 0HGJLGLD 9HUELFLRDVD ƒ 6¼OFX×D *XPHOQL×D 3LHWUHOH ¼VFLRDUHOH H UQD YR G¼ )LJ
  39. 39. )LJ 35,08/ 0(6$- 65,6 ,1 ,6725,$ 20(1,5,, 7CEOL@HOH GH OD 7CUWCULD FFD vG+
  40. 40. D FCURU GHVFRSHULUH vQ DQXO GH FCWUH1LFRODH 9ODVD D UHYROX@LRQDW FRQFHS@LD SULYLQG DSDUL@LD VFULVXOXL ILLQG FRQVLGHUDWH SULPXOPHVDM VFULV vQ LVWRULD RPHQLULL $DGDU LQYHQWDWRULL VFULHULL ·VXPHULHQH¨ DX IRVW RULFkW DU IL GHSDUDGR[DO QX VXPHULHQLL FL ORFXLWRULL 7UDQVLOYDQLHL ORFXLWRULL VSD@LXOXL DUSDWRXQCUHDQ LDVWD FX GH DQL vQDLQWHD VXPHULHQLORU 6WUDFKLQD FX LQVFULS@LL *UDGHVQLWD %XOJDULD )XVDLROD FX LQVFULS@LL .RVRYVND 1LWURYLWD ,XJRVODYLD ,RVLI RQVWDQWLQ UCJDQ ,VWRULD 5RPkQLORU (G (XURSD 1RYD %XFXUHWL 16
  41. 41. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei)LJ 5R@LOH FDUH DX IDFXW (XURSD VC VH H[WLQGC3ULPD URDWC FDUH D ICFXW VSHFLD XPDQC VC VH SRDWC PLFD PDL UHSHGH D IRVW GHVFRSHULWC SHWHULWRULXO 3RORQLHL GH D]L SH DDQXPLWXO YDV GH OD %URQRFLFH (O D IRVW GHVFRSHULW vQ DQXO SH HO ILLQG GHVHQDWH ]JkULDWH FCUX@H FX SDWUX UR@L vQWUH FDUH VH LQWHUSXQ OLQLL FX DVSHFWGH FRSDFL VDX DOWHOH LPLWkQG DSD $FHVWD D IRVW ICFXW vQ DQXO vG+ GHFL FX GH DQLvQDLQWHD XQXL GHVHQ DVHPCQCWRU JCVLW SH WHULWRULXO ,UDNXOXL GH D]L $FHVW YDV DSDU@LQkQG FXOWXULL ·FHUDPLFLL OLQLDUH¨ DSDU@LQaQG SRSRUXOXL FDUSDWRGDQXELDQ HVWH SULPD GRYDGC D UR@LLvQ OXPH(DUO (XURSH 0LVWHU LQ VWRQH 7LPH/LIH %RRNV $OH[DQGULD 9LUJLQLD S 17
  42. 42. )LJ 3ULPXO FCUX@ ICFXW GLQ OXW DUV JCVLW vQ (XURSD SH WHULWRULXO 8QJDULHL GH D]L SX@LQPDL OD QRUG GH %XGDSHVWD GDWDW vG+ DSDU@LQkQG DFHOXLDL SRSRU FDUSDWRGXQCUHDQ XQJXULL VRVLQG SH DFHVWH PHOHDJXUL GXSC PDL PXOW GH GH DQL
  43. 43. 0DUJLQLOHvQDOWH DOH FCUX@XOXL VXJHUHD]C IDSWXO FC HOH HUDX IRORVLWH VC WUDQVSRUWH SURGXVH DJULFROH(DUO (XURSH 0LVWHU LQ VWRQH 7LPH/LIH %RRNV $OH[DQGULD 9LUJLQLD S 18
  44. 44. 19 )LJ $FHVWH ILJXULQH JCVLWH OD 7aUJRYLWH %XOJDULD vQ SUREDELO FC DX IRORVLW FD PRGHO GH DOWDU SHQWUX DJULFXOWR ULL FDUSDWRGXQCUHQL Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei $UKHRORJLL ED]aQGXVH SH VWLOXULOH GLIHULWH GH RELHFWH GLQ FHUDPLFC DX WUDVDW ·HPLJUD@LD¨ DJULFXOWRULORU VSD@LXOXL FDUSDWR GXQCUHDQ vQ GRXC GLUHF@LL SULQFLSDOH vG+
  45. 45. YHVWLFC GHD OXQJXO FRDVWHL 0CULL 0HGLWHUDQH DDQXPLWD ·DUGLDOZDUH 3RWWHU¨ L DOWD FDUH VH YD UCVSaQGL VSUH FHQWUXO (XURSHL ·/LQHDU 3RWWHU¨ QXPLWC DVWIHO GDWRULWC ]LJ]DJX ULORU L FXUEHORU FX FDUH HUDX GHFRUDWH RELHFWHOH GH FHUDPLFC DFHWL FRORQLWL YRU VWDELOL FXOWXUL XQLIRUPH GLQ 8QJDULD L SaQC vQ SDUWHD FHQWUDOC QRUGLFC D )UDQ@HL GLQ $OSL L SaQC OD 0DUHD 1RUGXOXL $FHDVWC FHUDPLFC OLQLDUC JCVLWC SH WHUL WRULXO HKRVORYDFLHL OD %ODQ 3RORQLHL OD 2OV]DQLFD L 2ODQGHL OD (OVORR 6LWWDUG L 6WHLQ QX IDFH GHFaW VC SXQFWH]H H[SDQVLXQHD FDUSDWRGDQXELHQLORU vQ GUXPXO ORU GH D H[SORUD L FXFHUL (XURSD (DUO (XURSH 0LVWHU LQ VWRQH 7LPH/LIH %RRNV $OH[DQGULD 9LUJLQLD S
  46. 46. )LJ 3LFLRU GH IUXFWLHUC GHVFRSHULW OD +RWCUDQL 0X]HXO 2OWHQLHL UDLRYD
  47. 47. IDFH SDUWH GLQFXOWXUD 9CGDVWUD FDUH RFXSC R DULH UHVWUkQVC SH FXUVXO LQIHULRU DO 2OWXOXL SUHFXP L vQGUHDSWD XQCULL vQ ]RQD FRUHVSXQ]CWRDUH JXULORU 2OWXOXL 6H SRDWH YHGHD FODU ·6SLUDOD3HODVJLFC¨ D FCUHL VHPQLILFD@LH UHOLJLRDVC YD IL GLVFXWDWC vQ ·6LPEROLVWLFD OD 3HODVJL¨01LFD (YROX@LD FXOWXULL 9CGDVWUD SH ED]D GHVFRSHULULORU GH OD +RWCUDQL)CUFDHOH MXGH@XO 2OW
  48. 48. vQ ·+LVWRULFD¨ ,, S 20
  49. 49. )LJ =HL@D GH OD 1DLHQL /D DSXV GH 3LHWURDVD MXG %X]CX ORFDOLWDWH FHOHEUCSULQ GHVFRSHULUHD WH]DXUXOXL YH]L EOHVWHPXO SCVCULL3KRHQL[
  50. 50. FHL SRDUWC QXPHOH VH DIOC VDWXO 1DHQLXQGH SULQ DQLL GXSC FXP QH VSXQH 7RFLOHVFXQLWH FRSLL DX JCVLW MXFaQGX¥VH JUXSXO GH EURQ] UHGDWDLFL 7RFLOHVFX OD SUH]HQWDW OD QRY $FDGHPLHLGH ,QVFULS@LL GLQ 3DULV GUHSW XQ PRQXPHQW GHDUWC JRWLFC LQVR@LQGXO GH R GHVFULHUH HURQDWC9DVLOH 3kUYDQ DUH PHULWXO GH D REVHUYDIDSWXO FC JUXSXO VWDWXDU HVWH PXWLODWFXSULQ]aQG GRDU GRXC ILJXUL H OD D WUHLD VHSRDWH YHGHD UHVWXULOH XQHL PkLQL L DO XQXLSLFLRU XSC RUQDPHQWXO FDUH VH JCVHWH LQVSDWHOH IHPHLL VH SDUH FC D IRVW ICFXW VC SRDWCIL DWkUQDW GH FHYD )HOLQD SH FDUHVH JCVHWH FCODUH IHPHLD GHLVHDPCQC FX R OHRDLFC SDUHD IL WRWXL GXSC LQGLFDUHD FRDPHL XQ OHXX PkQD VWkQJC HDVH @LQH GH FRDPDOHXOXL LDU FX GUHDSWD GH FRDGD DFHVWXLD FDUH SDUH FC VHWHUPLQC vQ JXUD GHSHWH 3H FDS DUH RFCFLXOC ·IULJLDQC¨ FDUHLDFRSHUC WkPSOHOH L XUHFKLOH /kQJC HD ?Q GUHDSWDvQVR@LWRUXO @LQH L HO FX PkQD GUHDSWCFRDPD OHXOXL FX VWkQJD VXV@LQaQGR SHIHPHLH GH OD VSDWH H UHPDUFDW VXQWRUQDPHQWHOH GH SH KDLQH FkW L GH SHKDUQDDPHQWXO OHXOXL oQ FHHD FHSULYHWH FHO GHDO GRLOHD vQVR@LWRUGLQ VWkQJD IHPHLL PkQD OXL GUHDSWCVH JCVHWH DOCWXUL GH FHD D ·]HL@HL¨XQGHYD SH FRDGD OHXOXL 3HUVRQDODP YC]XW XQ FRPSOH[ VWDWXDUDVHPCQCWRU vQWUXQ WHPSOX KLQGXV GLQLQVXOD %DOOL 8QLL FRQVLGHUC FC DFHVWFRPSOH[ DU UHSUH]HQWDR SH 0DPD 0DUHDYkQGXO OkQJD HD SH DORLDQX HUW HVWH FCO JCVLP L OD SHUVDQL XUPDL DL DFHORUDL DULHQLFDUSDWRGDQXELHQL
  51. 51. 9O XPLWUHVFX $UWD SUHLVWRULFC vQ 5RPkQLD %XFXUHWL ILJ 21
  52. 52. $FHDVWD FXOWXUD HUQDYRGC , D GDW QDWHUH OD 7URLD , $FHLFDUSDWRGXQCUHQL ·$5,(1,¨ FXP vL PDL QXPHVF DO@LL
  53. 53. DX GDWQDWHUH OD FXOWXUD OXPLL UCVSaQGLQGXVH QX QXPDL SHVWH vQWUHDJD(XURSC L VSUH QRUGXO (JLSWXOXL L 0HVRSRWDPLHL FL SaQC vQvQGHSCUWDWD ,QGLH XQGH FXOWXUD ORU ·9HGLFD¨ D ·LQVSLUDW¨ L PDLLQVSLUC L D]L
  54. 54. FXOWXULOH OXPLL FDOGHHQLL HJLSWHQLL HWF +LQGXLVPXOL FUHWLQLVPXO QX DX ICFXW DOWFHYD GHFaW VR FRSLH]H DGDSWaQGR ODFRQGL@LLOH ORU ORFDOH 22
  55. 55. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei NOI NU SUNTEM URMA[II ROMEI ¿ QDLQWH GH WRDWH YUHDX VC ILX RQHVW GHFODUaQGXYC FC RFHUWLWXGLQH D WXWXURU LSRWH]HORU SH FDUH OH YRL GHVICXUD vQ ID@DGXPQHDYRDVWUC QX H[LVWC 2ULFaQG R QRXC GHVFRSHULUH R QRXCLQWHUSUHWDUH SRDWH FRQILUPD VDX LQILUPD XQD VDX DOWD GLQWUH HOH (XQX SRW VC DILUP GHFaW FC vQ WRW FHHD FH XUPHD]C QX DP LQWURGXVQLFL R LSRWH]C GH FDUH SHUVRQDO VC QX ILX FRQYLQV oQ WRW FHXUPHD]C PHULWXO PHX SHUVRQDO QX GHSCHWH WUHEXLQG VCPXO@XPHVF DXWRULORU FLWD@L ?Q ELEOLRJUDILH 9C VSXQ DFHVWHD GLQFRQYLQJHUHD FC FLWLWRUXO QX WUHEXLH vQHODW QX WUHEXLH OCVDW VCFUHDGC FC WLX PDL PXOW GHFaW WLX vQ UHDOLWDWH LWLWRUXOQHVSHFLDOLVW DUH GUHSWXO VC FXQRDVFC OLPLWHOH DFWXDOH UHDOH DOHFXQRWLQ@HORU QRDVWUH GHVSUH WUHFXWXO @CULL vQ FDUH QHDP QCVFXW LFCUHLD vL YRP DSDU@LQH vQWRWGHDXQD LQGLIHUHQW SH FH PHOHDJXULQHD FCOCX]LW GHVWLQXO X DQL vQ XUPC SH YUHPHD FaQG HUDP HOHY vQ FXUVXO HOHPHQWDU vQ FDUWHD QRDVWUC GH ·/LPED 5RPaQC¨ QH HUD VSXV L GH ·SX@LQD¨ LQIOXHQ@C ODWLQC vQ YRFDEXODUXOURPaQ DOCWXUL GH FHD ·FRSOHLWRDUH¨ VODYC $ IRVW SRDWH SHQWUXSULPD RDUC FaQG DP VLP@LW FC QX HUDP GH DFRUG FX FHHD FH HUD·VFULV vQ FDUWH¨ )XVHVHP REOLJDW vPSUHXQC FX WR@L FHLODO@L HOHYLvQFC GLQ FODVD D SDWUD HOHPHQWDUC VC ·VWXGLH]¨ OLPED UXVC LDU GLQFODVD D FLQFHD OLPED IUDQFH]C L DVWIHO DP GHVFRSHULW PXOWH 23
  56. 56. )LJ ([SDQVLXQHD JHWLFC vQ (XURSD FHQWUDOC VL VXGYHVWLFC vQ DQXO vG+8LWkQGXQH SH KDUWD OXL 9DVLOH 3kUYDQ (G 0HULGLDQH GLQ *HWLFD S SXWHP VC QHLPDJLQCP UCVSaQGLUHD QHPXOXL QRVWUX vQ (XURSD vQWUR SHULRDGC FaQG HD DELD VH IRUPD·1HDPXULOH GDFRJHWLFH FX DH]CULOH ORU FDUDFWHULVWLFH QXPLWH GDYH VDX vQWLQV vQFC GLQ YUHPXUL LPHPRULDOH VSUH QRUG SaQC vQ 6LOH]LD vQ 3RVHQ vQ *DOL@LD L 3RGROLD LDU VSUH VXG SaQCvQ 5RGRSL L SH YDOHD 0DUL@HL WUHFaQG FKLDU GLQFROR GH +HOOHVSRQW vQ $VLD 0LFC¨ $D QHVSXQH DFHODL 9 3aUYDQ OD YUHPHD OXL
  57. 57. DU vQ DFHWL GH DQL FDUH QH GHVSDUWGH HO FHUFHWCULOH URPaQLORU GHVSUH DO ORU WUHFXW vQ ORF VC HYROXH]H DX LQYROXDWWUDQVIRUPaQGXQH LVWRULD ?QWUR PRQHGC SROLWLFC GHYDORUL]DWC XULRV HVWH FC URPaQLL QX VHUHYROWC vPSRWULYD IDOVLILFDWRULORU LVWRULHL QRDVWUH vPSRWULYD SDXNHULWLORU VODYRQLWL RUL ODWLQRILOLORU VOXJDUQLFL LQFDSDELOL VC YDGC SCGXUHD GLQ FDX]D FRSDFXOXL 24
  58. 58. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiFXYLQWH URPaQRIUDQFH]H L QLFL XQXO URPaQRUXV *KLQLRQXO·JaQGLWRULORU¨ GH DWXQFL HUDX L FaQWHFHOH LWDOLHQH FDUH SCWUXQGHDXSHVWH WRW vQ 5RPaQLD L DOH FCURU FXYLQWH VXQDX DWaW GH DSURSLDWHGH DOH QRDVWUH vQFaW WHRULD ·VODYRQC¨ D RULJLQLL QRDVWUH DSCUHDULGLFROC FKLDU L SHQWUX XQ FRSLO GLQ FXUVXO HOHPHQWDU GDU QX L·LVWRULFLORU QRWUL§ GH DWXQFL X WUHFHUHD DQLORU SURFHVXO GH UXVLILFDUH D URPaQLORU D PDLVFC]XW vQ LQWHQVLWDWH LDU HX DMXQVHVHP vQ XOWLPLL DQL GH OLFHX HGDWD DFHDVWD OXFUXULOH VH vQWRUVHVHUC FX GH JUDGH L DFXPvQYC@DP GHVSUH RFXSDUHD DFLHL GH FCWUH URPDQL L FXP QH WUCJHDP·QRL¨ GLQ ·HL¨ ED GLQWUXQLL ED GLQWUDO@LL ED FKLDU GLQ ·GRLECUED@L¨ HFHEDO L DD]LVXO QRVWUX VWUCEXQ 7UDLDQ 1X WLX FDUHHVWH SCUHUHD YV GDU HX SHUVRQDO QX DP vQFUHGHUH vQ DFHWL·OLQJYLWL¨ L ·LVWRULFL¨ JDWD VC QH WUDQVIRUPH LVWRULD QRDVWUC vQIXQF@LH GH LQWHUHVHOH ORU SHUVRQDOH RUL VFRSXULOH SROLWLFH XUPCULWHGH ·VWCSaQLL¨ ORU DD FXP VH vQWaPSOC L DVWC]L vQ 0ROGRYD GH SHVWH3UXW %XFRYLQD L @LQXWXO +HU@HL XQGH SRSXOD@LHL URPaQHPDMRULWDUH RGDWC SDU@LDO GHSRUWDWC vQ 6LEHULD L VH VSXQH vQSHUPDQHQ@C FC YRUEHWH R OLPEC GLIHULWC ·PROGRYHQHDVFC¨ GHRULJLQH VODYC WHRULH SH FDUH PXO@L R L FUHG DU VC QXL XLWCP SH SULHWHQLL JUHFL FDUH OH VSXQ IUD@LORU QRWULDURPaQL FC HL GH IDSW VXQW JUHFL FC 0DFHGRQLD D IRVW HVWH L YD IL*UHFLD LDU $OH[DQGUX 0DFHGRQ D IRVW XQ JUHF ¿Q SHULRDGD vQ FDUH DP IRVW VWXGHQW OD PHGLFLQC DP IRVW LQYLWDWVCPL SHWUHF FaWHYD VCSWCPaQL GLQ YDFDQ@D GH YDUC OD 7aUJX0XUHOD LQYLWD@LD XQXL FROHJ L SULHWHQ XQJXU vQ FDVD FCUXLD DP JCVLW RFDUWH VFULVC vQ OLPED URPaQC VLQJXUD GH DOWIHO $,$35(,6725,n D OXL 1 HVXLDQX SUREDELO FHO PDL IRUPLGDELOVFULLWRU DO LVWRULHL URPaQLORU RFD]LH FX FDUH PLDP VFKLPEDWQR@LXQLOH GH ·LVWRULH D URPaQLORU¨ DFXPXODWH vQ FRDOC 5HYHQLQG OD LVWRULD L OLPED URPaQC L OD FRQWUDGLF@LLOHDFHVWRUD FX ORJLFD YRL IDFH X] GH YHUVXULOH XQHL SRH]LL VFULVC GH 9%CMHQDUX L FDUH PLD SDUYHQLW SULQ FXUWRD]LD GRPQXOXL -HDQ0CQHVFX GLQ 1HZ RUN 25
  59. 59. ·H OLPEC YRUEHDX GDFLL D]L QLPHQHD QX WLH CFL SH DWXQFL VCUDFLL QDYHDX FUHLRQ KaUWLH ,DU YRUEHOH QHVFULVH SUHFXP VH WLH ]ERDUC $UJXPHQWaQG QH ]LVH FaQGYD R SURIHVRDUC /LQJYLWLL VRFRWLUC PDL FX OXDUH DPLQWH ‰L vQ ILQDO JCVLUC YUHR FXYLQWH H SDU D IDFH SDUWH FKLDU GLQ OLPEDMXO WUDF DU GHLL VFULV vQ FDUWH FX DVWD QX PCPSDF 3CL VWDL L LD DPLQWH GH FXPYD H SRVLELO X FaWHYD FXYLQWH VC ILL LQWHOLJLELO¨ ¿QWUHEDUHD SH FDUH QHR SXQHP DVWC]L HVWH FH OLPEC YRUEHDXJHWRGDFLL SHODVJLL WUDFLL
  60. 60. ,DU UCVSXQVXULOH QX SRW IL GHFaW GRXCGLQWUH FDUH DYHP GH DOHV XQXO YRUEHDX R OLPEC GLIHULWC GH FHD DFXFHULWRULORU L vQ FRQVHFLQ@C DX IRVW QHYRL@L VCL vQVXHDVFC ODWLQDGXSC RFXSDUHD D GLQ WHULWRULXO DFLHL GH FCWUH OHJLXQLOHvPSCUDWXOXL 7UDLDQ vQ G+ RUL OLPED SRSXOD@LHL DXWRKWRQH DDFLHL HUD DVHPCQCWRDUH FX ODWLQD DVWIHO vQFaW QX D IRVW QHFHVDUCvQYC@DUHD DOWHL OLPEL 5HYHQLQG OD SRH]LD OXL %CMHQDUX RDUH VC ILH DGHYCUDW FC WRW FHQHD UCPDV GH OD VWUCEXQLL QRWUL JHWRGDFL VC ILH QXPDL FXYLQWH $QLL WUHF OXPHD VH VFKLPEC LDU DVWC]L DYHP DD]LVD·$UKHRORJLH /LQJYLVWLFC¨ L GHVFRSHULP FC /LQJYLVWLFD ,VWRULD QXDX IRVW SaQC DFXP QLPLF DOWFHYD GHFaW GHILOHH GH HURUL YH]L L6KDNHVSHDUH FX D VD ·RPHGLD (URULORU¨
  61. 61. H GH DQLGH FaQGXQ RDUHFDUH : -RQHV
  62. 62. D LQWXLW L DILUPDW SURYHQLHQ@DVDQVFULWHL HOLQHL L ODWLQHL GLQWUR ·OLPEC PDPC¨ QXPHURDVH PLQ@L·VWUCOXFLWH¨ DX vQFHUFDW VC UHFRQVWUXLDVFC DFHDVWC OLPEC ·PDWFC¨JHQHUaQG GRXC WHRULL FDUH VXV@LQ GRXC RULJLQL OLPED LQGRHXURSHDQC SH GH R SDUWH L OLPED DULDQC SH GH DOWC SDUWH ORFDOL]DWCXQGHYD vQ (XURSD 3UHLVWRULFC
  63. 63. HUFHWCWRDUHD DPHULFDQC 0DULMD *LPEXWDV SURIHVRU OD8QLYHUVLWDWHD GLQ /RV $QJHOHV DOLIRUQLD VSXQH ·5RPaQLD HVWHYDWUC D FHHD FH DP QXPLW ·YHFKHD (XURSC¨ R HQWLWDWH FXOWXUDOC 26
  64. 64. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiFXSULQVC vQWUH ?G+ D[DWC SH R VRFLHWDWH PDWULDUKDOCWHRFUDWLFC SDQLFC LXELWRDUH L FUHDWRDUH GH DUWC FDUH D SUHFHGDWVRFLHWC@LOH LQGRHXURSHQL]DWH SDWULDUKDOH GH OXSWCWRUL GLQ HSRFLOH%URQ]XOXL L )LHUXOXL $ GHYHQLW GH DVHPHQHD HYLGHQW FC DFHDVWCVWUCYHFKH FLYLOL]D@LH (XURSHDQC SUHFHGH FX FaWHYD PLOHQLL SH FHD6XPHULDQC ICFaQG LPSRVLELOC LSRWH]D FRQIRUP FCUHLD FLYLOL]D@LDUC]ERLQLFC L YLROHQWC D VXPHULHQLORU DU IL IRVW FHD PDL WLPSXULH GHSH JORE¨ 6SD@LXO DUSDWRXQCUHDQ HVWH XQD GLQ SX@LQHOH ]RQH DOH(XURSHL FDUH QX D IRVW DIHFWDWC GLUHFW QLFL GH FDORWD JODFLDUC QLFL GHFHD DOSLQC UCPaQaQG vQ FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH ]RQC FX FRQGL@LL GHYLH@XLUH DWaW SHQWUX RP FaW L SHQWUX DQLPDOHOH L SODQWHOH FHLDVLJXUDX WUDLXO GHL SH vQCO@LPL VDX IRUPDW JKH@DUL vQ FaWHYDPDVLYH PXQWRDVH 5RGQHL COLPDQ %XFHJL )CJCUD LQGUHO3DUaQJ 5HWH]DW $VWIHO FHUFHWCUL ICUC UHSUR GH OD 8QLYHUVLWDWHD GLQDPEULGJH DX VWDELOLW FC VLQJXUXO ·VSD@LX¨ FDUH FRUHVSXQGHFRQGL@LLORU GLQ YHFKHD OLWHUDWXUC 9HGLFD HVWH FHO DUSDWLF L VXEWLWXODWXUD ·$QFLHQW ,QGLDQ¨ SODVHD]C ID]D SULPDUC D FXOWXULL 9HGLFHOD QRL XSC vQYC@D@LL HQJOH]L L QX URPaQL
  65. 65. FHWDWHD DUSDWLFC IDFHSDUWH GLQ ·KDELWDWXO SULPLWLY DO DULHQLORU¨ H OD WHRULD GH]YROWDWC GH HQJOH]L VC QH vQWRDUFHP OD SRH]LDOXL 9 %CMHQDUX ·,VWRULFLL GH DVHPHQL OD 5RPD DX JCVLW /HJHQGD DFHORU JHPHQL FH 5RPD D XLPLW 3H 5RPXOXV L 5HPXV OXSRDLFD LD FUHVFXW LQ HL VSXQH OHJHQGD URPaQLL VDX QCVFXW ¨ 3RYHVWHD LGLOLFC D FHORU GRL JHPHQL JCVL@L SH DSD 7LEUXOXL GH R·OXSRDLFC¨ VLJXU FC QHD LPSUHVLRQDW vQ VSHFLDO FaQG QL VH VSXQHFC L ·QRL¨ DP IL XQ IHO GH XUPDL DL ORU DU FKLDU VC ILP PaQGUL GHDFHDVWD 6C vQFHUFCP VC YHGHP DFHDVWC LVWRULRDUC FX DO@L RFKL5KHD 6LOYD ILLFD OXL ·1XPLWRUXO¨ 5HJH GH $OED /RQJD L WRWRGDWC RYHVWDOC YLUJLQC GLQ WHPSOXO OXL 0DUWH =HXO 5C]ERLXOXL
  66. 66. D UCPDV 27
  67. 67. JUDYLGC ·GLQ VHQLQ¨ FX ]HXO 0DUWH L D QCVFXW GRL JHPHQL LDUXQFKLXO HL $PXOLXV FDUH SDUH D QX IL FUH]XW PLQXQHD FX ]HXO
  68. 68. GCRUGLQ VHUYLWRULORU VCL DUXQFH SH EDVWDU]L vQ DSD 7LEUXOXL RXO FXFRSLLL HVWH JCVLW GH R /XSRDLFC WHUPHQ IRORVLW SH DWXQFL SHQWUXIHPHLOH GH PRUDYXUL XRDUH $D FC DSDUH PXOW PDL SODX]LELO FC RDVWIHO GH SHUVRDQC LD VDOYDW SH JHPHQL LDU FLREDQXO )DXVWXOXV LDFUHVFXW )DQWH]LLOH FX ]HXO 0DUWH QX OHD FUH]XW QLFL XQFKLXOQHIHULFLWHLGH FH DU WUHEXL VC OH FUHGHP QRL UHGH@L FC QRL URPaQLLDU WUHEXL VC QH FCXWCP R DVWIHO GH RULJLQH WULYLDOC ·3H GDFL vL RFXSDUC DFHL YLWHML URPDQL ‰L LDQYC@DW ODWLQD vQ FDP DQL C GDFLLQYC@DUC ODWLQD DD XRU 9H]L DVWD QX PC PLUC L ]LVDP œ%UDYR ORU  DU FCL XLWDUC OLPED YRFDEXODU vQWUHJ 9H]L GRPQXOH HX DVWD QRQ@HOHJ C XQ SRSRU vL SLHUGH WUHSWDW GLQ RELFHLXUL C vL PDL VFKLPEC SRUWXO DU IL QLVFDL WHPHLXUL DU FC vL XLWC OLPED H[HPSOX QXL VXE VRDUH HFaW DFHOH FD]XUL FaQG XQ SRSRU GLVSDUH ¨ /HJLXQLOH DUPDWH URPDQH DX RFXSDW QXPDL GLQ WHULWRULXODFLHL
  69. 69. L SHQWUX R SHULRDGC LVWRULFC IRDUWH VFXUWC GH H[DFW GH DQL G+
  70. 70. /D HL DFDVC vQ 3HQLQVXOD ,WDOLFC DYHPL DVWC]L GLDOHFWH FD FHO 7RVFDQ /RPEDUG DODEULDQ RUL 6DUGLQLDQFDUHL IDF VC QX VH vQ@HOHDJC vQWUH HL 0DL PXOW VXWHOH GH DOWHGLDOHFWH GLQ ,WDOLD VH HVWLPHD]C FC DU H[LVWD FLUFD
  71. 71. GRYHGHVFFC 3HQLQVXOD ,WDOLFC QX D IRVW ·URPDQL]DWC¨ DFDVC OD HD $VWIHO FXPVH H[SOLFC ·URPDQL]DUHD¨ QRDVWUC GH FCWUH FXFHULWRULL DFLHL XPVC QLL vQFKLSXLP SH @CUDQLL GDFL ORFXLQG SULQ YCL L PXQ@L GHDOXULL SCGXUL UHSH]LQGXVH VC vQYH@H ODWLQD ‰L QX QXPDL HL FHL GLQWHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH URPDQL GDU L GDFLL OLEHUL GLQ WHULWRULXQHRFXSDW GH URPDQL XP YC vQFKLSXL@L FC @CUDQLL GDFL FDUH QXDYHDX QLFL WH[WH GLF@LRQDUH SURIHVRUL FDLHWH VDX FUHLRDQH DX SXWXWvQYC@D DWaW GH ELQH ODWLQHWH vQFaW DX UHDOL]DW FHD PDL XQLWDUC OLPEC 28
  72. 72. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiODWLQC FXQRVFXWC SH FDUH ODWLQLL vQLL QX DX IRVW vQ VWDUH VRUHDOL]H]H QLFL PCFDU OD HL DFDVC vQ 3HQLQVXOD ,WDOLFC SaQC D]L FaQGDX OD GLVSR]L@LH XQ UHJLPHQW GH FCU@L GH JUDPDWLFC L PDWHULDOHDXGLRYLGHR
  73. 73. 1X DP GUHSWDWH VC PC UHYROW vPSRWULYD SURIHVRULORU FDUH VHPXO@XPHVF VC VH UH]XPH OD FHHD FH DX vQYC@DW VDX QDX vQYC@DW vQWLQHUH@HD ORU vPSRWULYD FHORU FDUH GLQ LQWHUHVH JHRSROLWLFHvQFHDUFC VC EDJH vQ FDSXO JHQHUD@LLORU DFHVWXL VHFRO FC DYHP R DOWCOLPEC L R DOWC RULJLQH GHFaW FHOH HYLGHQWH L UHDOH H FH VCDFFHSWCP WUDQVPLWHUHD QHWLLQ@HL SULQ WLLQ@C 2 VLWXD@LH VLPLODUC FX FHD GLQ ·,WDOLD0DPC¨ vQ SULYLQ@DQXPCUXOXL GH GLDOHFWH SRSXODUH VH vQWaOQHWH L vQ DOWH @CUL DOH(XURSHL )UDQ@D 6SDQLD 0DUHD %ULWDQLH L *HUPDQLD vQ FDUHORFXLWRULL FRPXQLFC vQWUH HL SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO OLPELL OLWHUDUH vQYC@DWHvQ FRDOC FHD YRUELWC DFDVC ICFaQGXL GH QHvQ@HOHV SHQWUX FRQD@LRQDOLL ORU VLWXD@L vQ DOWH FRO@XUL DOH @CULL 1XPDL vQ 5RPaQLDVLWXD@LD HVWH IXQGDPHQWDO GLIHULWC WRDWC SRSXOD@LD @CULL HVWHFDSDELOC VC FRPXQLFH SULQ OLPED vQVXLWC GH PLF FRSLO vQ IDPLOLH7RWRGDWC OLPED GHSULQVC DFDVC QX HVWH GLIHULWC GH FHD vQYD@DWC ODFRDOC 9RP vQFKHLD DFHDVWC GH]EDWHUH DQDOL]aQG R D GRXD vQWUHEDUHIXQGDPHQWDOC OD FDUH VH YUHD XQ UCVSXQV GLQ SDUWHD RULFCUXL DDQXPLW ·LVWRULF¨ L ·OLQJYLVW¨ OLSVLW GH FUHGLQ@C VDX EXQCYRLQ@C vQDFFHSWDUHD $GHYCUXOXL XP YC H[SOLFD@L FC URPDQLL DX UHXLW vQDSUR[LPDWLY GH DQL DIOD@L ILLQG OD NLORPHWUL GHSCUWDUH GH5RPD SHUIRUPDQ@H SH FDUH QX DX IRVW vQ VWDUH VC OH UHSURGXFC vQSURSULD ORU FDVC‰L DVWD ICUC FD SLFLRU GH URPDQ VC IL FCOFDW SHPDL PXOW GH GLQ WHULWRULXO DFLHL 1DLYL VC ILP VR FUHGHP 1RL XUPDLL 5RPHL 9C URJ ·$UGHDOXªD VWDW VXE 8QJXUL DSURDSH DQL R PLH ‰L DVXSUL@L 5RPaQLL DD SUHFXP VH WLH 1X LDX XLWDW QLFL JUDLXO QLFL RELFHL QLFL SRUWXO XP GHQ D ]HFHD SDUWH DFLL XLWDUC WRWXO¨ 29
  74. 74. $SDUL@LD L H[LVWHQ@D 8QJDULHL VD GDWRUDW FRQYLH@XLULL KXQLORUFX SRSXOD@LD SULPLWRDUH JHWRGDFC L FDUH LD vQYC@DW DJULFXOWXUD LSCVWRULWXO SRSXOD@LH FDUH DSRL D IRVW DVXSULWC L VIaUWHFDWC vQQXPHOH FDWROLFLVPXOXL 0XO@L DULVWRFUD@L URPaQL WUDQVLOYCQHQLSHQWUX DL VDOYD YLD@D L DYXWXO VDX FRQYHUWLW OD FDWROLFLVP L VDXPDJKLDUL]DW vQVC QDX XLWDW QLFL OLPED QLFL WUDGL@LLOH H FH DVWC]LQRL VC FUHGHP FC FH QDX SXWXW IDFH XQJXULL vQ R PLH GH DQL DX SXWXWIDFH URPDQLL vQ DSUR[LPDWLY XQ VHFRO L MXPCWDWH X DOWHFXYLQWH FXP SXWHP FUHGH FC DFHWLD LDX GHWHUPLQDW QX QXPDL SHGDFLL RFXSD@L GDU L SH FHL OLEHUL GLQ GLQ WHULWRULXO QHRFXSDW DODFLHL VC vQYH@H ·ODWLQD¨ L vQ DFHODL WLPS VCL XLWH SURSULDOLPEC ·aQG VXE 7UDLDQ 5RPDQLL LDX ELUXLW SH DFL /D 6DUPLVHJHWX]D QD WUHEXLW WCOPDFL $ILUPD HQVXLDQX L DVWD WRWXO VFKLPEC HFL DFLL L 5RPDQLL YRUEHDX DFHHDL OLPEC XP H SRVLELO DVWD ¿QGDWC YC H[SOLF H QD@L SLHUGXW UCEGDUHD L PDVFXOWD@L XQ SLF ©1DLQWHD HUHL QRDVWUH FaW QX SUHD WLX SUHFLV /D 1RUG L 6XG GH ,VWUX GH +HURGRW H VFULV
  75. 75. 7UCLD XQ SRSRU KDUQLF SH SODLXUL DUSDWLQH H FXOWLYD SCPaQWXO YaQD FUHWHD DOELQH ‰L GXSC ]RQDQ FDUH DFHL RDPHQL WUCLDX (L DFL VDX *H@L VDX ,OLUL VDX vQWUXQ FXYaQW 7UDFL VH QXPHDX 8QL@L VXE %XUHELVWD LDSRL VXE HFHEDO (L VWCYLOHDX EDUEDULL FH YHQHDX YDO GH YDO DU VHFROHªQDLQWH FaQG QX HUDX UHJDW 2 SDUWHDFHVWRU 7UDFL VSUH 9HVW DX HPLJUDW HD OXQJXO (XURSHL SHDORFXUL VDX RSULW ‰LDSURDSH vQ WRW 6XGXO WUHSWDW VDX VWDELOLW ,DU EXQHOH RELFHLXUL L OLPED R SCVWUDUC HL FX DOWH QHDPXUL vQ WLPS VHQFUXFLDUC $D VH H[SOLFC IDSWXO GH FH ]LVD /DWLQC 30
  76. 76. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei $X vQ@HOHVR DFLL L QX OHUD VWUCLQC HFL QX FX 5RPDªQFHSH DO QRVWªERJDW WUHFXW L PXOW PDL vQDLQWH FCXWD@L XQ vQFHSXW ¨ ¿Q FRQIRUPLWDWH FX 1 HQVXLDQX vQ ·DFLD 3UHLVWRULFC¨ L1 ,RUJD vQ ·,VWRULD 5RPaQLORU¨ vQ PRG VSHFLDO FDSLWROXO LQWLWXODW·6WUCPRLL vQDLQWH GH URPDQL¨ DFHVWD GLQ XUPC DILUPC FC D H[LVWDW R·5RPaQLH $SXVHDQC¨ GLQ FDUH VDX GHVICFXW QD@LLOH IUDQFH]C LWDOLDQCVSDQLROC SRUWXJKH]C L R ·5RPaQLH 5CVCULWHDQC¨ XQGH XUPHOHLWUCLHVF vQFC¨ 7RW 1 ,RUJD VSXQH ·( R GDWRULH VDFUC D ILHFCUXL URPaQVC LD FXQRVWLQ@C GH LVWRULD VD L VCL LXEHDVFC QHDPXO¨ 8Q DVSHFW FRQWURYHUVDW FDUH PL VH SDUH FC D IRVW LJQRUDW DU ILGDFC ·5RPDQLWDWHD 2FFLGHQWDOC¨ D HYROXDW GaQG QDWHUH OD PDLPXOWH OLPEL URPDQLFH LWDOLDQD ODWLQD VSDQLROD SURYHQVDODSRUWXJKH]D IUDQFH]D
  77. 77. GH FH vQ FDGUXO ·5RPDQLWC@LL 2ULHQWDOH¨ QXVD DMXQV OD IRUPDUHD XQRU OLPEL QRL FL QXPDL VWDGLXO GH GLDOHFWHLVWURURPaQ SH WHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH LXJRVODYL
  78. 78. PHJOHQRURPaQ SHWHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH EXOJDUL
  79. 79. DURPaQ SH WHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH JUHFL
  80. 80. GDFRURPaQ 5RPaQLD GH DVWC]L SOXV WHULWRULXO RFXSDW GH UXLXFUDLQHQL FaW L SH FHO RFXSDW GH LXJRVODYL DDQXPLWXO %DQDW6aUEHVF
  81. 81. 8QLWDWHD OLQJYLVWLFC D DFHVWRU GLDOHFWH QX SRDWH DYHD GHFaW RH[SOLFD@LH FXFHULWRULL URPDQL DX vQWaOQLW R SRSXOD@LH GH DFHHDLOLPEC DFC DVWC]L VH FRQVLGHUC FC GLQ FXQRWLQ@HOHDFXPXODWH GH RPHQLUH VXQW RE@LQXWH vQ XOWLPLL GH DQL VCYHGHP FXP LVWRULD VH SRDWH GH DVHPHQL VFKLPED aQG QX GHPXOW VD SXEOLFDW WHRULD HYROX@LHL VSHFLHL XPDQH vQ IXQF@LH GHYHFKLPHD FURPR]RPDOC VD DMXQV OD FRQFOX]LD FC ·SULPD IHPHLH¨DU IL DSCUXW vQ VXGHVWXO $IULFLL 8UPCWRUXO SDV XULD DU IL IRVWQRUGXO (JLSWXOXL LDU GH DLFL 3HQLQVXOD %DOFDQLFC OD QRL aQGFHL GH OD DPEULGJH YRUEHDX GH DULHQLL GLQ ]RQD DUSDWRXQCUHDQC WHRULD FURPR]RPDOC QX DSCUXVH vQFC ‰L GLQ QRX GH ODQRL VH GHVSULQG GRXC PDUL JUXSXUL XQXO FH VH YD UCVSaQGL VSUH (VW,QGR$VLD LDU FHOCODOW VSUH YHVWXO (XURSHL 31
  82. 82. DFC FLQHYD DU FCXWD vQ DUKLYHOH URPDQH RUL FHOH GH OD 9DWLFDQDU JCVL SRDWH PDQXVFULVXO GRFWRUXOXL OXL 7UDLDQ ULWRQ FDUH QHGHVFULD SH QRL JHWRGDFLL $SDUHQW HO DU IL XQXO FDUH DX]LQG OLPEDYRUELWC GH GDFL DU IL H[FODPDW ·VXQW DFHWLD GDFL
  83. 83. URPDQL¨ L GHDWXQFL DP SULPLW QXPHOH GH ·URPaQL¨ DU VLJXU YRP IL FXQRVFX@LVXE QXPHOH GH URPaQL GXSC DQXO G+ FaQG VXQWHP SDU@LDOFXFHUL@L GH URPDQL L ·XQLILFD@L¨ GH DFHWLD SHQWUX H[DFW GH DQL0DL PXOW FaQG SRHWXO URPDQ 2YLGLX D IRVW H[LODW OD 7RPLVRQVWDQ@D GH DVWC]L SH @CUPXO DSXVHDQ DO 0CULL 1HJUH
  84. 84. D VFULV LSRHPH vQ OLPED ORFDOQLFLORU JHWRGDFL OLPED WUDFLORU GDU vQ DOIDEHWODWLQ OLPED SH FDUH D SXWXW VC R vQYH@H FX XXULQ@C GDWRULWCDVHPCQCULL OLPELL ODWLQH FX HD LQ SCFDWH SRHPXO HVWH SLHUGXW SHXQGHYD SULQ DUKLYHOH 9DWLFDQXOXL L QLPHQL SaQC vQ SUH]HQW QX VDOCVDW ·FRQYLQV¨ vQ DO JCVL 2GDWC VWDELOLWC SUREOHPD OLPELL JHWRGDFLORU GHVFRSHULP FXPaQGULH FC QRL QX VXQWHP XUPDL QLFL DL VODYLORU QLFL DL URPDQLORUFL HL VXQW XUPDLL QRWUL XSC 1 ,RUJD DQDOL]HOH FKLPLFH DX DUCWDW FC PDL PXOW GH GLQ DXUXO IDUDRQLORU HJLSWHQL SURYLQH GLQ 0XQ@LL $SXVHQL LQLPHQL QX VD GHFLV GH DWXQFL VC IDFC XQ VWXGLX SH PCVXUDSRWHQ@LDOXOXL WHKQLF GH DVWC]L ‰WLH RDUH FLQHYD FC 6SDUWDFXV DFHOJODGLDWRU FDUH VD DXWRHOLEHUDW L VD SXV vQ IUXQWHD VXWHORU L PLLORUGH VFODYL URPDQL FUHaQG R DUPDWC FDUH D VSHULDW 5RPD HUD XQ WUDFGHDO QRVWUX GLQ PXQ@LL 5RGRSL 32
  85. 85. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei R`SPANDIREA PELASGILOR (A TRACO-GETO-DACILOR)+ HURGRW DUCWD FC ·GXSC LQGLHQL QHDPXO WUDFLORU HVWH FHO PDL QXPHURV GLQWUH WRDWH SRSRDUHOH¨ 6C QH RSULP SX@LQ DVXSUD DFHVWXL DVSHFW GXSC ORFDOL]DUHD ORUJHRJUDILFC vQFHS VC VH GHVSULQGC JHWRGDFLL SULQ SULPXO PLOHQLXO?G+ OD QRUG GH ,VWUX XQCUH
  86. 86. LOLULL ]RQD $OEDQLHL GH DVWC]L
  87. 87. UDPDQLL EHVVLL HWF 1H UCVSaQGLP WUHSWDW vQ WRDWC (XURSD L vQWRDWC 3HQLQVXOD %DOFDQLFC SH FDUH R VWCSaQLP SHQWUX VXWH L VXWHGH DQL ¿Q ]RQHOH 0CULL 7UDFLFH (JHH
  88. 88. D LQVXOHORU HL FXP HVWHUHWD L D $VLHL 0LQRU 7XUFLD GH DVWC]L
  89. 89. DSDU FXOWXUL FD FHOHPLQRPLFHQLHQH *UHFLL ·SULHWHQLL QRWUL KHOHQL¨ GH PDLWaU]LXFXP OH SODFH VCL VSXQC VRVHVF vQ (XURSD GLQ ]RQD HVWLFCD 0CULL DVSLFH vQ MXUXO DQLORU ?G+ ILLQG LQL@LDO RSRSXOD@LH WULEDOC QRPDGC 6RVHVF vQ JUXSXUL PLFL ·vQDO@L EORQ]L¨FXP vL GHVFULH PDUHOH SRHW DQWLF RUE
  90. 90. +RPHU XUPD@L GHDQL PDL WaU]LX GH RULHQL FDUHL VXEMXJC SH SULPLL LDU DSRLWULEXULOH $HROLHQH L ,RQLFH 7R@L DFHWLD vL JCVHVF ·FDVD LGHDOC¨ ODQRL vQ 3HQLQVXOD %DOFDQLFC vPSLQJaQGXQH VSUH 1RUG9HVWXO HLL QXPLQGXQH PDL WaU]LX PDFHGRQL LOLUL JH@L GDFL GXSC ORFXULOHvQ FDUH WUCLDP vQ FLXGD OLPELL FRPXQH YRUELWH 2GDWC SCWUXQL vQVSD@LXO %DOFDQLF LQYDGDWRULL JUHFL DIOD@L OD vQFHSXWXO VWDGLXOXL GHFLYLOL]D@LH VH LPSXQ FX GXULWDWH DVXSUD SRSXOD@LHL ORFDOH GLVWUXJDH]CULOH HJHHQH SHQWUX FD PDL WaU]LX VC DEVRDUEC PDMRULWDWHDFXOWXULL ORFDOH (L vPSUXPXWC PXOW GLQ FXOWXUD HJHHQLORU D PLQRPLFHQLHQLORU L D HJLSWHQLORU vQWHPHLQGXL R FXOWXUC SURSULH FHDJUHFHDVFC FDUH VH YD UCVSaQGL vQ (XURSD 1X QXPDL FXOWXUD DX 33
  91. 91. 9ROJD 0$5($ 0$5($ %$/7,• 1258/8, $6,$ 2($18/ $7/$17, 21 9ROJD 3(/$6*,$ 3(/$6*,$ 3(/$6*,$ 0$5($ ( ( ( $63,• $6785,$ 9(67 (1758 0$5($ *(7,•1($*5• (67 0(62327$0,$34 3(/$6*,$ /$ $32*(8/ 1(2/,7, 0$5($ 0(,7(5$1• ¿G+
  92. 92. GH]YROW³QGXVH ¿Q GLUHFÎLL RULJLQDOH ¿Q FHOH WUHL DULL 3(/$6*,$ ( 9(67 3(/$6*,$ ( (1758 3(/$6*,$ 2/ (8523($1 ,9,/,6$7,21
  93. 93. ŒL 3(/$6*,$ ( (67 V´JHÎLOH LQGLF´ SULPD ŒL XOWLPD PDUH PLJUDÎLH GLQ (XURSD ¿Q YUHPHD FDWDFOLVPXOXL JHRFOLPDWHULF ŒL WHFWRQLF GH OD FXPS´QD PLOHQLLORU 9,, ŒL 9, ¿G+ )LJ 3HODVJLD OD ·DSRJHXO QHROLWLF¨ vQWUH RUL]RQWXULOH DQLORU vG+ $FHODL GRPQ 7DWRPLUHVFX QH VSXQH ·$QGUH /HURL*RXUKDQ D IRVW XQXO GLQ SULPLL SUHLVWRULFLHQL FH DX HYLGHQ@LDW H[WUDRUGLQDUD XQLWDWH D FRQ@LQXWXOXL ILJXUDWLY SHUPDQHQ@D SHUVLVWHQ@D FRQWLQXLWDWHD UHSUH]HQWCULORU vQ VSD@LX L WLPS GLQ $VWXULD SaQC OD RQ XQLWDWH FXOWXUDOC DSDU@LQaQG L XQHL XQLWC@L GHPRJUDILFH GLQ FDUH VDX LYLW vQ ]RULL LVWRULHL (XURSHQLL3HODVJLL $UKDLFL SHODVJL RDPHQLL SCPaQWXOXLORFXOXL
  94. 94. XQLWDWH FH D DQWUHQDW SULQ PLOHQLL L 2 /,0%n 2081n SHODVJLFDž GLYHUVLILFaQGXVH JHRJUDILF OLQJYLVWLF GH OD XQ PLOHQLX OD DOWXO HYROXaQG L UHvQIORULQG vQGHRVHEL vQ YUHPHD ,PSHULXOXL 5RPDQ vQ GLUHF@LL RULJLQDOH FH VH vQIC@LHD]C D]L GUHSW IDPLOLD OLPEL ORU URPDQLFH¨ DLHWHOH DFR5RPaQLHL DQXO ,,, QU VHSW GHF (G $HWKLFXV 7LPLRDUD 5RPaQLD
  95. 95. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeivPSUXPXWDWR GDU L VFULHUHD DOIDEHWXO GDFC ·/LQHDU 6FULSW $¨LQFRPSOHW GHVFLIUDW vQFC PDL SCVWUHD]C FDUDFWHUXO KLHURJOLILF·/LQHDU 6FULSW %¨ UHSUH]LQWC XQ GLDOHFW DUKDLF JUHF SHQWUX FD GH DQL PDL WaU]LX VC JCVLP FHD PDL WLPSXULH VFULHUH FODVLFC·JUHFHDVFC¨ $VWC]L QLFL XQ JUHF QX DU UHFXQRDWH PHULWXOHJLSWHQLORU FXP GH DOWIHO DO@L KR@L GH PDL WaU]LX UXLL FX DMXWRUXOFHORU GRL JUHFL FX QXPH VODYH KLULO L 0HWRGLX YRU WUDQVIRUPDDOIDEHWXO HOHQLF vQ FKLULOLF LQWURGXV PDL DSRL OD WR@L VODYLL $SDUL@LD URPDQLORU D FRQGXV LQGLUHFW OD XQLILFDUHD DFHVWRUSHODVJL WUDFL LOLUL GDFL JH@L WLEDOL L RGU FDUH LDX OXDW QXPHOHVSXQ XQLL GXSC QXPHOH 5RPHL XQLILFDWRDUH XSC FXP VH YHGHQLPHQL QX SRDWH VSXQH H[DFW FaQG L FXP QHDP FCSCWDW QXPHOHGH URPaQL 0DUHD PDMRULWDWH D SRSRDUHORU EDUEDUH FDUH QH DWDFCVDX QH WUDYHUVHD]C VXQW vQ QXPCU PLF ILLQG UHVSLQVH RUL DEVRUELWHICUC D OCVD LQIOXHQ@H GHRVHELWH SaQC vQ VHFROXO DO 9,OHD G+ FaQGVRVHVF VODYLL 3RSRU EDUEDU FUXG L QHPLORV FDUH GXSC LQVXFFHVXOGH OD QRUGXO XQCULL VH DD]C vQ VXGXO DFHVWHLD L vQ IHOXO DFHVWDQH YRU GHVSCU@L SHQWUX WRWGHDXQD SULQWUXQ ·FRULGRU VODY¨ GH IUD@LLQRWUL GH OD VXGXO XQCULL FDUH VH YRU JCVL FD vQWUXQ IHO GHVDQGZLFK vQWUH JUHFL L VODYL 0DL H[LVWCP L DVWC]L SULQ DFHVWHORFXUL LVWURURPaQLL IRDUWH SX@LQL OD QXPCU
  96. 96. SULQ DULD LXJRVODYRFURDWC PHJOHQRURPaQLL VXE EXOJDUL L DURPaQLL vQFC vQ QXPCUPDUH
  97. 97. VXE JUHFL XSC vQFHUFCUL QHUHXLWH GH DVLPLODUH IRU@DWC LDVWC]L GXSC DSURDSH GH DQL GH RFXSD@LH PDFHGRQHQLL QXLDX VFKLPEDW QLFL OLPED QLFL SRUWXO LDU OLPED VDX ·GLDOHFWXO¨FXP vO QXPHVF HL vQVXL QXO SRW vQWHOHJH QLFL JUHFLL QLFL EXOJDULLRUL LXJRVODYLL FL QXPDL QRL URPaQLL H FH $SURDSH WR@L DYHPSULHWHQL RUL FXQRVFX@L PDFHGRQHQL L GDFC QX LD@L vQWUHEDW RSXWH@L IDFH DFXP vQWUHED@LL GH ·GLDOHFW¨ L YH@L UCPaQH XLPL@L GHVLPLODULWDWHD OXL FX OLPED URPaQC /LPED ORU HVWH FHD PDL YHFKHL PDL ELQH SCVWUDWC ILLQG GH IDSW OLPED SHODVJLFC WUDFLFC VDXGDFLFC GXSC FXP YUH@L VC R QXPL@L L FDUH HVWH L OLPED QRDVWUC‰L GDFC QH PDL DPLQWLP FC vQ XUPC FX GH DQL $OH[DQGUXUHJH DO 0DFHGRQLHL HUD UHVSLQV OD -RFXULOH 2OLPSLFH SH PRWLY FC 35
  98. 98. QX HUD JUHF L FC OXL $OH[DQGUX 0DFHGRQ OD YaUVWD GH DQLSCULQ@LL LDX DGXV FD SURIHVRU SH $ULVWRWHO FDUH HUD JUHF GXSC WDWCL PDFHGRQ GXSC PDPC
  99. 99. FD VCO vQYH@H OLPED FLYLOL]D@LHL GHDWXQFL HOHQD FXP SXWHP FUHGH FC $OH[DQGUX 0DFHGRQ FCUXLDPDL WaU]LX L VD VFKLPEDW QXPHOH vQ $OH[DQGUX FHO 0DUH L D IRVWvQURODW vQ 3DQWKHRQXO JUHF FD HURX D IRVW JUHF $FHDVWC SCUHUH DVXSUD RULJLQLL L ORFXOXL PDFHGRQHQLORU QXR vPSCUWCHVF QXPDL HX FL L DO@LL FXP DU IL 5DPRQG %RQQHUFDUH vQ ·7KH 1HZ RN 7LPHV¨ GLQ PDL SXEOLFD XQDUWLFRO GHVSUH 0DFHGRQLD ·3CPaQW FDUH QX SRDWH DYHD XQ QXPH§·7KH /DQG WKDW DQªW %H 1DPHG¨
  100. 100. DFHVWD ILLQG DGMXGHFDW GHFCWUH EXOJDUL JUHFL L VaUEL %RQQHU VSXQHD GHVSUH $OH[DQGUX0DFHGRQ FC RULFH DU IL IRVW QXPDL JUHF QX 3DUDGR[DO VLQJXULLFDUH QX VDX LPSOLFDW vQ DGMXGHFDUHD 0DFHGRQLHL DX IRVW ·IUD@LL¨ORU GLQ QRUG DGLFC QRL URPaQLL FDUH vQ SOXV DSURDSHvQWRWGHDXQD LDP QHJOLMDW L DEDQGRQDW ‰L WRWXL vQ RGHOHJD@LH URPaQC FDUH D YL]LWDW $OEDQLD D GHFLV GH FRPXQ DFRUGFX JXYHUQXO DOEDQH] VC GHVFKLGC SHQWUX SRSXOD@LD PDFHGRQHDQC ORFDOC ELVHULFL URPaQH L FROL FX SUHGDUH vQ OLPED URPaQC 6C QX XLWCP FC vQ *UHFLD vQ SHULRDGD DQWHEHOLFC vQ0DFHGRQLD H[LVWDX ELVHULFL L FROL URPaQHWL FDUH PDL WaU]LX DXIRVW DUVH L GLVWUXVH LDU SRSXOD@LD ORFDOC DURPaQLL FXP VH QXPHVFHL vQLL
  101. 101. D IRVW SHUVHFXWDWC FKLQXLWC FKLDU RPRUaWC XQLL UHXLQG VCVFDSH IXJLQG vQ 5RPaQLD DO@LL FKLDU vQ $PHULFD XQGHL SRYHVWHVFL DVWC]L QHFD]XULOH WUHFXWXOXL 6C ILP QRL RDUH GHVFHQGHQ@LL GLUHF@L DL SRSRUXOXL SHODVJLFWUDF GDF XQ SRSRU EOHVWHPDW‰L DVWC]L XFUDLQHQLL L UXLL YRU VCQH IDFC VC XLWCP FLQH VXQWHP DFROR OD QRL DFDVC vQ %XFRYLQD ’DUD+HU@HL %DVDUDELD L %XFHDJ XQGH SRSXOD@LHL URPaQH L VH VSXQH FCQX VXQW ·URPaQL¨ FL R QD@LH VODYC YRUELQG R OLPEC VODYC PROGRYHQHDVFC aQG RDUH QH YRP GH]GRL JHQXQFKLL L YRP VWD vQSLFLRDUH GUHS@L QRL GDFRURPaQLL GLQ 5RPaQLD %DVDUDELD%XFRYLQD ’LQXWXO +HU@HL %DQDWXO 6aUEHVF %XFHDJ DGULODWHU GLQ 36
  102. 102. 0$5($ 1258/8, 2($18/ $7/$17, R F 0$5($ *(7,œ1($*5œ S 0$5($ 0(,7(5$1œ37 3(/$6*,$ $5+$,• ¿G+
  103. 103. , $5,$ $5+$,• $ /,0%,, 3(/$6*(3(/$6*,( %$=• $ /,0%,/25 520$1,( 63$1,$ (/ $67,//2 29$/$1$6 )5$1¯$ 1,$8; /$6$8; /$ 0287+( 520”1,$ 5818 32/295$*, ,2$5$ S +25826 ( /$ 3(1$ /$ +$=$ F 3$,51213$,5 752,6)5(5(6 R %2527(1,*25-
  104. 104. 62+22/ 3(6$5, 0$5628/$6 )217(*$80( HWF /,0$180$1*$/,$ HWF (/ 3,12$/ $/ 3(5$ HWF 3HODVJLD DUKDLFC L DULD OLPELL SHODVJH ?QWUH RUL]RQWXULOH DQLORU L ?G+ )LJ 3HODVJLFD DUKDLFC L DULD OLPELL SHODVJH vQWUH RUL]RQWXULOH DQLORU L ?G+ ·H OD $WODQWLF L SaQC OD RQ L 0DUHD *HWLFC 0DUHD 1HDJUC
  105. 105. D H[LVWDW R LPSUHVLRQDQWC DULH FXOWXUDOC R VXEOLPC XQL WDWH GH PDQLIHVWDUH VSLULWXDOCOLQJYLVWLFC GH OD ·DQVXO¨ EL]RQLORU GLQ VDQFWXDUXOSHWHUC GH OD $OWDPLUD 6SDQLD
  106. 106. VDX GH OD )URQWGH *DXPH )UDQ@D
  107. 107. OD )HOLQD GH ILOGH GH OD 3DYORY HKLD
  108. 108. OD 3DQWHUD FDL L ·DYDOHU XFLV¨ GLQ VDQFWXD UXOSHWHUC GH OD XFLXODW vHQ GLQ 5RPaQLD
  109. 109. RUL OD *DLHQ DWDF GLQ VDQFWXDUXO SHWHULL *DXUD KLQGLHL vHQ5RPaQLD
  110. 110. ¨ DD QH VSXQH vQ ·DLHWHOH DFR5RPaQLHL¨ ,RQ 3DFKLD 7DWRPLUHVFX DLHWHOH DFR5RPaQLHL $QXO ,,,QU GHF PDUWLH (GLWXUD $HWKLFXV 7LPLRDUD 5RPaQLD
  111. 111. 3RFX@LD L 8QJDULD GLQ WRDWC 0DFHGRQLD SHQWUX D QH SURWHMDGUHSWXULOH 1XPDL XPQH]HX WLH 6C YHGHP FXP DUDWC OLPED PDFHGRQHDQC vQ FRPSDUD@LH FXOLPED URPaQC 3HQWUX DFHDVWD DP DOHV XQ FaQWHF YHFKL DURPaQFRPSXV FX PXOW vQDLQWH FD %ROLQWLQHDQX VC SXEOLFH ·0XPD OXL‰WHIDQ HO 0DUH¨LDOHFW DURPaQPDFHGRQHDQ 7UDGXFHUH vQ URPkQHWH DULQªL EDWL QRDSWHD LQHPL EDWH QRDSWHD /D ILULGD PHD PRL /D IHUHDVWUD PHD PCL ,R KLXD PXDWD 0DULRDUD (X VXQW IUXPRDVC 0CULRDUC 1XQªL WLDVSLUHD PRL 1X WH VSHULD PCL 6FRDO DSULQGªL ODPSD 6FRDOªGHDSULQGH ODPSD 6WL YHGXD IDWD WD 6C@L YCG ID@D WD )DWD WD WHD DOEDURVL )D@D WD FHD DOEC URLH D WUDQGDILOD D GH WUDQGDILU%LEOLRJUDILH *DEULHO *KHRUJKH ·/LQJYLVWLFD ,VWRULD GHILOHH GH HURUL¨ vQ *HWLFD S 0DUMLD *LPEXWDV ·LYLOL]D@LD L FXOWXUD¨ (G 0HULGLDQH %XFXUHWL S L I *DEULHO *KHRUJKH ·¿Q YHFKLPH )UDQ@D D IRVW URPDQRIRQC¨ vQ *HWLFD S (- 5DSVRQ (G ·7KH DPEULGJH +LVWRU RI ,QGLD¨ DPEULGJH 8QLY 3UHVV DPEULGJH YRO , S I I *DEULHO *KHRUJKH ·¿Q YHFKLPH )UDQ@D D IRVW URPDQRIRQC¨ vQ *HWLFD S 1LFRODH HQVXLDQX ·DFLD 3UHLVWRULFC¨ (G 0HULGLDQH %XFXUHWL S 1LFRODH ,RUJD ,VWRULD URPkQLORU YRO ;;; SDUWHD , %XFXUHWL S 9H]L QRWD 1LFRODH HQVXLDQX RS FLW YRO , 3DUWHD , S 1LFRODH ,RUJD RS FLW YRO , 3DUWHD , S ·KURQLFOH RI WKH :RUOG¨ (FUDP 3XEOLFDWLRQV 3UHQWLFH +DOO S 38
  112. 112. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei BUREBISTA XSC FH YDP SXUWDW FX LPDJLQD@LD SHVWH (8523$ 35(,6725,n SRYHVWLQGXYC GHVSUH VWUCPRLL QRWUL vQGHSCUWD@L SHODVJLL WUDFL JH@L GDFL QXPL@L DVWIHO QXGXSC OLPED YRUELWC FDUH HUD DFHHDL SHODVJLFD VDX LQFRUHFW QXPLWCODWLQD EDUEDUC FL GXSC ORFDOL]DUHD ORU JHRJUDILFC FXP L D]L QRLURPaQLL PDL VXQWHP QXPL@L PROGRYHQL UHJC@HQL YODKL ECQC@HQLGREURJHQL RUL PDFHGRQHQL
  113. 113. YRL vQFHSH VC YLL GHVFULX SH XQLL GLQDFHLD FDUH DX DYXW DWXQFL XQ LPSDFW vQ YLLWRUXO QRVWUX GH D]L YRLvQFHSH FX %85(%,67$ FHO PDL PDUH GLQWUH UHJLL 75$,(, FDUH VDQCVFXW FDP SH OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL , ?G+ OD PDL PXOW GH GH DQL GH OD SUCEXLUHD 0$5(/8, ,03(5,8 3(/$6*, DWXQFLFaQG OXPHD DQWLFC HUD GRPLQDWC GH ,PSHULXO 5RPDQ %XUHELVWD vLSURSXQH L UHDOL]HD]C UHXQLILFDUHD SRSXOD@LHL WUDFLFH vQ FDUH UROXOOLPELL L UHOLJLHL FRPXQH SCJaQH DX FRQVWLWXLW XQ PLMORF SXWHUQLF GHQHvQWUHUXSWC OHJCWXUC D XQLWC@LL L IUC@LHL vQWUH WRDWH SaOFXULOH QHDPXOXLQRVWUX ICUaPL@DW SaQC OD (/ %XUHELVWD D XQLW QHDPXULOH vQWURvPSCUC@LH UHVSHFWDWC DLFL vQ (1758/ L 5n6n5,78/ (8523(,vQWLQ]aQGXL KRWDUHOH GH OD SCGXUHD +HUFLQLFD 0RUDYLD GH D]L
  114. 114. SaQCOD %XJ L GLQ DUSD@LL 1RUGLFL SaQC OD VXG GH %DOFLF LRQVRSROLV
  115. 115. 1XPHOH DGHYDUDW DO OXL %XUHELVWD VD SLHUGXW XQGHYD SULQ YHDFXUL GDULQWHOLJHQ@D SXWHUHD L YLWHMLD OXL vQ OXSWC DYHDX VCL DGXFC PHULWDWXOQXPH GH %8(5(%8,67$6 DUHHUDFDUHHVWHQX
  116. 116. vQVHDPQC·1HPDLSRPHQLWXO¨ ·XP QX D PDL IRVW L QX PDL HVWH¨ 0RQHGH GHVFRSHULWH GLQ YUHPHD OXL vQ 7UDQVLOYDQLD QLOvQIC@LHD]C SH DFHVW UHJH DO UHJLORU FX GRXC FDSHWH VLPEROL]aQGWUHFXWXO L SUH]HQWXO ,QVFULS@LLOH GH SH PRQHGH VXQW vQ OLPEDWUDFLFC ·ODWLQD YXOJDUC¨ 6$50,6 9$6,/ HO 0DL 0DUH 5HJH 1XPHOH VR@LHL OXL =,1$ vPSCUCWHDVD L PDUHD SUHRWHDVC DWUDFLORU VD JCVLW WRW SH GRXC PRQHGH GLQ 7UDQVLOYDQLD $OW QXPH DO 39
  117. 117. )LJ 6DQFWXDU GUHSWXQJKLXODU GH [ WDPEXUXUL GH JUDQLW DQGH]LW
  118. 118. GH OD 6DUPLVHJHWXVD (XPC JUCEHVFVC FXUJ VDQVNULWC
  119. 119. H IDSW OD 6DUPLVHJHWXVD VDX GHVFRSHULW SDWUX VDQFWXDUH GUHSWXQJKLXODUH OD QLYHOXO LQIHULRU XQ VDQFWXDU GH [ WDPEXUXUL DYkQG LQFOXVH vQWUH HOH vQWUR SR]L@LH ORQJLWXGLQDOC L FHQWUDOC VLPHWULF vQ UDSRUW FX FHQWUXO VDQFWXDUXOXL vQFC WDPEXUXUL PDL PDUL FD GLDPHWUX L VXSUDvQCO@DWH OD QLYHOXO PHGLX XQGH VH DIOC L VDQFWXDUHOH FLUFXODUH DOCWXUL GH GLVFXO GH DQGH]LW DO OXL $SOR VXQW vQFC GRXC VDQFWXDUH XQXO GH [ L DOWXO GH [ OD QLYHOXO VXSHULRU JCVLP XQXO GH [ WDPEXUXUL )LJ XSC 6 %REDQFX 6DPRLOC ( 3RHQDUX WDPEXU DQ GDFLF oQ IHOXO DFHVWD VDQFWXDUXO GH [ WDPEXUXUL HVWH SXUWCWRUXO XQHL SHULRDGH GH WLPS WLSLFH GDFLORU SHULRDGD GH GH DQL
  120. 120. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiOXL FX vQ@HOHVXO GH VWCSaQ DEVROXW DO WUDFLORU ·3$9(/7(5¨6ICWXLWRUXO OXL 0DUHOH 3UHRW HFHQHX LD LQVWUXLW SH WUDFL VC WUCLDVFCSRWULYLW FX OHJLOH 1DWXULL FXQRVFXWH SaQC D]L FD ·/HJLOH %HODJLQHV¨ 6HSDUH FC vQ WLPSXO OXL %XUHELVWD VD GHFLV FD DQXO , VC ILH DQXO FaQG VDXQCVFXW FHL GRL =DOPR[LV ?G+ LDU DQXO UHIRUPHORU SROLWLFHUHOLJLRDVH DSDUH SH WRW IHOXO GH LQVFULS@LL GH SH WRW WHULWRULXO SHODVJLFFD ·666¨
  121. 121. VDX ·¨ JUHFHVF
  122. 122. RUL ·9,9,9,¨ ODWLQ
  123. 123. ‰L QX SRW VC QX DPLQWHVF L UXJCFLXQHD XQHL IHPHL JHWH=DOPR[LHQH JCVLWC SH R SODFC GH PDUPXUC OD 7RPLV FRQ@LQaQG LXQ $5267,+ GRYHGLQG vQFC R GDWC PDUHOH UDILQDPHQW DWLQVGH JHWRGDFL GXSC $ %XFXUHVFX
  124. 124. $5(/,$ , 675n/8,72$5( %(1(5,$ , 85$7n 60 )252 , 0n5($’$ 2$01n 61 ,2 , 6817 5(,1,2$6n 61 =( 6$6( 75, , 6817 8 75(, ( ‰$6( .$, 7(7+, *$75, , $5 $7c7 7( 52* $5,6 121$0 , c19$ 6n 0n $-8’, 1,$6+$5,$1 , 6n 5(1$6 DU FLWLQG GRDU SULPHOH OLWHUH DSDUH ·$% 666 .$1¨ ·X GH DQL¨ DFHVWD ILLQG VHPQXO OD FDUH VH vQFKLQDX FHL vQWRUL ODDGHYCUDWD UHOLJLH VHPQ FH VH SXUWD SH PaQD GUHDSWC VDX SH IUXQWH 5HHGLQ@D LQL@LDOD D UHJHOXL $UJHGDYD VDX 6DUJHGDYD
  125. 125. HVWHORFDOL]DWC SH XQGHYD SH OD RVWHWL GHDOXULOH 2UCWLHL
  126. 126. 3ULQFLSDOXODMXWRU DO UHJHOXL WUDF GH DWXQFL HUD ((1(8 PDUHOH SUHRW FDUHGXSC FH D IRVW SHQWUX R SHULRDGC GH WLPS vQ (JLSW LQL@LLQGXL SH SUHR@LLHJLSWHQL vQ WDLQHOH VDFHUGRWDOH SHODVJLFH UHYLQH vQ *HWLD *RWLDGXSCSRYHVWLUHD LVWRULFXOXL RVWURJRW ,RUGDQHV
  127. 127. GHYHQLQG HIXO VXSUHP DOVSLULWXDOLWC@LL WUDFLFH UHXLQG vPSUHXQC FX %XUHELVWD VCL XQHDVFC SHWUDFL DWaW PLOLWDU FaW L VSLULWXDO %XUHELVWD vL vQGHDPQC VXSXLL OD·DEVWLQHQ@C VREULHWDWH L DVFXOWDUH GH SRUXQFL¨ QRXO PRG GH YLD@CILLQG SURSDJDW GLQWUXQ FHQWUX VSLULWXDO QXPLW GH 6WUDERQ ·0XQWHOH6IaQW¨ OHJHQGDUXO .2*$,21 FDUH GXSC $GULDQ %XFXUHVFX GLQ·DFLD 6HFUHWC¨ DU IL XQGHYD vQ PXQ@LL %XFHJL OaQJC ·6ILQ[XO5RPaQHVF¨ GHRDUHFH .2*$,21 vQVHDPQC L ·DSXO 0DJQLILFXOXL¨FX WRDWH DVWHD D]L PXO@L DUKHRORJL ORFDOL]HD]C OHJHQGDUXO .RJDLRQ 41
  128. 128. 42 )LJ 9HGHUH GH DQVDPEOX D VDQFWXDUHORUFDOHQGDU UHFRQVWLWXLUH SH PDFKHWC OD VFDUC
  129. 129. 6XE DVSHFW FRQVWUXFWLY VH SRW YHGHD 0DUHOH L PLFXO VDQFWXDU FLUFXODU GLVFXO VRODU FkW L FHOH SDWUX VDQFWXDUH GUHSWXQJKLXODUH (QLJPD 6DUPLVHJHWXVDHL D FHOXL PDL YHFKL FDOHQGDU HXURSHDQ D PRWHQLULL OCVDWH QRXC GH VWUCPRLL FDUSDWRGDQXELHQL VH SDUH FC QX PDL HVWH R HQLJPC DOHQGDUXO GH OD 6DUPL]HJHWXVD 5HJLD 6%REDQFX 6DPRLOC ( 3RHQDUX (G $FDGHPLHL 5RPaQH %XFXUHWL
  130. 130. Noi nu suntem urma[ii RomeiXQGHYD SH HDOXO *UCGLWHL P DOWLWXGLQH
  131. 131. vQ 0DVLYXO 685$18/8, OD 6$50,6(*(786$ 5(*,$ *UCGLWHD 0XQFHOXOXL
  132. 132. DIOaQGXVH L XQXO GLQ VDQFWXDUHOH SDWUXODWHUH 6C ILH RDUH DFHVWDOCFDXO XQGH SUHR@LL OXL =$/02;,6 =HXO VXESCPaQWHDQ RIHUHDXFUHGLQFLRLORU DFHD QHPXULUH FRPSOHWC DWaW D VXIOHWXOXL FaW L DWUXSXOXL XQGH XFHQLFLL ·UHFUX@LL¨
  133. 133. FaQWDX ·6IaQW H RPQXO 1RS@LL¨ /D VXGXO XQCULL SURFRQVXOXO SURYLQFLHL 0DFKHGRQLD JHQHUDOXO9DUUR /XFXOOXV vQ FDGUXO FHOXL GHDO GRLOHD ·UC]ERL 0LWKULGDWLF¨ ?G+
  134. 134. RFXSD RUDHOH JUHFHWL YHVWSRQWLFH GH OD $SROORQLDSaQC OD HOWD XQCULL vQFKHLQG XQ WUDWDW vQWUH URPDQL L DOWH FHWC@LYHFLQH FX DYDQWDMH L REOLJD@LL SHQWUX DPEHOH SCU@L $FHDVWC WXWHOCPDVFDWC vL QHPXO@XPHWH SH ORFXLWRULL RUDHORU JUHFHWL FDUH WULPLW RVROLH OD %XUHELVWD VCL DMXWH 2DVWHD SURFRQVXOXOXL 0DFHGRQLHL DJHQHUDOXOXL $QWRQLXV +EULGD HVWH vQYLQVC OaQJC +LVWULD %XUHELVWDVXSXQH SH FDOH SDQLFC RUDHOH 7RPLV RQVWDQ@D GH D]L
  135. 135. DODWLV0DQJDOLD
  136. 136. LRQVRSROLV %DOFLF
  137. 137. L $SROORQLD 3H FDOHD UC]ERLXOXLVXQW LQWHJUDWH FHWC@LOH $OLREUL[ DUWDO VXGXO %DVDUDELHL RFXSDW D]LGH UXL VXE QXPHOH GH 2UORYND
  138. 138. 7UDV 7LUDVSROXO GH D]L RFXSDW WRWGH UXL XQGH ,OLH ,ODFX XQ DGHYDUDW HURX QD@LRQDO HVWH @LQXWSUL]RQLHU
  139. 139. 2GHVVDV 2GHVD D]L RUD XFUDLQHDQ FH DUH vQ FHQWUXO OXLFHO PDL URPDQWLF FDUWLHU FDUWLHUXO ·0ROGRYHDQFD¨
  140. 140. %XUHELVWD vL vQFHSH RUJDQL]DUHD SXWHULL PRQDUKLFH FXFDUDFWHU PLOLWDU SULQ DFWLYLWC@L DGPLQLVWUDWLYH FXP DU IL UHFUXWDUHDGH RDPHQL vQVCUFLQD@L FX DGPLQLVWUDUHD DJULFXOWXULL VWUaQJHUHDGCULORU VXSUDYHJKHUHD PXQFLORU REWHWL REOLJDWRULL ICFaQGSRVLELOC UHDOL]DUHD VLVWHPXOXL GH IRUWLILFD@LL vQ DFLD QXFOHXO GLQ0XQ@LL 685$1XOXL vQWLQV SH R VXSUDID@C GH NP SCWUD@L
  141. 141. ,QFLQWD PLOLWDUC GLQ FHQWUXO UHOLJLRV DUH R VXSUDID@C GH KHFWDUH FX]LGXUL GH SLDWUC HFDULVDWC EORFXUL GH FDOFDU IDVRQDWH
  142. 142. FDUH IDF GLQ6DUPLVHJHWXVD GDFLFC XQ XQLFDW vQ (XURSD YH]L )LJ
  143. 143. =LGXODFLF 0XUXV DFLFXV
  144. 144. HVWH IRUPDW GLQ FHWC@L FRQVWUXLWH GLQEORFXUL GH FDOFDU D FRQVWUXLW L FHWC@L GH SLDWUC QHIDVRQDWH OHJDWHFX OXW FD FHOH GH OD 3LDWUD 1HDP@ 3LVFXO %aWFD RDPQHL L FROLQDR]OD
  145. 145. HWC@HQL -XG$UJH
  146. 146. RYDVQD 9DOHD =aQHORU VDX6LJKLRDUD $UPDWD /XL QXPCUC OD YUHPH GH UC]ERL PDL PXOW GH GH RDPHQL ICFaQGXO GH WHPXW %XUHELVWD GXFHD L R 43
  147. 147. )LJ LVFXO VRODU DO OXL $SOR vQFRQMXUDW GH FHL XFHQLFL DL VCL
  148. 148. )LJ $FHODL GLVF GH DQGH]LW GH OD 6$50,6(*(786$ ?Q VDQVFULWC ¥ (X PC JUCEHVF VC FXUJ
  149. 149. 44
  150. 150. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei SROLWLFC H[WHUQC DFWLYC LQWHUYHQLQG FKLDU L vQ FDGUXO FRQIOLFWXOXL GHVFKLV GLQWUH FHL GRL ULYDOL DL 5RPHL UHVSHFWLY H]DU L 3RPSHL
  151. 151. vQ DQXO ?G+ ¿Q OHJCWXUC FX DFHDVWD R LQVFULS@LH UHFHQW GHVFRSHULWC OD %DOFLF DQWLFXO RQLVRSROLV
  152. 152. FLWHD]C QXPHOH OXL $FURQLRQ XQ PHVDJHU SHUVRQDO WULPLV GH %XUHELVWD OD JHQHUDOXO 3RPSHL SHQWUX DL VXJHUD LSRWH]D XQHL DOLDQ@H FX XOWLPXO 9RU PDL WUHFH FDP DQL SaQC FaQG H]DU GXSC FHO YD vQYLQJH GHFLVLY SH 3RPSHL OaQJC )DUVDOOD SHQWUX D VH UC]EXQD SH IRVWXO DOLDW DO LQDPLFXOXL VCX L FD UH]XOWDW VC WULPLWC QXPHURDVH OHJLXQL FX ·PLVLXQL GH SHGHSVLUH¨ FCWUH JUDQL@HOH UHJHOXL JHWRGDFLORU 2ULFXP OD VFXUW WLPS vQDLQWH GH D vQFHSH OXSWD GHFLVLYC FX UHJHOH WUDF SH PDUWLH ?G+ H]DU D IRVW DVDVLQDW vQ VHQDW GH QRLL VCL DGYHUVDUL SROLWLFL VHFUH@L L OD VFXUW WLPS L %XUHELVWD YD PXUL vQ FLUFXPVWDQ@H DVHPCQCWRDUH RL GLQWUH FHL PDL VWUCOXFL@L PLOLWDUL DL OXPLL DQWLFH DX GLVSCUXW DVWIHO DSURDSH VLPXOWDQ LVWRULD FRQIHULQGXOH GHVWLQH VLPLODUH)LJ )UDJPHQW GH URDWC GH SLDWUC GLQ@DWC vQ LQWHULRU GH OD 6DUPLVHJHWXVD DFLFD 45
  153. 153. 0DUHOH SUHRW ((1(8 D IRVW XOWHULRU QXPLW VXFFHVRU DO UHJHOXLGHIXQFW $]L H GLILFLO VC DSUHFLHP vQ vQWUHJLPH FXQRWLQ@HOH VDOHWLLQ@LILFH H[WUHP GH YDVWH 1XPHURDVH LQVFULS@LL vQ SLDWUC VXJHUHD]CQR@LXQL GH PDWHPDWLFC FXP DU IL WULXQJKLXO OXL 3LWDJRUD DDQXPLWXO·QXPCU SHUIHFW¨ VDX ·QXPCUXO FRVPLF¨ LQIRUPD@LL GH DVWURQRPLHGHVSUH ·SHQWDJRQXO SODQHWDU¨ DFHVWD ILLQG 6DWXUQ -XSLWHU 0DUWH9HQXV L 0HUFXU
  154. 154. SR]L@LD VRDUHOXL OD HFKLQRF@LL L VROVWL@LL SR]L@LD/XQLL OD FHOH SDWUX ID]H DOH VDOH L FDOHQGDUXO GDFLF XQGH XQ DQ GH GH ]LOH DOWHUQD FX XQXO GH GH ]LOH
  155. 155. )LJ
  156. 156. 8OWLPXO HVWHFRQILUPDW GH VFHQD SLFWDWC SH R FXSC GH IUXFWH GHVFRSHULWC OD %aWFDRDPQHL FD L SH R ODPSC GH OXW DUV JCVLWC SH OaQJC %DUERL*DOD@L2 WDEOHWC GHVFRSHULWC OD XPEUDYD MXGH@XO ,DL
  157. 157. FRQILUPC vQ@HOHJHUHDGH FCWUH 0DUHOH 3UHRW D FHORU DQRWLPSXUL L VHPQH ]RGLDFDOH vQWURPDQLHUC FH DPLQWHWH GH ]RGLDFHOH YHFKL FKLQH]HWL VDX PDLDH ¿Q FRQWH[WXO FHORU SUH]HQWDWH FXP SXWHP FUHGH FC DD R VRFLHWDWHHYROXDWC L SXWHUQLFC LDU IL SXWXW XLWD OLPED QD@LRQDOC FRVWXPHOHWUDGL@LRQDOH L RELFHLXULOH DGaQF vQUCGCFLQDWH vQ PDL SX@LQ GH GRXCVHFROH GH DVXSULUH URPDQC DD FXP XQLL ·LVWRULFL¨ VXQW HL RDUH DLQRWUL
  158. 158. FDXWC VC QH vQYH@H XP HVWH SRVLELO FD vQ WLPS FH GRDU GLQ WHULWRULXO GDFLF ILLQG FXFHULW L RFXSDW GH QHVCWXOXO ,PSHULX 5RPDQFRQVWaQG DSURDSH QXPDL GLQ WUXSH GH PHUFHQDUL DQDOIDEH@L FDUHGHDELD SXWHDX vQFKHJD GRXC YRUEH vQ ODWLQC
  159. 159. DFHWLD VC QH vQYH@H SHQRL R OLPEC SH FDUH HL vQLL QX R YRUEHDX FXP WUHEXLH 2ULFXP VHDUJXPHQWHD]C FC HL QHDX vQYC@DW ODWLQD L PDL PXOW QHDX ICFXW VC QHXLWCP GLDOHFWXO QRVWUX PDWHUQ SaQC OD OLPLWD OD FDUH GRDU YUHR FXYLQWH DX PDL UCPDV vQ OLPED QRDVWUC URPaQC FRQWHPSRUDQC 7UDFLL DU IL SXWXW IL vQ FHHD FH QH SULYHWH RDPHQL LQWHOLJHQ@L GDUYC URJ OCVD@LR EDOWC GRPQLORU ·LVWRULFL¨ SHQWUX FC HVWH DEVXUG VC LJaQGLP FD VWUCPRLL QRWUL WUCLQG OLEHUL L IHULFL@L SH UHVWXO GH GLQWHULWRULLOH WUDFH VC vQFHDSC VXELW XQ PDUDWRQ SULQ YCL L GHILOHH SCGXUL LPODWLQL FCWUH WHULWRULLOH PXOW PDL PLFL
  160. 160. GRPLQDWH GH RSUHVRUL KRWCUa@LVC vQYH@H R OLPEC PDL OD PRGC ¿QVXL JaQGXO HVWH DEVXUG ROHJLLGXPQHDYRDVWUC GH SHVWH 3UXW QX PDL SX@LQ ·OLQJYLWL L LVWRULFL GHUHQXPH PRQGLDO¨ GHFaW GRPQLLOH YRDVWUH
  161. 161. SURSRYCGXLHVF ICUC vQFHWDUHPDMRULWC@LL URPaQH GLQ %DVDUDELD GHVSUH OLPED ·ORU¨ FD ILLQG QXPLWC·PROGRYHQHDVFC¨ FX UCGCFLQL VODYH ·FODUH¨ VDX GHVSUH SURSULD ·ORU¨LVWRULH FD ILLQG DD GH GLIHULWC GH D QRDVWUC HYD HVWH FLXGDW QX 46
  162. 162. Noi nu suntem urma[ii Romei PODUL DE PIATR` DE PESTE DUN`RE3 RGXO GH SLDWUC GH SHVWH XQCUH D IRVW XQD GLQ PLQXQLOH DQWLFKLWC@LL SH FDUH LVWRULFLL QLO SUH]LQWC FD ILLQG R UHDOL]DUH D OXL $SRORGRU GLQ DPDVF LGHH SUHOXDWC L GH XQLL GLQWUH·LVWRULFLL QRWUL¨ ([LVWC XQLL FDUH QX LDX FUH]XW FXP D IRVW GRPQXO ,RUGDFKH ‰WLLQ@D FXOWXUD GRFXPHQWH GLQ 5HQDWHUHD DFLHL 1RLHPEULH

×