Android and Intel Inside

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Android* on IA Momentum, Developing Android Apps for IA, App Development with x86 NDK

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  • Intel has assembled a world-class software organization including more than 10,000 plus software-focused employees, and expertise from Wind River, McAfee and a dozen other recent acquisitions. All of this together means great news for our customer.We’ve categorized Intel’s advantages in a classic Intel fashion: with an acronym! “BEST”represents Intel’s Brand, Experiences, Security, Technology advantages.   Brand: We should not underestimate the power of our brand, which is ranked as the 7th most influential by people who track this. We get this recognition in part because we have the best sales field in the tech industry and world-class marketing, especially in these emerging areas where Intel has little to no market share.Experiences: This is a distinct advantage for Intel.No single ARM vendor will offer the suite of ‘siliconized’ experiences. This includes Continuum apps to Intel Insider, Anti-Theft technology, and much more.Security: It seems like every day we are reading about another breech or e-attack. With Intel’s silicon plans and McAfee acquisition, Intel will offer the most protected device, data, malware, and identity protection in the industry. Withthe dramatic increase in issues …this is going to be more and more relevant.Technology: We are moving faster than Moore’s Law, targeting 4 process technology transitions in four years. We will lead on performance per battery charge versus ARM starting this year and only get better in 2013 and 14. 
  • We optimize the Android stack from top to bottom:For the Application layer, we validate the top Android Market apps to ensure good performance on Atom and we incent developers to port their native apps to Atom.For the Application Framework we’re continuously optimizing web technologies such as HTML5 and JavaScript – and our results have been exceptional.For the Android Dalvik Virtual Machine (VM): we’ve applied more than a decade of experience in optimizing Java to optimizing Dalvik Java on Atom. For example, Intel’s Trace JIT compiler yields a 6x performance gain!For native libraries, we optimize the Webkit browser and V8 engines, the Bionic C and graphics libraries, and more.Finally, for the Linux Kernel and drivers: Intel is the 2nd largest contributor to the Linux code base in the world and employs many of its top software talent. We finely tune the Linux kernel and drivers for the best power, performance and memory footprint. ---------------------------- For Reference Only (not speaking points) ---------------3+ years of Android Optimizations for AtomDalvik VM Fast Interpreter optimizations in Android main branch since GingerbreadFor native apps, Intel Native Code Generation (NCG) pre-compiles compute intensive code and stores it locally so it runs faster the next time the app is called.SSE offloads in Android native libraries -> up to 1.7x improvement in popular workloadsJavascript, HTML5, Webkit, V8 browser optimizationsLLVM and Renderscript optimizationsDefinitions:The V8 JavaScript Engine is an open sourceJavaScript engine developed by Google. It ships with the Google Chrome web browser. V8 increases performance by compiling JavaScript to native machine code before executing it, versus executing bytecode or interpreting it.Bionic libc is a derivation of the BSDstandard C library code that was originally developed by Google for the Androidembedded system operating system. Bionic has several major Linux-specific features. Bionic is much smaller than glibc and somewhat smaller than uclibc.
  • On the left, you’ll notice we get up to a 6x boost from our optimized Trace JIT (Just in Time) compiler. The Linpackand CaffeineMark workloads run completely in the context of the Android Dalvik Java Virtual Machine. Caveat: Although we aim to upstream our optimizations as quickly as is practical, it is sometimes a long, drawn out process. Device developers always work directly with Intel to get the latest optimizations. Software developers who are part of our early, high touch programs as well as, of course, developers using commercial Atom systems will always have these optimizations. On the right, the green bars reflect the HTML5 and Java graphics boosts we get from adding Intel SSE instructions to Android native libraries.---------------------- For Reference Only, not for speaking points -----------------------------------4 workloads on left are HTML5 workloads that run in context of the Android browser. (Android browser is webkit-based and uses V8 JavaScript engine; similar to Chrome.)2 workloads on right are Android Java workloads that run in the context of Android’s Java graphics framework.These are not native apps, not written using the NDK; written using Java and the Java class libraries that Android provides (jetboy, Album).Our engineers constructed these workloadsto evaluate the graphics performance of our platforms. For example, tested Canvas capabilities – new HTML5 feature to do more sophisticated graphics -- and examined the % of time being spent on different routines in the platform and then hand-optimized the routines using SSE instructions.In most cases, we try to give these optimizations back to Android to upstream. Some are in the JPG libraries (e.g., HTML5 slideshow) already – native libraries in Android. Making the browser work great on IA:V8 JavaScript engine -> in AOSP for ARM; Intel enabled for x86Chromium HTTP stack - in AOSP for ARM; Intel enabled for x86Webkit-V8 interface optimization - speeds up some JavaScript image processing operationsSSE versions of image rendering routines
  • Intel works every day with Google to ensure things like our system images are linked to by the Android SDK Manager.Today we have Gingerbread system images available for the emulator. Look for ICS images imminently.We recently unveiled the Intel Hardware-Accelerated Execution Manager which speeds up Android emulation significantly. Google was so impressed that they decided to show it off at a recent Game Developer Conference in the Bay Area.
  • Android and Intel Inside

    1. 1. Android and IntelinsideChristoph JechlitschekSoftware and Services GroupIntel Corporation
    2. 2. Agenda •Android* on IA Momentum •Developing Android Apps for IA •App Development with x86 NDK
    3. 3. Smartphones with Intel Inside Megafon Mint Lenovo K800 Orange San Diego Russia China Unicom UK, FranceLava Xolo Motorola Razr I ZTEIndia Europe, Latin America Grand X IN
    4. 4. Why Intel® Atom™ processors & Android? Enhanced Video and Graphics • 2D/3D HW accelerated graphics performance optimized for Intel Atom Processors • Full HD support(1080p) for local video playback and HW-accelerated video encode/decode for multiple formats (H.264, MPEG-4, H.263, Flash, etc.) • SW-optimized audio codecs for more efficient CPU utilization Connectivity, Security and Mobility across devices • Connectivity & mobility through WiFi Direct and WiDi support • Wind River, an Intel subsidiary, offers solution accelerators for DLNA, SyncML, additional Bluetooth profiles, etc. • Built-in HW assist for secure boot and full disk encryption. Performance Leadership • Fast web page loading , optimized for Intel Atom processor • Best multi-tasking performance enabled by Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology • Hundreds of Intel software engineers working to optimize Android on Atom Design-in and Application Enabling • Intel technical support for design in and custom application enabling • Intel® System Software Tools 1.0 for Android for power and performance tuning • Applications developed to Android SDK APIs run “as is” on all Intel platforms • Most Android NDK applications run on Atom with simple recompile
    5. 5. Focusing on Mobile ExperiencesApplications & Services, Operating Systems, Platforms and Silicon BRAND EXPERIENC SECURITY TECHNOLOG ES Y + 2012 2013 2014 32nm 22nm 14nm #7 Largest And More Dedicated Security Company Entertainment Business Education Gaming Basic
    6. 6. Agenda •Android* on IA Momentum •Developing Android Apps for IA •App Development with x86 NDK
    7. 7. Android* on Intel® Atom™ processor-based platforms Applications Apps Home Contacts Phone Browser … Application Framework Experience Activity Windows Content View … Manager Manager Providers System Notifica- User Package Telephony Resource Location tion Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Libraries Android Runtime Surface Media Core Middleware Manager Framework SQLite Libraries Dalvik OpenGL | ES FreeType WebKit Virtual Machine SGL SSL libc … Linux Kernel Operating Display Camera Flash Binder System Driver Driver Memory (IPC) Driver Driver Keypad WiFi Audio Power Driver Driver Drivers Manage- ment
    8. 8. Android* Optimizations for Intel® Atom™-based devices Performance Tuning Power Reduction • Dalvik VM runtime optimization • Power Management for Android • x86 trace-based JIT and Native • OpenGL ES 1.1/2.0 Driver Code Generation • Enriched memory management • HW Overlay (e.g., garbage collection) • HW Accelerated Media • JNI streamlining decode/encode • Tuning of native libraries • Library to integrate w/ Android & reference implementation (MIX) • Bionic optimizations • Standard SoC • Javascript & HTML5 optimization drivers, middleware and applications optimized for power Intel has a rich history optimizing Java for IA. We’ve applied that knowledge to Dalvik Java with impressive results
    9. 9. Performance Gains from optimizations Dalvik Runtime Optimizations Android* Native Library 1.8 No SSE2 with SSE No Trace JIT1 Trace JIT enabled 1.6 7 1.4 6 1.2 Performance 5 4 1Performance 3 0.8 2 0.6 1 0.4 0 0.2 Linpack CaffeineMark 0 Up to 6x Improvement! HTML5 HTML5 HTML5 HTML5 JetBoy* Album Slideshow Zoom Fancy Show Animation Stress Slideshow(SA) Significant improvements in both web (HTML5) and Java* workloads due to optimizations for Intel Source: Intel Software and Solutions Group SSE instructions in Android graphics libraries. 1 Intel Z670 reference design with Honeycomb 2 SSE = Streaming SIMD Testing on Medfield (Z2460) CDK with Gingerbread.
    10. 10. Faster Emulation and Prebuilt Atom ImagesPre-built Atom Images• Android SDK manager has x86 emulation images built-in• To emulate an Atom-based Android phone, install the “Intel Atom x86 System Image” available in the Android SDK Manager• atom-tm-android-x86-emulator-image-add-on-from-the- android-sdk-manager/Much Faster Emulation• Intel® Hardware Accelerated Execution Manager (HAXM) for Mac and Windows uses Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT) to accelerate x86 emulation by an order of magnitude• VT is supported in Linux* (KVM) for x86• accelerated-execution-manager/
    11. 11. Intel® Graphics Performance Analyzers (Intel® GPA) System Analyzer • Provides real-time performance analysis of your OpenGL-ES* applications • Conduct real-time experiments with OpenGL-ES* state overrides • Triage system-level performance with CPU, Power and GPU metricsNote: Public release of Intel GPA for Android* is targeted for 2H-2012
    12. 12. Using Intel® Graphics Performance Analyzers 1. Install APK 2. Run Intel® GPA System Analyzer 3. View Profile on development machine
    13. 13. Agenda •Android* on IA Momentum •Developing Android Apps for IA •App Development with x86 NDK
    14. 14. Android* Native Development Kit (NDK) Build scripts/toolkit to incorporate native c/c++ code in Android Apps via JNI Why Use NDK? • Performance intensive tasks • e.g.: signal-processing/custom-algorithms • Differentiated app that takes advantage of direct CPU/HW access • e.g.: specialized games • Software Code reuse • Legacy Code • Huge legacy IA code base & libraries
    15. 15. Android* Application Overview Dalvik ApplicationAndroid NDK Application Java Native Java Library Source Compile Compile with Javac with Javac Dynamic Java Native Android Library Library Class App Class Application File Compile and Create C header Link C Code with Javah -jni Makefile C Source Header Code File
    16. 16. Adding Native Code to Android * AppsStandard Android* Project Structure Native Sources - JNI Folder 1. Create JNI folder 3. Create for native sources with build rules 2. Reuse or create native c/c++ sources NDK will automatically create ABI lib folder. 4. Build Native code using NDK-BUILD script.
    17. 17. Creating NDK-based Apps: Code Re-use Example 1. Create default Android* App project ~/labs/lab2$ android create project --target android-13 --activity CPUIdApp -- package com.example.cpuid --path .
    18. 18. Sample Native Code for CPUID
    19. 19. Code Re-use Example (cont’d) 2. Define JNI Native Calls in Java* source to access CPUID native code 3. Declare call to Load native lib (“cpuid”)
    20. 20. Code Re-use Example (cont’d) 4. Build with “ant” to generate Java* classes 5. Use “javah” to generate JNI headers
    21. 21. Code Re-use Example (cont’d) 6. Implement native source stub based on generated header stub 7. Create build rules for compiling native code with NDK
    22. 22. Code Re-use Example (cont’d) 8. Compile native sources with “ndk-build” script : specify APP_ABI=x86 9. Rebuild the final APK with ant, and optional install on emulator!
    23. 23. Porting Existing NDK-based AppsA simple 4-step process:1. Recompile existing native module with APP_ABI=all2. Update the project to use Android* platform of choice (e.g. ICS target API is “Android-15”)
    24. 24. Porting Existing NDK-based Apps (cont’d)3. Repackage the project into final APK file - Example: Using “ant debug” for demo purposes4. Install/Test the App (APK) on x86 Android* emulator or device
    25. 25. NDK Tips: Let the NDK Do the Hard Work• Include all ABIs in jni/ Build ARM v5… Build ARM v7a… Build ARM x86…• The NDK will generate highly optimized code for all target ABIs
    26. 26. NDK Tips: Use “Fat Binaries” • Fat Binaries are .apk files that supports multiple ABIs • Use “APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a x86” in – Can use “APP_ABI := all” since NDK version r7 libs/armeabi Source Code ndk-build apkbuilder libs/armeabi-v7a …Application.mkwith multiple ABIs libs/x86
    27. 27. Install Will Select The Right .so Use lib/armeabi libraries Use lib/armeabi-v7a libraries Use lib/x86 libraries• Android Market will automatically filter applications based on ABI support
    28. 28. Intel Legal InformationINFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT.EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITYWHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL®PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULARPURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYRIGHT. INTEL PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN MEDICAL, LIFE SAVING, ORLIFE SUSTAINING APPLICATIONS.Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice.All products, dates, and figures specified are preliminary based on current expectations, and are subjectto change without notice.Intel, processors, chipsets, and desktop boards may contain design defects or errors known as errata, which may cause the product todeviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.Intel, Intel logo, Intel Atom, Intel Atom Inside,, Intel Inside, and Intel Inside logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and othercountries.Android is a registered trademark of Google, Inc.Java and all Java based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and othercountries.For more complete information about performance and benchmark results, visit names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.Copyright © 2012 Intel Corporation.
    29. 29. Intel Technology is Used in a Broad Range of leading Smartphones and Tablets … K800 San DiegoTab Xoom